Ionic Bonding, Salt Water, Soap Quiz

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Ionic Bonding, Salt Water, Soap Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is a micelle?

    • A.

      A cluster of soap molecule beads

    • B.

      A hydrophobic end of a soap molecule

    • C.

      Soap polarity

    • D.

      A hydrophilic end of a soap molecule

    Correct Answer
    A. A cluster of soap molecule beads
    Explanation
    A micelle is a cluster of soap molecule beads. When soap is dissolved in water, the hydrophobic ends of the soap molecules cluster together in the center, forming a core, while the hydrophilic ends face outward, interacting with the water molecules. This arrangement allows the soap molecules to effectively surround and trap dirt and oil, allowing them to be washed away. So, a micelle can be described as a cluster of soap molecule beads.

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  • 2. 

    Identify this chain:

    • A.

      This is a hydrocarbon chain of a soap molecule.

    • B.

      This is a food molecule chain.

    • C.

      This is an oxygen, hydrogen and carbon water molecule chain.

    • D.

      This is a soap molecule chain with sodium.

    Correct Answer
    A. This is a hydrocarbon chain of a soap molecule.
    Explanation
    The given description mentions that the chain is a hydrocarbon chain, which means it consists of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. It also specifies that the chain belongs to a soap molecule. So, the correct answer is that the chain is a hydrocarbon chain of a soap molecule.

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  • 3. 

    What is an ion?

    • A.

      An electrically charged particle (atom or molecule) whose charge is determined by the loss or gain of electrons.

    • B.

      An electrically charged particle (atom or molecule) whose charge is determined by the sharing of electrons.

    • C.

      An negatively charged particle (atom or molecule).

    • D.

      The electrically charged particles of Ca2+, Mg2+ presence in water.

    Correct Answer
    A. An electrically charged particle (atom or molecule) whose charge is determined by the loss or gain of electrons.
    Explanation
    An ion is an electrically charged particle, either an atom or a molecule. The charge of the ion is determined by whether it has gained or lost electrons. When an atom gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged, and when it loses electrons, it becomes positively charged. This charge imbalance is what gives ions their electrical charge.

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  • 4. 

    Ionic bonding allows atoms to have complete outer shells by: 

    • A.

      Ionic bonding allow atoms to have complete outer shells by transferring electrons. Ionic bonding is when one or more electrons are removed from one atom and gained and attached to another atom. This results in positive and negative ions that attract each other.

    • B.

      Ionic bonding allow atoms to have complete outer shells by sharing electrons. Ionic bonding is when one or more electrons are shared from one atom with another atom. This results in a shared valence.

    • C.

      Ionic bonding is a chemical compound formed by the joining of two or more atoms.

    • D.

      An ionic bond forms a stable compound through the sharing and transfer of valence electrons.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ionic bonding allow atoms to have complete outer shells by transferring electrons. Ionic bonding is when one or more electrons are removed from one atom and gained and attached to another atom. This results in positive and negative ions that attract each other.
    Explanation
    Ionic bonding allows atoms to have complete outer shells by transferring electrons. When one or more electrons are removed from one atom and gained and attached to another atom, positive and negative ions are formed. These ions attract each other, resulting in the formation of an ionic bond. This bond helps in achieving a stable electron configuration for both atoms involved in the bonding process.

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  • 5. 

    Ionic Bonding satisfies both atoms because.....

    • A.

      Ionic bonding is the trading or transfer of electrons from one atom to another that enables the atoms to have complete outer shells.

    • B.

      Ionic bonding removes weak electrons from one atom enabling another atom to have strong electronegativity in its outer shell.

    • C.

      Ionic bonding enables one atom to release an electron and vacate its outer shell.

    • D.

      Ionic bonding is the sharing of electrons of atoms that enable the atoms to have complete outer shells.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ionic bonding is the trading or transfer of electrons from one atom to another that enables the atoms to have complete outer shells.
    Explanation
    Ionic bonding is the correct answer because it involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another, allowing both atoms to achieve a complete outer shell. This process satisfies both atoms because it enables them to achieve a stable electron configuration, which is energetically favorable. By transferring electrons, one atom gains a positive charge (cation) while the other gains a negative charge (anion), resulting in an electrostatic attraction between the two oppositely charged ions. This attraction forms the ionic bond and allows both atoms to achieve a more stable state.

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  • 6. 

    Refer to the diagram above:What causes the water molecule to encircle the Sodium Chloride solute?

    • A.

      The slightly negative side of the water, H2O, molecule is Oxygen. The negative Oxygen is attracted to the positive Sodium (Na+) ion of the Sodium Chloride molecule. The slightly positive side of the H2O, molecule is Hydrogen. The positive Hydrogen is attracted to the negative Chloride (Cl-) ion of Sodium Chloride. This attraction separates each Na+ Cl- ion from each other. As the water molecules encircle ions on each polar side and surrounds each ion, a hydration shell forms preventing the ions from re-bonding, dissolving the salt.

    • B.

      The slightly negative side of the water, H2O, molecule is Hydrogen. The negative Hydrogen is attracted to the positive Sodium (Na+) ion of the Sodium Chloride molecule. The slightly positive side of the H2O, molecule is Oxygen. The positive Oxygen is attracted to the negative Chloride (Cl-) ion of Sodium Chloride. This attraction separates each Na+ Cl- ion from each other. As the water molecules encircle ions on each polar side and surrounds each ion, a hydration shell forms preventing the ions from re-bonding, dissolving the salt.

    • C.

      The slightly positive side of the water, H2O, molecule is Oxygen. The positive Oxygen is attracted to the negative Sodium (Na-) ion of the Sodium Chloride molecule. The slightly negative side of the H2O, molecule is Hydrogen. The negative Hydrogen is attracted to the positive Chloride (Cl+) ion of Sodium Chloride. This attraction separates each Na+ Cl- ion from each other. As the water molecules encircle ions on each polar side and surrounds each ion, a hydration shell forms preventing the ions from re-bonding, dissolving the salt.

    • D.

      The slightly positive side of the water, H2O, molecule is Oxygen. The positive Oxygen is attracted to the positive Sodium (Na+) ion of the Sodium Chloride molecule. The slightly negative side of the H2O, molecule is Hydrogen. The negative Hydrogen is attracted to the negative Chloride (Cl-) ion of Sodium Chloride. This attraction separates each Na+ Cl- ion from each other. As the water molecules encircle ions on each polar side and surrounds each ion, a hydration shell forms preventing the ions from re-bonding, dissolving the salt.

    Correct Answer
    A. The slightly negative side of the water, H2O, molecule is Oxygen. The negative Oxygen is attracted to the positive Sodium (Na+) ion of the Sodium Chloride molecule. The slightly positive side of the H2O, molecule is Hydrogen. The positive Hydrogen is attracted to the negative Chloride (Cl-) ion of Sodium Chloride. This attraction separates each Na+ Cl- ion from each other. As the water molecules encircle ions on each polar side and surrounds each ion, a hydration shell forms preventing the ions from re-bonding, dissolving the salt.
    Explanation
    The water molecule, H2O, has a slightly negative side, which is the oxygen atom, and a slightly positive side, which is the hydrogen atoms. This polarity causes the oxygen atom to be attracted to the positive sodium ion (Na+) of the sodium chloride molecule, while the hydrogen atoms are attracted to the negative chloride ion (Cl-). This attraction between the water molecule and the ions separates each sodium and chloride ion from each other. As the water molecules surround each ion on their polar sides, a hydration shell is formed, preventing the ions from re-bonding and dissolving the salt.

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  • 7. 

    How are covalent and ionic bonds different?

    • A.

      Covalent bonds share electrons in the valence. Ionic bonds are formed when one atom loses an electron and it becomes a positive ion and the atom that gains the electron becomes a negatively charged ion because it has gained an electron.

    • B.

      Covalent bonds are formed when one atom loses an electron and it becomes a positive ion and the atom that gains the electron becomes a negatively charged ion because it has gained an electron. Ionic bonds share electrons in the valence.

    • C.

      Covalent bonds have a neutral electronegativity. Ionic bonds create anions.

    • D.

      Covalent bonds make new elements. Ionic bonds create cations and anions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Covalent bonds share electrons in the valence. Ionic bonds are formed when one atom loses an electron and it becomes a positive ion and the atom that gains the electron becomes a negatively charged ion because it has gained an electron.
    Explanation
    Covalent bonds and ionic bonds differ in terms of electron sharing and electron transfer. Covalent bonds occur when atoms share electrons in their valence shells, resulting in a stable molecule. On the other hand, ionic bonds form when one atom completely loses an electron and becomes a positively charged ion, while another atom gains that electron and becomes a negatively charged ion. This transfer of electrons creates an electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged ions, forming an ionic compound.

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  • 8. 

    Which is the correct explanation for how table salt, Na+Cl-, ionically bonds?

    • A.

      The strong electron attraction that causes the pairing of a loss and a gain is the ionic bond. Sodium (Na) has 11 electrons with 1 valance electron. Chlorine (Cl) has 17 electrons with 7 in its valence outer orbit. If Sodium looses its valance electron, its next shell will be full (with 8 electrons). That would make Sodium a positive ion. If Chlorine gains that 1 valance electron, its shell would be full with a maximum of 8 electrons, and it would then be a negative ion.

    • B.

      The uneven electron attraction that causes the pairing of a loss and a gain is the ionic bond. Sodium (Na) has 17 electrons with 7 in its outer orbit. Chlorine has 11 electrons with 1 valance electron. If Sodium gains one electron it fills it’s valance and is a negative ion. If Chlorine looses 1 electron to Sodium, its next shell is full with 8 electrons and it becomes a positive ion.

    • C.

      The attraction balance of electrons causes ionic bonding. Sodium (Na) has 8 electrons with 6 in its outer orbit. Chlorine has 12 electrons with 2 in its outer orbit. If Sodium gains two electrons it fills it’s valance and is a negative ion. If Chlorine looses 2 electrons to Sodium, it's next shell is full with 8 electrons and becomes a positive ion.

    • D.

      An ionic bond occurs whenever an atom with s low electronegativity pairs with an atom of a higher electronegativity. Sodium has a strong electronegativity and Chlorine does not, so they can form an ionic bond.

    Correct Answer
    A. The strong electron attraction that causes the pairing of a loss and a gain is the ionic bond. Sodium (Na) has 11 electrons with 1 valance electron. Chlorine (Cl) has 17 electrons with 7 in its valence outer orbit. If Sodium looses its valance electron, its next shell will be full (with 8 electrons). That would make Sodium a positive ion. If Chlorine gains that 1 valance electron, its shell would be full with a maximum of 8 electrons, and it would then be a negative ion.
  • 9. 

    What is a hydrocarbon?

    • A.

      A molecule made up of hydrogen and carbon micelles

    • B.

      A molecule of hydrogen and carbon, like those that make up waxes and oils

    • C.

      A water molecule that bonds with carbon

    • D.

      A soap molecule of hydrogen and carbon

    Correct Answer
    B. A molecule of hydrogen and carbon, like those that make up waxes and oils
    Explanation
    A hydrocarbon is a molecule composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms. This composition is characteristic of hydrocarbons, which are organic compounds. Waxes and oils are examples of hydrocarbons, as they are made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms.

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  • 10. 

    A compound is different from an element because a compound is:

    • A.

      Made of two or more elements chemically combined.

    • B.

      The building block of all matter.

    • C.

      A mixture of elements.

    • D.

      A pure substance.

    Correct Answer
    A. Made of two or more elements chemically combined.
    Explanation
    A compound is different from an element because it is made of two or more elements chemically combined. This means that the atoms of different elements in a compound are bonded together in a specific ratio, forming a new substance with different properties than the original elements. In contrast, an element consists of only one type of atom and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. Therefore, the fact that a compound is made of chemically combined elements sets it apart from both mixtures of elements and pure substances.

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  • 11. 

    What is a chemical bond?

    • A.

      A chemical bond is the force that holds atoms together.

    • B.

      A chemical bond is the nucleus energy level that holds atoms together.

    • C.

      A chemical bond is the exchange of valence electrons.

    • D.

      A chemical bond is the pairing and sharing of electrons.

    Correct Answer
    A. A chemical bond is the force that holds atoms together.
    Explanation
    A chemical bond refers to the force that holds atoms together. This force can be attributed to the attraction between the positively charged nucleus of one atom and the negatively charged electrons of another atom. It is this bond that allows atoms to form molecules and compounds, resulting in the creation of various substances with unique properties and characteristics.

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  • 12. 

    What is an emulsifier?

    • A.

      A substance that can act as a bridge between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances.

    • B.

      A neutral substance that repels hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances.

    • C.

      A substance that dissolves a solute into a solution.

    • D.

      A substance that solidifies polar and non-polar substances.

    Correct Answer
    A. A substance that can act as a bridge between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances.
    Explanation
    An emulsifier is a substance that can act as a bridge between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances. This means that it can help to mix and stabilize substances that would normally separate, such as oil and water. By reducing the surface tension between these substances, an emulsifier allows them to mix more easily and form a stable emulsion. This is why emulsifiers are commonly used in food and cosmetic products to create smooth and uniform textures.

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  • 13. 

    What does the term hydrophobic mean?

    • A.

      When a molecule repels water

    • B.

      When a molecule is attracted to water

    • C.

      When a molecule is a micelle

    • D.

      When a molecule is ionically bonded

    Correct Answer
    A. When a molecule repels water
    Explanation
    The term hydrophobic refers to a molecule's ability to repel water. This means that the molecule does not mix or dissolve in water, but instead forms separate clusters or droplets. This property is often observed in nonpolar molecules, which have a lack of charge or polarity that prevents them from interacting with water molecules. Hydrophobic interactions play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as the folding of proteins and the formation of cell membranes.

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  • 14. 

    What is an energy level?

    • A.

      The electron shell in an atom's cloud where electrons of the same energy level are likely to be found.

    • B.

      A region of an element's cloud in which electrons of the same energy are likely to be found.

    • C.

      The nucleus of an atom in which the same energy level as electrons are found.

    • D.

      The region of an atom in which protons and electrons of the same energy level are likely to be found.

    Correct Answer
    A. The electron shell in an atom's cloud where electrons of the same energy level are likely to be found.
    Explanation
    An energy level refers to the electron shell in an atom's cloud where electrons of the same energy level are likely to be found. This is the region in which electrons exist around the nucleus of an atom, and different energy levels correspond to different distances from the nucleus. Electrons in the same energy level have similar energy and are more likely to be found in the same electron shell.

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  • 15. 

    What do these symbols​ mean?      or  

    • A.

      These symbols​ mean that the atom has either a slight (partial) positive or negative charge.

    • B.

      These symbols​ mean that the molecule has either a slight (partial) positive or negative charge.

    • C.

      These symbols​ mean that the atom has a positive or negative electronegativity.

    • D.

      These symbols​ mean that the atom is polar.

    Correct Answer
    A. These symbols​ mean that the atom has either a slight (partial) positive or negative charge.
    Explanation
    The symbols "or" and " " are used to represent a bond in chemistry. In this context, they indicate that the atom has either a slight positive or negative charge. This is commonly seen in molecules where there is a separation of charges due to differences in electronegativity between atoms. The symbols help to represent this partial charge on the atom.

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  • 16. 

    The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a ___________ arrangement.

    • A.

      ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a crystal arrangement.

    • B.

      ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a hexagonal arrangement.

    • C.

      ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a quadrilateral arrangement.

    • D.

      ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a three cube arrangement.

    Correct Answer
    A. ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a crystal arrangement.
    Explanation
    The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a crystal arrangement. This is because in a crystal lattice, the positive and negative ions are arranged in a repeating pattern, forming a three-dimensional structure. The strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions hold the crystal together, resulting in a stable arrangement.

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  • 17. 

    What does the term hydrophilic mean?

    • A.

      When a molecule repels water

    • B.

      When a molecule is attracted to water

    • C.

      When a molecule is a micelle

    • D.

      When a molecule is ionically bonded

    Correct Answer
    B. When a molecule is attracted to water
    Explanation
    The term hydrophilic refers to a molecule that is attracted to water. This means that the molecule has an affinity for water and tends to mix or dissolve in it. Hydrophilic molecules are typically polar or have polar groups, allowing them to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. This property is important in various biological processes, as it enables substances to be transported through water-based systems such as blood and cell membranes.

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  • 18. 

    Magic Milk: What causes the food coloring to burst away from the drop of soap?

    • A.

      Milk is mostly water, but it also contains tiny droplets of fat (lipid) suspended in the milk. Fats and proteins are sensitive to changes in the surrounding solution (the milk). Like other oils, milk fat is a non-polar molecule. It doesn’t dissolve in water. The tiny drop of soap is enough to break up and collect the fat molecules in the milk. Soap micelles surround the milk fat. As the soap molecules race around, bending and twisting to join up with the molecules of milk fat, it sends a ripple through the milk in all directions. The food coloring molecules are bumped and shoved everywhere. As the soap joins up with as many molecules as it can the action slows down and eventually stops. This is why milk with a higher fat content produces a better explosion of color—there’s just more fat to combine with all of those soap molecules.

    • B.

      Milk is mostly water, but it also contains tiny droplets of fat (lipid) suspended in the milk. Fats are sensitive to changes in the milk. Milk fat is a non-polar molecule. It doesn’t dissolve in water. The tiny drop of soap is enough to break the surface tension of the fat. The soap micelles surround the milk fat and form big color beads that roll around and bump the food coloring in all directions. The food coloring molecules are bumped and shoved everywhere.

    • C.

      Milk is all fat with a little water. Milk is sensitive to changes in the water. The tiny drop of soap is enough to turn the fat into a polar molecule and attract the water and food coloring. This causes the ripple of color in the milk.

    • D.

      Water is non-polar. Milk has fat and is non-polar and polar. When soap is introduced, the surface tension of the milk is broken and the milk fats chase the food coloring molecules to attach to them. This causes the ripple of color in the milk.

    Correct Answer
    A. Milk is mostly water, but it also contains tiny droplets of fat (lipid) suspended in the milk. Fats and proteins are sensitive to changes in the surrounding solution (the milk). Like other oils, milk fat is a non-polar molecule. It doesn’t dissolve in water. The tiny drop of soap is enough to break up and collect the fat molecules in the milk. Soap micelles surround the milk fat. As the soap molecules race around, bending and twisting to join up with the molecules of milk fat, it sends a ripple through the milk in all directions. The food coloring molecules are bumped and shoved everywhere. As the soap joins up with as many molecules as it can the action slows down and eventually stops. This is why milk with a higher fat content produces a better explosion of color—there’s just more fat to combine with all of those soap molecules.
    Explanation
    The tiny drop of soap breaks up and collects the fat molecules in the milk. Soap micelles surround the milk fat and as the soap molecules race around, they join up with the molecules of milk fat, causing a ripple through the milk. This movement of the soap molecules bumps and shoves the food coloring molecules, causing them to spread everywhere. The soap continues to join up with as many fat molecules as it can until it eventually slows down and stops. Milk with a higher fat content produces a better explosion of color because there is more fat to combine with the soap molecules.

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  • 19. 

    What does the term amphiphilic mean?

    • A.

      Molecules that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends are amphiphilic.

    • B.

      Molecules with slight positive and slight negative charge are amphiphilic

    • C.

      Molecules with high electronegativity are amphiphilic.

    • D.

      Amphiphilic means hydrocarbon.

    Correct Answer
    A. Molecules that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends are amphiphilic.
    Explanation
    The term amphiphilic refers to molecules that have both hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-fearing) ends. This means that these molecules have regions that are attracted to water and regions that repel water. This property allows them to interact with both polar and nonpolar substances, making them useful in various biological and chemical processes.

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  • 20. 

    Identify the correct explanation for this sequence of diagrams:

    • A.

      A. greasy substance (fat, oil, dirt) gets on a cloth b. water is put on the cloth c. detergent is added to the water, detergent attaches to the grease on the cloth   d. cloth, water and detergent are agitated causing micelles to form around the grease, lift and suspend it in the water to be rinsed away.

    • B.

      A. greasy substance (fat, oil, dirt) gets on a cloth b. water and a surfactant detergent is put on the cloth c. the detergent attaches to the cloth   d. cloth, water and detergent soak as micelles form around the cloth and water is applied to rinse the micelles away.

    • C.

      A. greasy substance (fat, oil, dirt) gets on a cloth b. detergent is put on the greasy cloth c. micelles form from the soaking cloth, water and detergent d. water is applied to rinse the micelles away.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. greasy substance (fat, oil, dirt) gets on a cloth b. water is put on the cloth c. detergent is added to the water, detergent attaches to the grease on the cloth   d. cloth, water and detergent are agitated causing micelles to form around the grease, lift and suspend it in the water to be rinsed away.
  • 21. 

    All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds because:

    • A.

      A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements.

    • B.

      A compound is an element that is made up of at least two different kinds of atoms.

    • C.

      A compound is a molecule that shares electrons.

    • D.

      A compound is the smallest particle that can exist on its own of an element.

    Correct Answer
    A. A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements.
    Explanation
    A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements. This means that in order for a molecule to be classified as a compound, it must consist of atoms from at least two different elements. This is because compounds are formed when atoms of different elements chemically combine, resulting in a new substance with unique properties. On the other hand, not all molecules are compounds because some molecules can consist of atoms from only one element, such as diatomic molecules like oxygen (O2) or nitrogen (N2). Therefore, the statement correctly explains the difference between compounds and molecules.

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