History Of Graphic Design Test 5

70 Questions | Total Attempts: 54

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History Of Graphic Design Test 5

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1950s, a design movement emerged in Switzerland and Germany that has been called Swiss design or, more appropriately, the __________. The visual characteristics of this design movement include visual unity of design achieved through the asymmetrical organization of the design elements on a mathematically constructed grid; objective photography and copy that present visual and verbal information in a clear and factual manner, free from the exaggerated claims of much propaganda and commercial advertising; and sansserif typography set flush left, ragged right. The initiators of this movement believed sans-serif typography expressed the spirit of a progressive age and that mathematical grids were the most legible and harmonious means for structuring information. This design movement won converts throughout the world and remained a major force for over two decades, and its influence continues.
    • A. 

      Dada

    • B. 

      Memphis

    • C. 

      International Typographic Style

    • D. 

      New wave

  • 2. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The emerging Swiss design gained its alphabetical expression in several sansserif type families designed in the 1950s. The geometric sans-serif styles, mathematically constructed with drafting instruments during the 1920s and 1930s, were rejected in favor of new designs inspired by nineteenth-century Akzidenz Grotesk fonts. One of the new typefaces designed during this period was _____________, which was created as a palette of twenty-one visually related fonts. All twenty-one have the same x-height and baseline, and all ascenders and descenders are the same length. Numbers replaced conventional nomenclature.
    • A. 

      Neuland

    • B. 

      Futura

    • C. 

      Helvetica

    • D. 

      Univers

  • 3. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} __________ was the designer of the typeface mentioned in the preceding question, which was created as a palette of twenty-one visually-related fonts that 160 all have the same x-height and baseline and whose ascenders and descenders are the same length.
    • A. 

      Adrian Frutiger

    • B. 

      Emil Ruder

    • C. 

      Karl Gerstner

    • D. 

      Otl Aicher

  • 4. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Another new sans-serif was released as Neue Haas Grotesk by Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger. When this design was produced in Germany by the now-defunct D. Stempel AG in 1961, the face was renamed with the traditional Latin name for Switzerland. _________
    • A. 

      Neuland

    • B. 

      Futura

    • C. 

      Helvetica

    • D. 

      Univers

  • 5. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} More important than the visual appearance of Swiss design is the attitude developed by early pioneers about their profession. Which of the following statements does NOT belong? ____________
    • A. 

      Design is a socially useful and important activity

    • B. 

      Personal expression and eccentric solutions were rejected, while a more universal and scientific approach to design problem solving was embraced.

    • C. 

      The designer is not an artist but an objective conduit for spreading important information among various components of society.

    • D. 

      Ornamentation was prized for its decorative quality.

    • E. 

      Achieving clarity and order is the ideal

  • 6. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A native of Nuremberg, Germany, _____________ apprenticed as a photo retoucher and studied calligraphy after he acquired a copy of Rudolph Koch’s book Das Schreiben als Kunstfertigkeit (Writing as an Art Form). He became a freelance book designer and typographic designer, and at age twenty-two the first of his more than fifty typefaces was designed and cut for Stempel foundry. He developed an extraordinary sensitivity to letterforms in his activities as a calligrapher, typeface designer, typographer, and graphic designer. He viewed typeface design as “one of the most visible visual expressions of an age.” He designed Palatino in 1950, Melior in 1952, and Optima in 1958.
    • A. 

      Adrian Frutiger

    • B. 

      Max Miedinger

    • C. 

      Edouard Hoffman

    • D. 

      Hermann Zapf

  • 7. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} ___________ was a leading design theorist and practitioner in Zurich, Switzerland. He sought absolute and universal graphic expression through an objective and impersonal presentation, communicating to the audience without the interference of the designer’s subjective feelings or propagandistic techniques of persuasion, as in his 1960 public awareness poster “Weniger Lärm” (“Less Noise”). In his celebrated concert posters, like the “Musica Viva” concert poster of 1972, the language of constructivism created a visual equivalent to the structural harmony of the music to be performed. He worked extensively with mathematical grid structures. His 1960 exhibition poster “der Film” demonstrates the universal design harmony achieved by mathematical spatial division.
    • A. 

      Josef Muller-Brockman

    • B. 

      Armin Hofmann

    • C. 

      Siegfried Odermatt

    • D. 

      Rudolph de Harak

  • 8. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The _____________has a three-to-five ratio. A rectangle with this ratio was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the most beautifully proportioned rectangle.
    • A. 

      Tectonic element

    • B. 

      Art concret

    • C. 

      Golden mean

    • D. 

      Manuale typographicum

  • 9. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1950, Max Bill became involved in developing the graphic design program at the Institute of Design Institute in Ulm, Germany, which attempted to establish a center for research and training to address the design problems of the era. Otl Aicher, one of the Ulm cofounders, played an important role in establishing the graphic design program, and Anthony Froshaug set up the typography workshop. The curriculum included a study of __________: the general philosophical theory of signs and symbols.
    • A. 

      Semantics

    • B. 

      Pragmatics

    • C. 

      Semiotics

    • D. 

      Syntactics

  • 10. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Particularly innovative in photography, photomontage, and darkroom manipulation of images, visual pattern and form were explored in _____________’s close-up photographs of common objects, whose texture and detail were transformed into abstract images. Ideas about color and form from his paintings often found their way into his graphic designs; conversely, wide-ranging form experimentation in search of design solutions seems to have provided shapes and compositional ideas for his fine art. After the war, his work started to crystallize into what was to become his major contribution to graphic design: the creation of visual forms to communicate invisible processes and physical forces.
    • A. 

      Otl Aicher

    • B. 

      Anthony Froshaug

    • C. 

      Richard Lohse

    • D. 

      Anton Stankowski

  • 11. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In his work and in his teaching, __________ sought a dynamic harmony through which all the parts of a design were unified. He saw the relationship of contrasting elements as the means of breathing life into a visual design. These contrasts included light to dark, curved lines to straight lines, form to counterform, and dynamic to static. He began teaching at the Basel School of Design in 1947, after completing his education in Zurich, Switzerland, and working as a staff designer for several studios. At the same time he opened a design studio in collaboration with his wife. He applied a deep sense of aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. He evolved a design philosophy based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane. His work includes the logotype for the Stadt Theater Basel (Basel Civic Theater), 1954; the poster for the Basel Theater’s production of Giselle, 1959; and the trademark for the Swiss National Exhibition, Expo 1964.
    • A. 

      Emil Ruder

    • B. 

      Max Huber

    • C. 

      Armin Hofmann

    • D. 

      Josef Muller-Brockman

  • 12. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1947, Armin Hofmann began teaching graphic design at the _____________, and together with Emil Ruder, he developed an educational model linked to the elementary design principles of the Vorkurs (Preliminary Course) established in 1908. The same year, he opened a design studio in collaboration with his wife, Dorothea, where he applied deep aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. As time passed, he evolved a design philosophy 163 based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane, replacing traditional pictorial ideas with a modernist aesthetic. In 1965, he published Graphic Design Manual, a book that presents his application of elemental design principles to graphic design.
    • A. 

      Achool of Applied Art in Zurich, Switzerland

    • B. 

      Institute of Design in Ulm, Germany

    • C. 

      Basel School of Design in Basel, Switzerland

  • 13. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Siegfried Odermatt played an important role in applying the International Typographic Style to the communications of business and industry. He combined a succinct, efficient presentation of information with a dynamic visual quality, using straightforward photography with drama and impact. Ordinary images were turned into convincing and engaging photographs through the careful use of cropping, scale, and lighting, with attention to shape and texture as qualities that cause an image to emerge from the page. In the early 1960s, _____________ joined Odermatt. They loosened the boundaries of the International Typographic Style and introduced elements of chance, the development of surprising and inventive forms, and intuitive visual organization into the vocabulary of graphic design. This phase of the studio’s development marked the beginning of a break with the traditions of Swiss design.
    • A. 

      Emil Ruder

    • B. 

      Karl Gerstner

    • C. 

      Dietmar Winkler

    • D. 

      Rosmarie Tissi

  • 14. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The Swiss style was embraced in American corporate and institutional graphics during the 1960s and remained a prominent aspect of American design for over two decades. A notable example was found in the graphic design office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In the early 1950s, MIT established a graphic design program enabling all members of the university community to benefit from free, professional design assistance on their publications and publicity materials. This was an early recognition of the cultural and communicative value of design by an American university. MIT based its graphic design program on a commitment to the grid and sans-serif typography. The staff was innovative in the use of designed letterforms, and manipulated words as vehicles to express content. This approach evolved in the work of ___________, the director of the Design Services Office. Letterforms became illustrations, for the design and arrangement of the letters in key words frequently became the dominant image, as in the 1974 poster for an MIT open house in which stencil letterforms announce the open house, and the open O does double duty as a concrete symbol of the opening of the campus to visitors.
    • A. 

      Jacqueline Casey

    • B. 

      Ralph Coburn

    • C. 

      Dietmar Winkler

    • D. 

      Rosmarie Tissi

  • 15. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Although talented European immigrants who had fled totalitarianism in Europe introduced modern design in America during the 1940s, an original American approach to modernist design gained international prominence in the 1950s and continued as a dominant force in graphic design until the 1970s. An egalitarian society with capitalist values, limited artistic traditions before World War II, and a diverse ethnic heritage engendered an original approach to American modernist design. Where European design was often theoretical and highly structured, American design was pragmatic, intuitive, and less formal in its approach to organizing space. Emphasis was placed on the expression of _____________ and an open, direct presentation of information. Novelty of technique and originality of concept were much prized in this highly competitive society, and designers sought to solve communications problems while satisfying a need for personal expression.
    • A. 

      Modernism

    • B. 

      Ideas

    • C. 

      Politics

    • D. 

      Simultaneity

  • 16. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Just as Paris had been receptive to new ideas and images during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, ____________ assumed that role during the middle of the twentieth century.
    • A. 

      Berlin

    • B. 

      London

    • C. 

      New York City

    • D. 

      Zurich

  • 17. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} More than any other designer, ____________ initiated the American approach to modern design. He had an ability to manipulate visual form (i.e., shape, color, space, line, and value), and to skillfully analyze communications content, reducing it to a symbolic essence without making it sterile or dull. Visual contrasts marked his work: he played red against green, organic shape against geometric shape, photographic tone against flat color, cut or torn edges against 168 sharp forms, and the textural pattern of type against white margins. The cover design for Direction magazine shows the important role of visual and symbolic contrast in his designs. His 1946 book Thoughts on Design inspired a generation of designers. His collaborations with copywriter Bill Bernbach became a prototype for the now ubiquitous art/copy team at advertising agencies. The emphasis of his later work was on trademark and corporate design for such clients as IBM.
    • A. 

      Alvin Lustig

    • B. 

      Bradbury Thompson

    • C. 

      Paul Rand

    • D. 

      Saul Bass

  • 18. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________ emerged as one of the most influential graphic designers in postwar America. His designs for Westvaco Inspirations, four-color publications demonstrating printing papers, made a significant impact. A thorough knowledge of printing and typesetting, combined with a penchant for adventurous experimentation, allowed him to expand the range of design possibilities. He discovered and explored the potential of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century engravings as design resources. Large, bold, organic and geometric shapes were used to bring graphic and symbolic power to the page. Letterforms and patterns, such as the details from halftone reproductions, were often enlarged and used as design elements or to create visual patterns and movements. During the 1960s and 1970s, he turned increasingly to a classical approach to book and editorial format design. Readability, formal harmony, and a sensitive use of old style typefaces marked his work for periodicals such as Smithsonian and ARTnews.
    • A. 

      Alvin Lustig

    • B. 

      Bradbury Thompson

    • C. 

      Paul Rand

    • D. 

      Saul Bass

  • 19. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} ____________ brought the sensibilities of the New York School to Los Angeles in 1950. He frequently reduced his graphic designs to a single dominant image, often centered in the space. The simplicity and directness of his work allowed the viewer to interpret the content immediately. He had a remarkable ability to identify the nucleus of a design problem and to express it with images that became glyphs, or elemental pictorial signs, which exerted great graphic power. The 1955 design program for Otto Preminger’s film The Man with the Golden Arm was the first comprehensive design program unifying both print and media graphics for a movie. In addition to his film work, he created numerous corporateidentity programs, such as AT&T’s, the Girl Scouts’, and United Airlines’.
    • A. 

      Paul Rand

    • B. 

      Saul Bass

    • C. 

      Alvin Lustig

    • D. 

      Brabury Thompson

  • 20. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1940s, only a moderate number of American magazines were designed well. These included Fortune, Harper’s Bazaar, and Vogue. An art director’s assistant at Vogue during the 1930s, ____________ made a major contribution to editorial design during the 1940s and 1950s, first as the art director at Glamour, then at Seventeen, Charm, and Mademoiselle. Her publication designs were characterized by a lyrical appreciation of color, pattern, and form. She became the first woman admitted to membership in the New York Art Director’s Club. On a cover for Seventeen she designed in 1949, stripe patterns and a mirror-image reflection achieved a graphic vitality.
    • A. 

      Rosmarie Tissi

    • B. 

      Jaqueline Casey

    • C. 

      Cipe Pineles

    • D. 

      Bea Feitler

  • 21. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The initial contribution of Brownjohn, Chermayeff, and Geismar to American graphic design sprang from a strong aesthetic background and an understanding of the major ideas of European modern art, which had been reinforced by their contacts with architect-teacher Serge Chermayeff, Ivan Chermayeff’s father; László Moholy-Nagy, with whom Brownjohn had studied painting and design; and Alvin Lustig, for whom Ivan Chermayeff had worked as an assistant. Solutions grew out of the needs of the client, and design problems were characterized by inventive and symbolic manipulation of imagery and forms, including letterforms and typography. Images and symbols were combined with a surreal sense of dislocation to convey the essence of the subject on posters and book jackets, such as the cover of Bertrand Russell’s Common Sense and Nuclear Warfare, on which the atomic blast became a visual metaphor for the brain. In 1960, Brownjohn left the partnership and moved to England, where he made significant contributions to British graphic design, especially in the area of film titles, such as for the motion picture Goldfinger. The firm then changed its name to Chermayeff & Geismar Associates and played a major role in the development of _____________.
    • A. 

      Furniture design

    • B. 

      Corporate identity

    • C. 

      Advertising

    • D. 

      Packaging

  • 22. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Many of the pioneers of the New York School were either guest lecturers or served on the faculty of _____________’s graphic design program under the direction of Alvin Eisenman and later Sheila de Bretteville, the current director. This program has contributed to the advancement of graphic design and design education throughout the world, as many of its alumni have become prominent designers and educators; the first among them to receive an MFA after Josef Spelling Albers restructured the program was Norman Ives.
    • A. 

      New York University

    • B. 

      The Chicago Art Institute

    • C. 

      The School of Visual Arts

    • D. 

      Yale University

  • 23. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Over the course of the 1950s, a revolution in editorial design occurred, and editorial design experienced one of its greatest eras. In 1953, ____________ was named the art director of McCall’s magazine and in 1958 was given a free hand to upgrade the graphics; an astounding visual approach subsequently developed. Typography was unified with photography by designing the type to lock tightly into the photographic image. Type was warped and bent, or became the illustration. He ranks among the major innovators of the period. His philosophy that idea, copy, art, and typography should be inseparable in editorial design influenced both editorial and advertising graphics.
    • A. 

      Henry Wolf

    • B. 

      Otto Storch

  • 24. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1953, Vienna-born ________________ became the art director of Esquire, and in 1958 he became art director of Harper’s Bazaar. He sought to make the magazines he designed visually beautiful. He experimented with typography, making it large enough to fill the page on one spread and then using petite headlines on other pages. His vision of the magazine cover was an exquisitely simple image conveying a visual idea. The sophistication and inventiveness of photography commissioned by Harper's Bazaar during his tenure were extraordinary.
    • A. 

      Henry Wolf

    • B. 

      Otto Storch

  • 25. 
    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1960s in America, a new, smaller-format breed of periodicals emerged and thrived by addressing the interests of specialized audiences. The new editorial climate, with more emphasis on content, longer articles, and less opportunity for lavish visual treatment, necessitated a new approach to editorial design. Layout became more controlled, and the use of a consistent typographic 171 format and grid became the norm. Among the magazines listed below, which one became the journal of record for public opposition to the Vietnam War and for a host of other social and environmental issues? The art director, Dugald Stermer, did not commission images to illustrate the articles and topics; he used images as a separate communication to provide “information, direction, and purpose” distinct from the printed word. One cover of this magazine depicted four hands burning facsimile draft cards of Stermer and the three editors. ______________
    • A. 

      New York

    • B. 

      Ms.

    • C. 

      Ramparts

    • D. 

      Rolling Stone

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