Industrialization And Nationalism Chapter 19 B

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Industrialization and Nationalism Chapter 19


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     production clone by individuals in their homes

    • A.

      Romanticism

    • B.

      Nationalism

    • C.

      Cottage industry

    • D.

      Charles Darwin

    • E.

      Industrial Capitalism

    Correct Answer
    C. Cottage industry
    Explanation
    Cottage industry refers to the production of goods by individuals in their homes, typically using simple tools and equipment. This decentralized form of production was prevalent during the pre-industrial era, where artisans and craftsmen would create goods on a small scale. This answer is correct because it accurately describes the practice of cottage industry, which is distinct from the other options provided. Romanticism, nationalism, Charles Darwin, and industrial capitalism are unrelated to the concept of cottage industry.

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  • 2. 

    Developed puddling

    • A.

      Gustave Courbet

    • B.

      Henry Cort

    • C.

      Charles Darwin

    • D.

      Congress of Vienna

    • E.

      Industrial Capitalism

    Correct Answer
    B. Henry Cort
    Explanation
    Henry Cort is the correct answer because he is credited with the development of the puddling process, which was a key innovation in the production of iron during the Industrial Revolution. Puddling involved heating pig iron in a reverberatory furnace and stirring it with iron rods to remove impurities and create wrought iron. This process greatly increased the efficiency and quality of iron production, contributing to the growth of the iron and steel industries during that time.

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  • 3. 

     economic system based on industrial production

    • A.

      Realpolitik

    • B.

      Industrial Capitalism

    • C.

      Concert of Europe

    • D.

      Congress of Vienna

    • E.

      Nationalism

    Correct Answer
    B. Industrial Capitalism
    Explanation
    Industrial capitalism refers to an economic system that is based on industrial production. This means that the production of goods and services is primarily carried out in factories and industries, using machinery and technology. This system emerged during the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries and led to significant changes in society, such as urbanization, mass production, and the rise of the middle class. Industrial capitalism is characterized by private ownership of the means of production, profit-seeking behavior, and the pursuit of economic growth through industrialization.

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  • 4. 

    Meeting in 1814 of the great powers of Europe

    • A.

      Concert of Europe

    • B.

      Congress of Vienna

    • C.

      Industrial Capitalism

    • D.

      Nationalism

    • E.

      Cottage industry

    Correct Answer
    B. Congress of Vienna
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Congress of Vienna. The Congress of Vienna was a meeting held in 1814 of the great powers of Europe, including Austria, Britain, Russia, and Prussia, to restore stability and order in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. The Congress aimed to redraw the map of Europe, establish a balance of power, and prevent future wars. It resulted in the reestablishment of monarchies, the restoration of territorial boundaries, and the suppression of nationalist movements. The Congress of Vienna played a crucial role in shaping the political landscape of Europe for the next century.

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  • 5. 

    Meetings of the great powers of Europe to maintain peace

    • A.

      Nationalism

    • B.

      Cottage industry

    • C.

      Industrial Capitalism

    • D.

      Concert of Europe

    • E.

      Socialism

    Correct Answer
    D. Concert of Europe
    Explanation
    The Concert of Europe refers to a series of meetings held by the great powers of Europe in the 19th century with the aim of maintaining peace and stability on the continent. This system was established after the Napoleonic Wars and sought to prevent further conflicts by promoting cooperation and diplomacy among the major European powers. The Concert of Europe was an important development in international relations and helped to maintain a balance of power in Europe for several decades.

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  • 6. 

    Belief that people owe loyalty to a nation

    • A.

      Nationalism

    • B.

      Socialism

    • C.

      Democracy

    • D.

      Republicism

    • E.

      Countryism

    Correct Answer
    A. Nationalism
    Explanation
    Nationalism refers to the belief that individuals should have a sense of loyalty and devotion towards their nation. It emphasizes the importance of a shared cultural, historical, and political identity among the citizens of a particular country. Nationalism often promotes the idea of national pride and unity, advocating for the interests and well-being of the nation as a whole. It can manifest in various forms, such as patriotism and the desire for self-determination and independence.

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  • 7. 

    Politics based on practical matters rather than theory or ethics

    • A.

      Republicism

    • B.

      Nationalism

    • C.

      Realpolitik

    • D.

      Democracy

    • E.

      Socialism

    Correct Answer
    C. Realpolitik
    Explanation
    Realpolitik refers to a political approach that prioritizes practical considerations and outcomes over theoretical or ethical principles. It emphasizes the use of pragmatism and practicality in decision-making, focusing on achieving tangible goals rather than adhering strictly to ideological beliefs. This term is often associated with diplomacy and international relations, where states prioritize their national interests and power dynamics over moral considerations. Realpolitik is characterized by a realistic and pragmatic approach to politics, making it the most suitable choice for the given definition.

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  • 8. 

    Emphasized feelings and imagination as sources of knowing  

    • A.

      Democracy

    • B.

      Nationalism

    • C.

      Realpolitik

    • D.

      Socialism

    • E.

      Romanticism

    Correct Answer
    E. Romanticism
    Explanation
    Romanticism emphasized feelings and imagination as sources of knowing. This artistic, literary, and intellectual movement emerged in the late 18th century as a reaction against the rationalism and scientific thinking of the Enlightenment. Romanticism celebrated individuality, emotions, and the power of the imagination as ways to understand and experience the world. It placed a strong emphasis on nature, the supernatural, and the expression of personal emotions. Romanticism greatly influenced art, literature, music, and philosophy, and its impact can still be seen today.

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  • 9. 

    Published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

    • A.

      Henry Cort

    • B.

      Charles Darwin

    • C.

      Congress of Vienna

    • D.

      Gustave Courbet

    • E.

      James Watt

    Correct Answer
    B. Charles Darwin
    Explanation
    Charles Darwin is the correct answer because he published "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection." This book, published in 1859, presented Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection, which revolutionized the field of biology and had a profound impact on our understanding of the diversity of life on Earth. Darwin's work laid the foundation for modern evolutionary biology and is considered one of the most influential scientific works ever published.

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  • 10. 

    French painter from the realist school

    • A.

      Henry Cort

    • B.

      James Hargreaves

    • C.

      Gustave Courbet

    • D.

      James Watt

    • E.

      Charles Darwin

    Correct Answer
    C. Gustave Courbet
    Explanation
    Gustave Courbet is the correct answer because he was a French painter associated with the realist school. He was known for his bold and realistic style, often depicting scenes of everyday life and social issues. Courbet's work challenged the traditional norms of art at the time and he is considered one of the pioneers of the realist movement in painting.

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  • 11. 

    Who developed a steam engine that could drive machinery?

    • A.

      . James Hargreaves

    • B.

      . Edmund Wilson

    • C.

      James Watt

    • D.

      Henry Cort

    Correct Answer
    C. James Watt
    Explanation
    James Watt is the correct answer because he is known for developing a steam engine that could drive machinery. His improvements to the steam engine, such as the separate condenser and the double-acting engine, greatly increased its efficiency and practicality, leading to its widespread adoption in industries such as mining, manufacturing, and transportation. Watt's steam engine played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution and revolutionized the way work was done by replacing manual labor with machine power.

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  • 12. 

     The __ was crucial to Britain’s Industrial Revolution.

    • A.

      Bicycle

    • B.

      Flying shuttle

    • C.

      Water-powered loom

    • D.

      Steam engine

    Correct Answer
    D. Steam engine
    Explanation
    The steam engine was crucial to Britain's Industrial Revolution because it revolutionized transportation and manufacturing. It allowed for the development of railways, which facilitated the transportation of goods and people at a much faster rate. Additionally, steam engines were used to power factories and machinery, increasing productivity and efficiency. This innovation played a significant role in transforming Britain into the world's leading industrial nation during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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  • 13. 

    The social change brought about by the Industrial Revolution was evident in the

    • A.

      Emergence of the middle class and the working class.

    • B.

      Growing death rates, due to accidents on the highways.

    • C.

      Thick air pollution that choked the British Isles.

    • D.

      Widespread famines caused by families abandoning their farms.

    Correct Answer
    A. Emergence of the middle class and the working class.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the emergence of the middle class and the working class. This is because the Industrial Revolution led to significant changes in society, including the rise of a new social class known as the middle class. This class consisted of entrepreneurs, professionals, and skilled workers who benefited from the industrialization and urbanization of the time. Additionally, the working class also emerged as a result of the Industrial Revolution, consisting of factory workers and laborers who faced harsh working conditions and low wages. These social changes were a direct consequence of the Industrial Revolution's impact on the economy and the structure of society.

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  • 14. 

     The pitiful conditions created by the Industrial Revolution gave rise to

    • A.

      The Iron Workers' Revolt of 1886.

    • B.

      The organization of charitable groups

    • C.

      Socialism, in which society owns and controls the means of production.

    • D.

      A cry for rights for animals that worked in coal mines.

    Correct Answer
    C. Socialism, in which society owns and controls the means of production.
    Explanation
    The pitiful conditions created by the Industrial Revolution, such as long working hours, low wages, and unsafe working conditions, led to a growing discontent among the working class. In response to these conditions, the idea of socialism emerged, advocating for a society where the means of production are owned and controlled by the community as a whole, rather than by private individuals or corporations. Socialism was seen as a solution to the inequalities and exploitation caused by industrial capitalism, aiming to create a more equitable and just society.

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  • 15. 

    According to the principle of intervention, the great powers of Europe had the right to

    • A.

      Borrow food from one another in times of economic crisis within their countries.

    • B.

      Send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to power.

    • C.

      Take one another's territories without asking.

    • D.

      Have representatives with voting privileges in one another’s government.

    Correct Answer
    B. Send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to power.
    Explanation
    According to the principle of intervention, the great powers of Europe believed that they had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to power. This principle was based on the idea that it was the duty of the great powers to protect the established order and prevent the spread of revolutionary ideas. By intervening in other countries' revolutions, they aimed to maintain stability and protect the interests of monarchies.

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  • 16. 

    The effect of the Crimean War was to

    • A.

      Destroy the gold fields in the Crimea.

    • B.

      Force the Estonian economy into a decline that lasted 20 years.

    • C.

      . strengthen the Concert of Europe with the addition of France.

    • D.

      Destroy the Concert of Europe and leave Austria without Friends among the great powers.

    Correct Answer
    D. Destroy the Concert of Europe and leave Austria without Friends among the great powers.
    Explanation
    The Crimean War had a significant impact on the Concert of Europe, which was a system of cooperation among the major powers in Europe. The war effectively destroyed this system and left Austria without any allies among the great powers. This weakened Austria's position and influence in European affairs. Additionally, the war led to a shift in power dynamics in Europe, with France emerging as a stronger player. Therefore, the correct answer is that the Crimean War destroyed the Concert of Europe and left Austria without friends among the great powers.

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  • 17. 

    . Britain managed to remain stable during the first half of the nineteenth century for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

    • A.

      The rising Irish nationalist movement.

    • B.

      The continued social and political reforms.

    • C.

      Voting rights for industrial middle class males.

    • D.

      Prosperity for the working class.

    Correct Answer
    A. The rising Irish nationalist movement.
    Explanation
    During the first half of the nineteenth century, Britain experienced stability due to several factors. The continued social and political reforms helped maintain stability by addressing various issues and improving the conditions of different social groups. Voting rights for industrial middle-class males also contributed to stability by giving them a voice in the political process. Prosperity for the working class further enhanced stability by improving their living conditions and reducing social unrest. However, the rising Irish nationalist movement did not contribute to stability, as it sought to challenge British rule and potentially disrupt the political and social order.

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  • 18. 

    Among other things the romantics valued

    • A.

      Individualism the belief in the uniqueness of each person.

    • B.

      Socialism, a system in which society owns and controls the means of production.

    • C.

      Conservatism, the political philosophy based on tradition and social stability.

    • D.

      Neoism. the belief that the past should be discarded and society should be completely rebuilt.

    Correct Answer
    A. Individualism the belief in the uniqueness of each person.
    Explanation
    The romantics valued individualism because they believed in the uniqueness of each person. They celebrated the idea that every individual has their own distinct qualities, talents, and experiences that make them special. This belief in individualism was a reaction against the societal norms and expectations of the time, which emphasized conformity and the collective over the individual. The romantics sought to express their individuality through their art, literature, and personal choices, and they believed that society should recognize and respect the individuality of its members.

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  • 19. 

    Who proposed the germ theory of disease?

    • A.

      Farhid Molotof

    • B.

      Michael Faraday

    • C.

      Louis Pasteur

    • D.

      Charles Darwin

    Correct Answer
    C. Louis Pasteur
    Explanation
    Louis Pasteur proposed the germ theory of disease. He conducted experiments and observations that demonstrated that microorganisms, specifically bacteria, are responsible for causing infectious diseases. Pasteur's work revolutionized the understanding of disease transmission and led to the development of sterilization techniques and vaccines. His discoveries laid the foundation for modern medical practices and the field of microbiology.

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  • 20. 

    ___ was a literary and visual arts movement that rejected romanticism.

    • A.

      . Evolutionism

    • B.

      Nationalism

    • C.

      Secularism

    • D.

      Realism

    Correct Answer
    D. Realism
    Explanation
    Realism was a literary and visual arts movement that rejected romanticism. It aimed to depict the world as it is, without idealization or embellishment. Realist artists and writers sought to portray everyday life, often focusing on the working class and the harsh realities of society. They believed in presenting an objective and truthful representation of the world, rather than romanticized or idealized versions. Realism emerged as a response to the romantic movement, which emphasized emotions, imagination, and idealized landscapes. Realists aimed to provide a more accurate and honest reflection of the world, rejecting the romantic notions of the past.

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  • 21. 

    Describe the Compromise of 1867 between Austria and the Hungarians.

  • 22. 

    Describe the impart of Darwin’s ideas on the society of his time.

  • 23. 

    Which of the following was true of Britain's population in the nineteenth century.

    • A.

      it grew the most between 1850 and 1370. _

    • B.

      It grew more rapidly than the population of the United States.

    • C.

      It grew less rapidly than the population of the United States.

    • D.

      It grew the most between 1830 and 1870.

    Correct Answer
    C. It grew less rapidly than the population of the United States.
    Explanation
    The given answer states that Britain's population grew less rapidly than the population of the United States in the nineteenth century. This implies that while both countries experienced population growth during this period, the rate of growth in the United States was higher than in Britain.

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  • 24. 

    "The normal working day begins at all seasons at 6 A.M. precisely and ends, after the usual break of half an hour for breakfast, an hour for dinner and half an hour for tea, at 7PM...Workers arriving 2 minutes late shall lose an hour's wages; wages; whoever is more than 2 minutes late may not start work until after the break, or at least shall lose his wages until then... No worker may leave his place of work ohtherwise than for reasons connected with his work.. All conversation with fellow - workers is prohibited...."______ Sidney Pollard and Colin Holmes, Documents of European Economic History, 1968

    • A.

      13 hours

    • B.

      11 hours

    • C.

      9 hours

    • D.

      8 hours

    Correct Answer
    B. 11 hours
    Explanation
    The given passage states that the normal working day begins at 6 A.M. and ends at 7 P.M., with breaks for breakfast, dinner, and tea. It also mentions that workers arriving 2 minutes late will lose an hour's wages, and anyone more than 2 minutes late may not start work until after the break. Additionally, workers are not allowed to leave their place of work unless it is work-related, and conversation with fellow workers is prohibited. Based on this information, it can be inferred that the total working hours would be 11 hours, as there is a break for breakfast, dinner, and tea, and workers arriving late will not be able to start work until after the break.

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  • 25. 

    " The first principle to be followed by the monarchs, united as they are by the coincidence of their desires and opinions, should be that of maintaining the stability of political institutions against the disorganized excitement which has taken possession of men's minds...The first greatest concern for the immense majority of every nation is the stability of the laws, and their uninterrupted action- never their change. Therefore, let the governments govern, let them maintainthe groundwork of their institutions, both ancient and modern; for it is all times dangerous to touch them." What docs Metternich describe as the most important concern for a nation?

    • A.

      . its monarch

    • B.

      The stability of its laws

    • C.

      The public’s desires and opinions

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. The stability of its laws
    Explanation
    Metternich describes the stability of laws as the most important concern for a nation. He emphasizes that the stability of political institutions is crucial in order to counter the disorganized excitement that has taken hold of people's minds. He argues that the majority of every nation is primarily concerned with the stability and uninterrupted action of laws, rather than their change. Therefore, he suggests that governments should focus on governing and maintaining the groundwork of their institutions, both ancient and modern, as it is always risky to tamper with them.

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  • 26. 

    "Like many of my friends, I was dominated by the feeling that at last the great opportunity had arrived for giving to the German  people the liberty which was their birthright and to the German fatherland its unity and greatness, and that it was now the first duty of every German to do and to sacrifice everything for this sacred object." What does Shurz want for the German people?

    • A.

      Opportunity

    • B.

      Liberty

    • C.

      Sacrifice

    • D.

      A sacred object

    Correct Answer
    B. Liberty
    Explanation
    Shurz wants liberty for the German people.

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  • 27. 

    "The debate was closing at half-after twelve; and the main arguement of the opponents was that if two hours' labor from these children, under eighteen years of age, were taken off, the consequnces, on a national scale, might be ' truly dreadful'! It might, and would, destroy manufacturing capital; prevent us from carrying on competition with foreign manufacturers; reduce mills to a small part of their present valve; and break up, as it were, the wealth and power of the country; render it comparatively feeble; and expose it to be an easy prey to foreign nations." Which of the following was NOT an argument made against child labor reform?

    • A.

      it would harm competition with foreign countries.

    • B.

      It would reduce the value of business.

    • C.

      It would leave too many children homeless.

    • D.

      It would reduce the wealth of the nation.

    Correct Answer
    C. It would leave too many children homeless.
    Explanation
    The passage states that opponents argued that if child labor reform were implemented, it would harm competition with foreign countries, reduce the value of business, and reduce the wealth of the nation. However, there is no mention of it leaving too many children homeless. Therefore, this was NOT an argument made against child labor reform.

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