History Of Journalism Quiz

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History Of Journalism Quiz - Quiz


Welcome to the History of Journalism Quiz. This quiz tests your knowledge about the history of journalism. It covers key events, important figures, and major innovations that have shaped journalism over the years. You will answer questions about the invention of the printing press, the rise of newspapers, the impact of radio and television, and the advent of digital news.

By taking this quiz, you will gain a deeper appreciation for the pivotal developments that have influenced how news is reported and consumed. Each question aims to highlight significant moments in journalism's evolution. Whether you are a student, a professional Read morejournalist, or simply interested in the field, this quiz will challenge your understanding of journalism's past.


History of Journalism Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    The 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision in the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka case determined that:

    • A.

      All registered voters have a right to vote.

    • B.

      Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal and, therefore, unlawful.

    • C.

      Hiring in schools must guarantee that no teacher will be discriminated against by race.

    • D.

      All residents have a right to a college education.

    Correct Answer
    B. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal and, therefore, unlawful.
    Explanation
    The 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka ruled that separate educational facilities for white and black students were inherently unequal. This landmark case overturned the "separate but equal" doctrine established by the Plessy vs. Ferguson case in 1896. The court's decision was a significant step towards desegregation and was a major victory for the Civil Rights Movement. It paved the way for further legal and social progress in the fight against racial discrimination in the United States.

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  • 2. 

    Rodger Streitmatter, as do many historians, cites the Civil Rights Movement as:

    • A.

      Ill-timed, and would have been less violent if activists had waited a few years.

    • B.

      A political movement that was spurred by extensive newspaper coverage.

    • C.

      The first great television news story.

    • D.

      A political movement that was spurred by effective public relations techniques.

    Correct Answer
    C. The first great television news story.
    Explanation
    Rodger Streitmatter, along with many historians, views the Civil Rights Movement as the first great television news story. The widespread coverage of the movement on television brought the struggles and injustices faced by African Americans into the living rooms of people across the United States. This visual and immediate form of media played a crucial role in raising awareness and garnering support for the movement. Key events, such as the Birmingham campaign and the March on Washington, were broadcast nationwide, highlighting the power of television in shaping public opinion and driving social change.

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  • 3. 

    The most dramatic image that emerged from the Central High School desegregation effort was:

    • A.

      The lynching by a mob of two of the nine students.

    • B.

      The relative calm that greeted a young black male student as he approached local police at the school.

    • C.

      The fire bomb that exploded on the school bus as the students entered the school.

    • D.

      The brutal treatment of a petite, 15-year-old black girl by redneck segregationists.

    Correct Answer
    D. The brutal treatment of a petite, 15-year-old black girl by redneck segregationists.
    Explanation
    The most dramatic image from the Central High School desegregation effort in Little Rock, Arkansas, was the brutal treatment of Elizabeth Eckford, a 15-year-old black girl. On September 4, 1957, she was one of the "Little Rock Nine" attempting to enter the school. A photograph captured her being harassed and threatened by a hostile white mob, highlighting the intense racism and violence she faced. This powerful image drew national attention and underscored the challenges and dangers of desegregation efforts, galvanizing support for the Civil Rights Movement and the enforcement of federal desegregation orders.

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  • 4. 

    NBC correspondent John Chancellor said that with respect to the Civil Rights Movement, journalism does not initiate social change, but journalism:

    • A.

      Can destroy movements by overexposure.

    • B.

      Can amplify social change.

    • C.

      Can exaggerate the impact of social activists.

    • D.

      Can set the record straight on who did what to whom.

    Correct Answer
    B. Can amplify social change.
    Explanation
    NBC correspondent John Chancellor noted that journalism, while not initiating social change, can significantly amplify it. During the Civil Rights Movement, media coverage played a crucial role in bringing the struggles and injustices faced by African Americans to the forefront of public consciousness. Television, newspapers, and radio broadcasts highlighted the actions and sacrifices of civil rights activists, generating widespread public support and putting pressure on political leaders to enact change. By amplifying the voices and experiences of those fighting for equality, journalism helped to accelerate the momentum of the movement and contribute to its successes.

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  • 5. 

    In the summer of 1957, African-American leaders targeted Central High School for desegregation with the enrollment of 9 black students. This took place in:

    • A.

      New Orleans

    • B.

      Tupelo

    • C.

      Little Rock

    • D.

      Birmingham

    Correct Answer
    C. Little Rock
    Explanation
    In the summer of 1957, African-American leaders targeted Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, for desegregation. This historic event involved the enrollment of nine black students, known as the "Little Rock Nine." Their attempt to integrate the school faced significant resistance, culminating in a national crisis that required federal intervention. President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops to enforce the students' right to attend school safely. This event became a pivotal moment in the Civil Rights Movement, symbolizing the federal government's commitment to enforcing desegregation and challenging racial discrimination in education.

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  • 6. 

    The above action is regarded as the first chapter of TV's epic coverage of the movement because:

    • A.

      It was the first news story presented in full color, not just black and white.

    • B.

      It gave MLK a forum for his beliefs.

    • C.

      It turned what otherwise would have been a local story into a national news story.

    • D.

      It led to a rapid change in school district policy on segregation.

    Correct Answer
    C. It turned what otherwise would have been a local story into a national news story.
    Explanation
    The desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957 is regarded as the first chapter of TV's epic coverage of the Civil Rights Movement because it transformed a local event into a national news story. Television brought the images of the "Little Rock Nine" and the resistance they faced into homes across America, highlighting the struggle for civil rights and the federal government's role in enforcing desegregation. This coverage galvanized public opinion and drew attention to the broader issues of racial inequality and injustice, marking the beginning of television's significant impact on the movement.

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  • 7. 

    The first time that Charlayne Hunter-Gault, later of The New York Times and a Public Broadcasting Service correspondent, made the news was when:

    • A.

      She defied a court order to leave a lunch counter in a segregated cafe.

    • B.

      She refused to ride in the back of a bus.

    • C.

      She was one of 2 African Americans first admitted to the University of Georgia.

    • D.

      She shot a white Southerner who tried to assault her.

    Correct Answer
    C. She was one of 2 African Americans first admitted to the University of Georgia.
    Explanation
    Charlayne Hunter-Gault first made the news in 1961 when she and Hamilton Holmes became the first African American students admitted to the University of Georgia. Their admission was a significant event in the Civil Rights Movement, symbolizing the push for desegregation in higher education. Despite facing intense hostility and protests, Hunter-Gault persisted and graduated with a degree in journalism. Her courage and determination during this period set the stage for her later success as a respected journalist with The New York Times and the Public Broadcasting Service, highlighting her commitment to breaking racial barriers and advancing civil rights.

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  • 8. 

    Police Commissioner "Bull" Connor held great influence over the town considered the most segregated city in America in the early 1960s. This city was:

    • A.

      Little Rock

    • B.

      Birmingham

    • C.

      Tupelo

    • D.

      New Orleans

    Correct Answer
    B. Birmingham
    Explanation
    Police Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor wielded significant power in Birmingham, Alabama, which was known as the most segregated city in America during the early 1960s. Connor's aggressive tactics against civil rights activists, including the use of fire hoses and police dogs, were widely covered by the media. These images shocked the nation and drew attention to the severe racial injustices in Birmingham. The harsh response to peaceful protests galvanized support for the Civil Rights Movement and led to increased federal intervention. Connor's actions highlighted the need for change and played a crucial role in the passage of civil rights legislation.

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  • 9. 

    The racially mixed group of college students and civil rights activists who rode buses from the North into segregated Southern communities was known as:

    • A.

      Freedom Riders

    • B.

      Carpetbaggers

    • C.

      Justice Journeyers

    • D.

      Abolitionists

    Correct Answer
    A. Freedom Riders
    Explanation
    The Freedom Riders were a group of racially mixed college students and civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated Southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years. Their aim was to challenge the non-enforcement of Supreme Court decisions that ruled segregated public buses unconstitutional. The Freedom Riders faced significant violence and hostility, drawing national attention to the Civil Rights Movement. Their courageous actions highlighted the need for federal enforcement of civil rights laws and contributed to the eventual desegregation of public transportation. The Freedom Riders' efforts were a pivotal moment in the fight for racial equality.

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  • 10. 

    Birmingham became the target in 1963 for what one activist hoped would be a series of supposed nonviolent protests. This person was:

    • A.

      Thurgood Marshall

    • B.

      Martin Luther King Jr.

    • C.

      Andrew Young

    • D.

      Jesse Jackson

    Correct Answer
    B. Martin Luther King Jr.
    Explanation
    In 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. targeted Birmingham, Alabama, for a series of nonviolent protests aimed at ending segregation. Known as the Birmingham Campaign, these protests sought to draw attention to the brutal and systemic racial discrimination in the city. King, along with other leaders from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), planned demonstrations, sit-ins, and marches. The violent response from local authorities, led by Police Commissioner "Bull" Connor, garnered widespread media coverage and national outrage. This campaign was instrumental in building momentum for the Civil Rights Movement and led to significant progress, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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  • 11. 

    A massive demonstration and march took place in August 1963 with some 200,000 protesters whose actions were televised by all three networks. That event took place:

    • A.

      In NYC

    • B.

      In Selma

    • C.

      Near Camp David

    • D.

      In the nation’s capital

    Correct Answer
    D. In the nation’s capital
    Explanation
    The massive demonstration and march referred to took place in Washington, D.C., on August 28, 1963. Known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, it attracted around 200,000 participants. The event was significant in the Civil Rights Movement and was televised by all three major networks, bringing widespread attention to the cause. The highlight of the march was Martin Luther King Jr.'s iconic "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. The peaceful demonstration emphasized the demand for civil and economic rights for African Americans and played a crucial role in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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  • 12. 

    Media images of Bull Connor's use of police dogs and high-pressure fire hoses to subdue protestors, many of them children, led to a reaction from the public elsewhere. They reacted by:

    • A.

      Organizing public marches of support in 40 cities around the country.

    • B.

      Flooding the White House with phone calls for action.

    • C.

      Calling their congressional representatives asking for intervention.

    • D.

      Expressing embarrassment, but doing little else.

    Correct Answer
    B. Flooding the White House with phone calls for action.
    Explanation
    The public reaction to the media images of Bull Connor's brutal tactics, including the use of police dogs and high-pressure fire hoses against protestors, many of whom were children, was intense. These shocking visuals from Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, galvanized public opinion and spurred a flood of phone calls to the White House, demanding action. The widespread outrage highlighted the national demand for federal intervention in the civil rights struggle. This overwhelming response played a crucial role in pressuring the Kennedy administration to take more decisive action in support of civil rights, ultimately leading to significant legislative changes such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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  • 13. 

    It was during this same massive march that Rev. Martin Luther King delivered his:

    • A.

      I have been on a mountaintop speech.

    • B.

      I have a dream speech.

    • C.

      Last speech.

    • D.

      First televised speech.

    Correct Answer
    B. I have a dream speech.
    Explanation
    Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his iconic "I Have a Dream" speech during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. This event took place in Washington, D.C., and drew an estimated 200,000 participants. King's speech, delivered from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, articulated his vision of a racially integrated and harmonious America. The speech is one of the most famous in American history, symbolizing the aspirations of the Civil Rights Movement. King's powerful words and the widespread media coverage of the march significantly influenced public opinion and contributed to the momentum for civil rights legislation.

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  • 14. 

    The Edmund Pettus Bridge that MLK and his demonstrators crossed was in:

    • A.

      Athens

    • B.

      Jacksonville

    • C.

      Selma

    • D.

      Knoxville

    Correct Answer
    C. Selma
    Explanation
    The Edmund Pettus Bridge is located in Selma, Alabama. This bridge became a significant symbol of the Civil Rights Movement during the Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965. On March 7, 1965, known as "Bloody Sunday," peaceful protesters, led by activists including John Lewis and Hosea Williams, were brutally attacked by state troopers and local law enforcement as they attempted to cross the bridge. The violence was broadcast on national television, shocking the nation and garnering widespread support for the movement. This event led to increased momentum for the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, a landmark piece of civil rights legislation.

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  • 15. 

    The president who signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was:

    • A.

      Kennedy

    • B.

      Nixon

    • C.

      Carter

    • D.

      Johnson

    Correct Answer
    D. Johnson
    Explanation
    President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law on July 2, 1964. This landmark legislation aimed to end segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It was a significant victory for the Civil Rights Movement, coming after years of activism and protest. Johnson's signing of the act marked a crucial moment in American history, as it helped to dismantle institutionalized racism and promote greater equality and justice across the nation. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 laid the foundation for future civil rights advancements.

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  • 16. 

    The other key piece of legislation that followed the Civil Rights Act was the:

    • A.

      Faith Family and Freedom Act

    • B.

      Equal Protection Act

    • C.

      Voting Rights Act

    • D.

      Equal Protection Act

    Correct Answer
    C. Voting Rights Act
    Explanation
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was the crucial piece of legislation that followed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on August 6, 1965, the Voting Rights Act aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote. The act banned discriminatory practices such as literacy tests and provided for federal oversight and enforcement of voter registration in areas with a history of disenfranchisement. This legislation significantly increased voter registration and participation among African Americans and was a key milestone in the Civil Rights Movement.

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  • 17. 

    The United States' initial involvement in Vietnam began:

    • A.

      In the early 1950s with Truman.

    • B.

      In the late 1950s with Eisenhower.

    • C.

      In the early 1960s with Kennedy.

    • D.

      In the late 1960s with Johnson.

    Correct Answer
    A. In the early 1950s with Truman.
    Explanation
    The United States' initial involvement in Vietnam began in the early 1950s under President Harry S. Truman. During this period, the U.S. provided financial and military support to the French in their efforts to maintain control over their colonial territories in Indochina, including Vietnam. After the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, the U.S. continued to support the anti-communist government of South Vietnam. This involvement escalated over the subsequent decades, leading to increased military presence and direct combat operations, particularly under Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. Truman's initial support laid the groundwork for the extensive U.S. engagement in the Vietnam War.

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  • 18. 

    In 1954, Vietnam was divided in half. The North was:

    • A.

      Communist controlled and based in Saigon.

    • B.

      Democratically controlled and based in Saigon.

    • C.

      Communist controlled and based in Hanoi.

    • D.

      Democratically controlled and based in Hanoi.

    Correct Answer
    C. Communist controlled and based in Hanoi.
    Explanation
    In 1954, following the Geneva Accords, Vietnam was divided into two separate entities at the 17th parallel. The North, led by Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh, was communist-controlled and based in Hanoi. The South was under the control of the anti-communist government, backed by the United States and other Western nations, with its capital in Saigon. This division set the stage for the Vietnam War, as the North sought to reunify the country under communist rule, while the South, supported by the U.S., aimed to prevent the spread of communism. The conflict between these two sides escalated into a prolonged and devastating war.

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  • 19. 

    In 1964, North Vietnamese patrol boats fired on U.S. destroyers in a Vietnamese gulf location. This attack led to a congressional action known as:

    • A.

      The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.

    • B.

      The Viet Cong Retaliation Resolution.

    • C.

      The Port of Hanoi Resolution.

    • D.

      The Resolution of Vietnamese Sovereignty.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
    Explanation
    The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was passed by the U.S. Congress on August 7, 1964, following incidents in which North Vietnamese patrol boats reportedly fired on U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. This resolution granted President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to use military force in Vietnam without a formal declaration of war. It marked a significant escalation in U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, giving the President broad powers to conduct military operations in Southeast Asia. The resolution was a pivotal moment in the conflict, leading to increased American military presence and actions in Vietnam.

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  • 20. 

    By war's end after more than 10 years, how many U.S. men and women died in the war?

    • A.

      8,000

    • B.

      58,000

    • C.

      1-3 million

    • D.

      5,000

    Correct Answer
    B. 58,000
    Explanation
    By the end of the Vietnam War, over 58,000 U.S. men and women had lost their lives. The conflict, which spanned more than a decade, was one of the longest and most contentious wars in American history. The high casualty rate reflected the intense and prolonged nature of the fighting, as well as the challenging conditions faced by American troops. The war had significant impacts on American society, politics, and foreign policy, leading to widespread protest and a reevaluation of U.S. involvement in international conflicts. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., stands as a tribute to those who served and sacrificed their lives in the war.

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  • 21. 

    By war's end after more than 10 years, how many estimated Southeast Asians died in the war?

    • A.

      5,000

    • B.

      8,000

    • C.

      58,000

    • D.

      1-3 million

    Correct Answer
    D. 1-3 million
    Explanation
    By the end of the Vietnam War, it is estimated that between 1 to 3 million Southeast Asians, including Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Laotians, lost their lives. This staggering number includes both military personnel and civilians, reflecting the devastating impact of the conflict on the region. The war caused widespread destruction, significant displacement of populations, and lasting social and economic consequences. The high casualty rate underscores the war's brutality and the extensive suffering experienced by the people of Southeast Asia, making it one of the most tragic conflicts in modern history.

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  • 22. 

    By 1972, two out of three U.S. citizens named which medium as their main source of news?

    • A.

      Newspapers

    • B.

      Magazines

    • C.

      TV

    • D.

      Radio

    Correct Answer
    C. TV
    Explanation
    By 1972, television had become the primary source of news for two out of three U.S. citizens. The visual and immediate nature of TV news broadcasts allowed viewers to see events as they unfolded, which significantly influenced public opinion and provided a more engaging way to receive news compared to newspapers, magazines, or radio. Major events, such as the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement, were covered extensively on television, making it a crucial medium for information dissemination. This shift marked a significant change in how news was consumed and emphasized the growing importance of visual media in everyday life.

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  • 23. 

    Through 1967, most news coverage of the war was favorable. However, what event in 1968 turned the coverage into one that was more critical?

    • A.

      The Tet Offensive

    • B.

      The Tonkin Offensive

    • C.

      The Cu Chi Firefight

    • D.

      The Hanoi Bombing

    Correct Answer
    A. The Tet Offensive
    Explanation
    The Tet Offensive, which began in January 1968, was a coordinated series of attacks by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces on cities and military bases throughout South Vietnam. This event marked a significant turning point in the Vietnam War and had a profound impact on public opinion and media coverage in the United States. Although the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces eventually repelled the attacks, the intensity and scale of the offensive shocked the American public and media. It contradicted official statements that the war was nearing a successful conclusion, leading to increased skepticism and more critical coverage of the war by the media.

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  • 24. 

    The most controversial story of the early years of the war was by Morley Safer of CBS who covered events in the village of Cam Ne. That story showed:

    • A.

      American soldiers in full retreat after an ambush.

    • B.

      American soldiers being shot at by Vietnamese children.

    • C.

      American soldiers burning down 150 houses by using their Zippo lighters.

    • D.

      Bombers strafing rice paddies in the Mekong Delta.

    Correct Answer
    C. American soldiers burning down 150 houses by using their Zippo lighters.
    Explanation
    In 1965, CBS correspondent Morley Safer reported on a highly controversial story from the village of Cam Ne. His coverage showed American soldiers using their Zippo lighters to burn down approximately 150 houses. This footage shocked the American public and portrayed the brutal realities of the Vietnam War. The visual impact of soldiers setting fire to civilian homes raised significant ethical questions about the conduct of the war and challenged the prevailing narrative of American heroism and righteousness. The broadcast marked a turning point in media coverage, as it highlighted the destructive impact of the war on Vietnamese civilians and increased public scrutiny and opposition to the conflict.

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  • 25. 

    The Viet Cong offensive during their Lunar New Year holiday in 1968 was:

    • A.

      A military failure by North Vietnam.

    • B.

      A military failure by US troops.

    • C.

      A military failure by South Vietnamese troops.

    • D.

      A military success for the Viet Cong.

    Correct Answer
    A. A military failure by North Vietnam.
    Explanation
    The Tet Offensive, launched by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces during the lunar new year holiday in 1968, was a significant event in the Vietnam War. While it was a military failure for North Vietnam in terms of its immediate objectives—since they were unable to hold any of the cities they attacked and suffered heavy casualties—the offensive had a profound psychological impact. It shattered the U.S. government's claims that the war was nearing a successful conclusion and dramatically shifted American public opinion against the war. The extensive media coverage of the intense fighting and surprise attacks played a key role in turning public sentiment, despite the tactical failure of the offensive.

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  • 26. 

    In effect, what the televised news about the above offensive did to U.S. policy was:

    • A.

      To cause severe damage to the credibility of the Lyndon B. Johnson administration.

    • B.

      To bolster the resolve of the American public to win the war.

    • C.

      To damage peace negotiations between North and South Vietnamese.

    • D.

      To give comfort to U.S. troops and their commanders to stay the course.

    Correct Answer
    A. To cause severe damage to the credibility of the Lyndon B. Johnson administration.
    Explanation
    The televised news coverage of the Tet Offensive caused severe damage to the credibility of the Lyndon B. Johnson administration. The extensive media portrayal of the surprise attacks by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces contradicted the Johnson administration's assurances that the U.S. was making significant progress in the Vietnam War. This stark contrast between official statements and the reality on the ground led to a loss of public trust and increased skepticism about the government's handling of the war. As a result, public support for the war effort waned, contributing to Johnson's decision not to seek re-election and prompting a shift in U.S. policy towards seeking a negotiated settlement.

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  • 27. 

    The man who set the tone for TV coverage after the cataclysmic New Year's offensive by the Vietnamese was "the most trusted man in America." He was:

    • A.

      David Halberstam

    • B.

      Chet Huntley

    • C.

      Walter Cronkite

    • D.

      David Brinkley

    Correct Answer
    C. Walter Cronkite
    Explanation
    Walter Cronkite, often referred to as "the most trusted man in America," set the tone for TV coverage following the Tet Offensive in 1968. After visiting Vietnam and witnessing the situation firsthand, Cronkite delivered a critical and influential broadcast in which he stated that the war was at a stalemate and suggested that the U.S. should negotiate for peace. His report was significant because Cronkite was a highly respected figure in American journalism, and his skeptical view of the war profoundly influenced public opinion. President Lyndon B. Johnson reportedly said, "If I've lost Cronkite, I've lost Middle America," underscoring the impact of Cronkite's assessment on the nation's perception of the Vietnam War.

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  • 28. 

    One of the most shocking and enduring images of the brutality and senselessness of the war occurred on the streets of Saigon when a North Vietnamese prisoner was arrested. Recorded for TV during the arrest was:

    • A.

      The escape of the prisoner without any resistance from his captors.

    • B.

      The suicide bombing by the prisoner as he was taken before authorities.

    • C.

      The execution of the prisoner by a point-blank shot to his head.

    • D.

      The attack by citizens on the prisoner.

    Correct Answer
    C. The execution of the prisoner by a point-blank shot to his head.
    Explanation
    One of the most shocking and enduring images of the Vietnam War was captured on February 1, 1968, during the Tet Offensive. This infamous moment was filmed by NBC News and photographed by Eddie Adams, showing South Vietnamese General Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing a handcuffed North Vietnamese prisoner, Nguyen Van Lem, with a point-blank shot to the head. The graphic footage and photographs of this execution highlighted the brutality and senselessness of the conflict, causing widespread outrage and significantly influencing public opinion against the war. The powerful image became an iconic representation of the war's harsh realities and the ethical dilemmas faced by combatants.

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  • 29. 

    Walter Cronkite's negative assessment of the war at that point led President Johnson to reassess his position. What did he decide to do?

    • A.

      Not run for reelection.

    • B.

      Increase military funding for the war.

    • C.

      Seek the help of UN coalition forces.

    • D.

      Announce an impassioned plea for reelection in order to win the war.

    Correct Answer
    A. Not run for reelection.
    Explanation
    Walter Cronkite, a highly respected journalist, delivered a negative assessment of the Vietnam War after the Tet Offensive in 1968, stating that the war was at a stalemate and suggesting that negotiations were necessary. This broadcast had a profound impact on public opinion and significantly influenced President Lyndon B. Johnson's decision-making. Recognizing the loss of public support and the credibility of Cronkite's perspective, Johnson chose not to run for reelection. On March 31, 1968, Johnson announced his decision to the nation, marking a turning point in U.S. policy towards the Vietnam War and reflecting the growing domestic opposition to the conflict.

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  • 30. 

    Contributing to the tone of news coverage was the report of an incident at the village of My Lai. What did the news reports say?

    • A.

      That US soldiers had destroyed the village and killed hundreds of civilians.

    • B.

      That US soldiers had been given defective weapons and died defenseless in the village.

    • C.

      That children of the village were offered for sale to US troops.

    • D.

      That US soldiers had retreated, despite orders from company commanders to fight.

    Correct Answer
    A. That US soldiers had destroyed the village and killed hundreds of civilians.
    Explanation
    News reports about the My Lai Massacre revealed that US soldiers had destroyed the village of My Lai and killed hundreds of unarmed civilians, including women, children, and elderly people. This incident, which occurred on March 16, 1968, was initially covered up by the military but later exposed by investigative journalists. The revelation of such atrocities profoundly shocked the American public and contributed to the growing anti-war sentiment. The My Lai Massacre highlighted the brutal realities of the Vietnam War and raised serious ethical and moral questions about the conduct of US forces, leading to increased scrutiny and criticism of the war effort.

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  • 31. 

    The Brown vs. Board of Education decision also affirmed that racial practices in Kansas and other states violated which of the following Amendments?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      14

    Correct Answer
    D. 14
    Explanation
    The Brown v. Board of Education decision, delivered by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954, affirmed that racial segregation in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. This clause guarantees that no state shall deny any person within its jurisdiction "the equal protection of the laws." The Court's unanimous decision declared that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal," thus ending the legal basis for racial segregation in schools and marking a major victory for the Civil Rights Movement. This decision laid the foundation for further efforts to end racial discrimination and promote equality across various aspects of American life.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following states was NOT among those cited in the Brown vs. Board of Education class action lawsuit?

    • A.

      Delaware

    • B.

      Georgia

    • C.

      South Carolina

    • D.

      Alabama

    Correct Answer
    D. Alabama
    Explanation
    The Brown v. Board of Education class action lawsuit consolidated cases from several states, including Delaware, Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. However, Alabama was not among the states cited in this lawsuit. The case challenged the constitutionality of racial segregation in public schools, leading to the landmark 1954 Supreme Court decision that declared such segregation unconstitutional. This decision was a pivotal moment in the Civil Rights Movement, setting the stage for further legal and social progress towards racial equality in the United States.

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  • 33. 

    Among the attorneys hired by the NAACP in the Brown case was a young lawyer who would later go on to become a Supreme Court Justice. That person was:

    • A.

      Oliver Holmes

    • B.

      Hugo Black

    • C.

      Thurgood Marshall

    • D.

      Ruth Ginsberg

    Correct Answer
    C. Thurgood Marshall
    Explanation
    Thurgood Marshall was a young attorney hired by the NAACP to argue the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case before the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall's successful argument led to the historic 1954 decision that declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. His work in this case and other civil rights efforts earned him national recognition and paved the way for his appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967, where he became the first African American Justice. Marshall's legacy is defined by his relentless pursuit of equality and justice, both as a lawyer and as a Supreme Court Justice.

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  • 34. 

    The appointment of the above Justice was historically significant because:

    • A.

      He was the first black person on the Supreme Court.

    • B.

      The first Southerner appointed to the federal court.

    • C.

      He was the only Justice to never have completed a law degree.0

    • D.

      He was the youngest person ever appointed to the Supreme Court.

    Correct Answer
    A. He was the first black person on the Supreme Court.
    Explanation
    The appointment of Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967 was historically significant because he was the first African American to serve as a Supreme Court Justice. Marshall's appointment marked a major milestone in the history of American civil rights and the judiciary. Prior to his appointment, Marshall was a prominent civil rights lawyer, best known for his victory in the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education, which declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. His presence on the Supreme Court symbolized progress towards greater racial equality and justice in the United States.

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  • 35. 

    Another one of the more shocking practices by U.S. troops was revealed by television footage of Vietnamese children running down a highway, particularly the scene of a traumatized and nude young girl. That practice involved the use of:

    • A.

      Smart bombs

    • B.

      Napalm bombs

    • C.

      Flame throwers

    • D.

      IEDs

    Correct Answer
    B. Napalm bombs
    Explanation
    One of the most shocking images of the Vietnam War was captured in a photograph and television footage showing Vietnamese children, including a nude young girl named Phan Thi Kim Phuc, running down a highway after a napalm attack. The use of napalm bombs by U.S. troops caused severe burns and trauma to civilians, highlighting the devastating and indiscriminate nature of this weapon. The image of Kim Phuc, taken by photographer Nick Ut, became an iconic representation of the horrors of the war, contributing to global outrage and increasing anti-war sentiment. Napalm's horrific effects on human beings underscored the brutal realities of the conflict and the suffering it inflicted on innocent civilians.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jun 06, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 09, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Doug2545
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