History Of Graphic Design Test 5

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History Of Graphic Design Test 5 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1950s, a design movement emerged in Switzerland and Germany that has been called Swiss design or, more appropriately, the __________. The visual characteristics of this design movement include visual unity of design achieved through the asymmetrical organization of the design elements on a mathematically constructed grid; objective photography and copy that present visual and verbal information in a clear and factual manner, free from the exaggerated claims of much propaganda and commercial advertising; and sansserif typography set flush left, ragged right. The initiators of this movement believed sans-serif typography expressed the spirit of a progressive age and that mathematical grids were the most legible and harmonious means for structuring information. This design movement won converts throughout the world and remained a major force for over two decades, and its influence continues.

    • A.

      Dada

    • B.

      Memphis

    • C.

      International Typographic Style

    • D.

      New wave

    Correct Answer
    C. International Typographic Style
    Explanation
    The correct answer is International Typographic Style because the description provided matches the characteristics of this design movement. The use of asymmetrical organization, objective photography and copy, sans-serif typography, and mathematical grids are all key features of the International Typographic Style. Additionally, the movement's influence lasting for over two decades and gaining popularity worldwide further supports this answer choice.

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  • 2. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The emerging Swiss design gained its alphabetical expression in several sansserif type families designed in the 1950s. The geometric sans-serif styles, mathematically constructed with drafting instruments during the 1920s and 1930s, were rejected in favor of new designs inspired by nineteenth-century Akzidenz Grotesk fonts. One of the new typefaces designed during this period was _____________, which was created as a palette of twenty-one visually related fonts. All twenty-one have the same x-height and baseline, and all ascenders and descenders are the same length. Numbers replaced conventional nomenclature.

    • A.

      Neuland

    • B.

      Futura

    • C.

      Helvetica

    • D.

      Univers

    Correct Answer
    D. Univers
    Explanation
    During the 1950s, Swiss design embraced a new style of sans-serif typefaces that were inspired by nineteenth-century Akzidenz Grotesk fonts. One of these new typefaces was Univers, which was created as a collection of twenty-one visually related fonts. Univers had the same x-height and baseline for all the fonts, and the ascenders and descenders were also of the same length. In addition, Univers used numbers instead of conventional nomenclature.

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  • 3. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} __________ was the designer of the typeface mentioned in the preceding question, which was created as a palette of twenty-one visually-related fonts that 160 all have the same x-height and baseline and whose ascenders and descenders are the same length.

    • A.

      Adrian Frutiger

    • B.

      Emil Ruder

    • C.

      Karl Gerstner

    • D.

      Otl Aicher

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrian Frutiger
    Explanation
    Adrian Frutiger was the designer of the typeface mentioned in the preceding question. The typeface was created as a palette of twenty-one visually-related fonts that all have the same x-height and baseline and whose ascenders and descenders are the same length.

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  • 4. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Another new sans-serif was released as Neue Haas Grotesk by Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger. When this design was produced in Germany by the now-defunct D. Stempel AG in 1961, the face was renamed with the traditional Latin name for Switzerland. _________

    • A.

      Neuland

    • B.

      Futura

    • C.

      Helvetica

    • D.

      Univers

    Correct Answer
    C. Helvetica
    Explanation
    Helvetica is the correct answer because the question mentions that the design was renamed with the traditional Latin name for Switzerland. Helvetica is a widely used sans-serif typeface that originated in Switzerland, so it fits the given context.

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  • 5. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} More important than the visual appearance of Swiss design is the attitude developed by early pioneers about their profession. Which of the following statements does NOT belong? ____________

    • A.

      Design is a socially useful and important activity

    • B.

      Personal expression and eccentric solutions were rejected, while a more universal and scientific approach to design problem solving was embraced.

    • C.

      The designer is not an artist but an objective conduit for spreading important information among various components of society.

    • D.

      Ornamentation was prized for its decorative quality.

    • E.

      Achieving clarity and order is the ideal

    Correct Answer
    D. Ornamentation was prized for its decorative quality.
    Explanation
    The statement "Ornamentation was prized for its decorative quality" does not belong because Swiss design is known for its minimalist and functional approach, which emphasizes simplicity and clarity. Ornamentation, on the other hand, adds unnecessary decoration and goes against the principles of Swiss design.

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  • 6. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} A native of Nuremberg, Germany, _____________ apprenticed as a photo retoucher and studied calligraphy after he acquired a copy of Rudolph Koch’s book Das Schreiben als Kunstfertigkeit (Writing as an Art Form). He became a freelance book designer and typographic designer, and at age twenty-two the first of his more than fifty typefaces was designed and cut for Stempel foundry. He developed an extraordinary sensitivity to letterforms in his activities as a calligrapher, typeface designer, typographer, and graphic designer. He viewed typeface design as “one of the most visible visual expressions of an age.” He designed Palatino in 1950, Melior in 1952, and Optima in 1958.

    • A.

      Adrian Frutiger

    • B.

      Max Miedinger

    • C.

      Edouard Hoffman

    • D.

      Hermann Zapf

    Correct Answer
    D. Hermann Zapf
    Explanation
    Hermann Zapf, a native of Nuremberg, Germany, apprenticed as a photo retoucher and studied calligraphy. He became a freelance book designer and typographic designer, and at a young age, he designed his first typeface for Stempel foundry. Zapf had a deep understanding and appreciation for letterforms, which he expressed through his work as a calligrapher, typeface designer, typographer, and graphic designer. He believed that typeface design was a significant visual expression of an era. Some of his notable typefaces include Palatino, Melior, and Optima. Therefore, the correct answer is Hermann Zapf.

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  • 7. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} ___________ was a leading design theorist and practitioner in Zurich, Switzerland. He sought absolute and universal graphic expression through an objective and impersonal presentation, communicating to the audience without the interference of the designer’s subjective feelings or propagandistic techniques of persuasion, as in his 1960 public awareness poster “Weniger Lärm” (“Less Noise”). In his celebrated concert posters, like the “Musica Viva” concert poster of 1972, the language of constructivism created a visual equivalent to the structural harmony of the music to be performed. He worked extensively with mathematical grid structures. His 1960 exhibition poster “der Film” demonstrates the universal design harmony achieved by mathematical spatial division.

    • A.

      Josef Muller-Brockman

    • B.

      Armin Hofmann

    • C.

      Siegfried Odermatt

    • D.

      Rudolph de Harak

    Correct Answer
    A. Josef Muller-Brockman
    Explanation
    Josef Muller-Brockman was a leading design theorist and practitioner in Zurich, Switzerland. He believed in achieving absolute and universal graphic expression through objective and impersonal presentation. He aimed to communicate to the audience without the interference of the designer's subjective feelings or propagandistic techniques of persuasion. This can be seen in his public awareness poster "Weniger Lärm" ("Less Noise") and his concert posters, such as the "Musica Viva" concert poster of 1972. Muller-Brockman extensively used mathematical grid structures in his work, as demonstrated in his exhibition poster "der Film".

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  • 8. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The _____________has a three-to-five ratio. A rectangle with this ratio was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the most beautifully proportioned rectangle.

    • A.

      Tectonic element

    • B.

      Art concret

    • C.

      Golden mean

    • D.

      Manuale typographicum

    Correct Answer
    C. Golden mean
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the golden mean. The golden mean is a mathematical ratio of approximately 1.618:1, which is considered to be aesthetically pleasing and harmonious. The ancient Greeks believed that a rectangle with this ratio was the most beautifully proportioned. This ratio can be found in many natural and man-made objects, and it is often used in art and design to create visually appealing compositions.

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  • 9. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1950, Max Bill became involved in developing the graphic design program at the Institute of Design Institute in Ulm, Germany, which attempted to establish a center for research and training to address the design problems of the era. Otl Aicher, one of the Ulm cofounders, played an important role in establishing the graphic design program, and Anthony Froshaug set up the typography workshop. The curriculum included a study of __________: the general philosophical theory of signs and symbols.

    • A.

      Semantics

    • B.

      Pragmatics

    • C.

      Semiotics

    • D.

      Syntactics

    Correct Answer
    C. Semiotics
    Explanation
    The correct answer is semiotics. Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols and their interpretation. In the context of the graphic design program at the Institute of Design Institute in Ulm, Germany, studying semiotics would have been important in understanding how to effectively communicate through visual elements and design.

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  • 10. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Particularly innovative in photography, photomontage, and darkroom manipulation of images, visual pattern and form were explored in _____________’s close-up photographs of common objects, whose texture and detail were transformed into abstract images. Ideas about color and form from his paintings often found their way into his graphic designs; conversely, wide-ranging form experimentation in search of design solutions seems to have provided shapes and compositional ideas for his fine art. After the war, his work started to crystallize into what was to become his major contribution to graphic design: the creation of visual forms to communicate invisible processes and physical forces.

    • A.

      Otl Aicher

    • B.

      Anthony Froshaug

    • C.

      Richard Lohse

    • D.

      Anton Stankowski

    Correct Answer
    D. Anton Stankowski
    Explanation
    Anton Stankowski's close-up photographs of common objects transformed their texture and detail into abstract images, demonstrating his innovative approach to photography and darkroom manipulation. His exploration of visual pattern and form in photography and photomontage showcased his creativity in the medium. Additionally, Stankowski's graphic designs were influenced by his ideas about color and form from his paintings. On the other hand, his wide-ranging experimentation with form in graphic design provided inspiration for his fine art. After the war, Stankowski's work focused on creating visual forms that communicated invisible processes and physical forces, solidifying his major contribution to graphic design.

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  • 11. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In his work and in his teaching, __________ sought a dynamic harmony through which all the parts of a design were unified. He saw the relationship of contrasting elements as the means of breathing life into a visual design. These contrasts included light to dark, curved lines to straight lines, form to counterform, and dynamic to static. He began teaching at the Basel School of Design in 1947, after completing his education in Zurich, Switzerland, and working as a staff designer for several studios. At the same time he opened a design studio in collaboration with his wife. He applied a deep sense of aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. He evolved a design philosophy based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane. His work includes the logotype for the Stadt Theater Basel (Basel Civic Theater), 1954; the poster for the Basel Theater’s production of Giselle, 1959; and the trademark for the Swiss National Exhibition, Expo 1964.

    • A.

      Emil Ruder

    • B.

      Max Huber

    • C.

      Armin Hofmann

    • D.

      Josef Muller-Brockman

    Correct Answer
    C. Armin Hofmann
    Explanation
    Armin Hofmann is the correct answer because the passage describes his work and teaching philosophy. It mentions that he sought a dynamic harmony in design, emphasizing the relationship of contrasting elements. He taught at the Basel School of Design and opened a design studio with his wife. The passage also mentions his deep sense of aesthetic values and understanding of form, which aligns with his design philosophy based on the elemental graphic-form language. The examples of his work, such as the logotype for Basel Civic Theater and the trademark for Swiss National Exhibition, further support the identification of Armin Hofmann as the correct answer.

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  • 12. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1947, Armin Hofmann began teaching graphic design at the _____________, and together with Emil Ruder, he developed an educational model linked to the elementary design principles of the Vorkurs (Preliminary Course) established in 1908. The same year, he opened a design studio in collaboration with his wife, Dorothea, where he applied deep aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. As time passed, he evolved a design philosophy 163 based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane, replacing traditional pictorial ideas with a modernist aesthetic. In 1965, he published Graphic Design Manual, a book that presents his application of elemental design principles to graphic design.

    • A.

      Achool of Applied Art in Zurich, Switzerland

    • B.

      Institute of Design in Ulm, Germany

    • C.

      Basel School of Design in Basel, Switzerland

    Correct Answer
    C. Basel School of Design in Basel, Switzerland
  • 13. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Siegfried Odermatt played an important role in applying the International Typographic Style to the communications of business and industry. He combined a succinct, efficient presentation of information with a dynamic visual quality, using straightforward photography with drama and impact. Ordinary images were turned into convincing and engaging photographs through the careful use of cropping, scale, and lighting, with attention to shape and texture as qualities that cause an image to emerge from the page. In the early 1960s, _____________ joined Odermatt. They loosened the boundaries of the International Typographic Style and introduced elements of chance, the development of surprising and inventive forms, and intuitive visual organization into the vocabulary of graphic design. This phase of the studio’s development marked the beginning of a break with the traditions of Swiss design.

    • A.

      Emil Ruder

    • B.

      Karl Gerstner

    • C.

      Dietmar Winkler

    • D.

      Rosmarie Tissi

    Correct Answer
    D. Rosmarie Tissi
    Explanation
    Rosmarie Tissi is the correct answer because the passage states that in the early 1960s, Tissi joined Odermatt and they introduced elements of chance, surprising forms, and intuitive visual organization into graphic design. This marked a break with the traditions of Swiss design, indicating that Tissi played a significant role in pushing the boundaries and evolving the International Typographic Style.

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  • 14. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The Swiss style was embraced in American corporate and institutional graphics during the 1960s and remained a prominent aspect of American design for over two decades. A notable example was found in the graphic design office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In the early 1950s, MIT established a graphic design program enabling all members of the university community to benefit from free, professional design assistance on their publications and publicity materials. This was an early recognition of the cultural and communicative value of design by an American university. MIT based its graphic design program on a commitment to the grid and sans-serif typography. The staff was innovative in the use of designed letterforms, and manipulated words as vehicles to express content. This approach evolved in the work of ___________, the director of the Design Services Office. Letterforms became illustrations, for the design and arrangement of the letters in key words frequently became the dominant image, as in the 1974 poster for an MIT open house in which stencil letterforms announce the open house, and the open O does double duty as a concrete symbol of the opening of the campus to visitors.

    • A.

      Jacqueline Casey

    • B.

      Ralph Coburn

    • C.

      Dietmar Winkler

    • D.

      Rosmarie Tissi

    Correct Answer
    A. Jacqueline Casey
    Explanation
    Jacqueline Casey is the correct answer because the passage mentions that the director of the Design Services Office at MIT was innovative in the use of designed letterforms and manipulated words as vehicles to express content. This aligns with Jacqueline Casey's style, as she was known for her experimental use of typography and creating visual impact with words. Additionally, the passage mentions a specific example of a poster for an MIT open house where stencil letterforms were used, which is consistent with Casey's design approach.

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  • 15. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Although talented European immigrants who had fled totalitarianism in Europe introduced modern design in America during the 1940s, an original American approach to modernist design gained international prominence in the 1950s and continued as a dominant force in graphic design until the 1970s. An egalitarian society with capitalist values, limited artistic traditions before World War II, and a diverse ethnic heritage engendered an original approach to American modernist design. Where European design was often theoretical and highly structured, American design was pragmatic, intuitive, and less formal in its approach to organizing space. Emphasis was placed on the expression of _____________ and an open, direct presentation of information. Novelty of technique and originality of concept were much prized in this highly competitive society, and designers sought to solve communications problems while satisfying a need for personal expression.

    • A.

      Modernism

    • B.

      Ideas

    • C.

      Politics

    • D.

      Simultaneity

    Correct Answer
    B. Ideas
    Explanation
    The passage describes how an original American approach to modernist design emerged in the 1950s and continued until the 1970s. This approach was influenced by the country's egalitarian society, capitalist values, limited artistic traditions, and diverse ethnic heritage. Unlike European design, which was often theoretical and highly structured, American design was pragmatic, intuitive, and less formal. The passage also mentions that emphasis was placed on the expression of ideas and an open, direct presentation of information. Therefore, the correct answer is "ideas."

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  • 16. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Just as Paris had been receptive to new ideas and images during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, ____________ assumed that role during the middle of the twentieth century.

    • A.

      Berlin

    • B.

      London

    • C.

      New York City

    • D.

      Zurich

    Correct Answer
    C. New York City
    Explanation
    During the middle of the twentieth century, New York City assumed the role of being receptive to new ideas and images, much like Paris had been during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. New York City became a hub of cultural and artistic innovation, attracting artists, writers, musicians, and thinkers from around the world. The city's vibrant and diverse population, along with its thriving art scene and intellectual environment, made it a center for creativity and new ideas during this time period.

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  • 17. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} More than any other designer, ____________ initiated the American approach to modern design. He had an ability to manipulate visual form (i.e., shape, color, space, line, and value), and to skillfully analyze communications content, reducing it to a symbolic essence without making it sterile or dull. Visual contrasts marked his work: he played red against green, organic shape against geometric shape, photographic tone against flat color, cut or torn edges against 168 sharp forms, and the textural pattern of type against white margins. The cover design for Direction magazine shows the important role of visual and symbolic contrast in his designs. His 1946 book Thoughts on Design inspired a generation of designers. His collaborations with copywriter Bill Bernbach became a prototype for the now ubiquitous art/copy team at advertising agencies. The emphasis of his later work was on trademark and corporate design for such clients as IBM.

    • A.

      Alvin Lustig

    • B.

      Bradbury Thompson

    • C.

      Paul Rand

    • D.

      Saul Bass

    Correct Answer
    C. Paul Rand
    Explanation
    Paul Rand is the correct answer because the passage describes how he initiated the American approach to modern design and his ability to manipulate visual form and analyze communications content. It also mentions his collaborations with copywriter Bill Bernbach and his emphasis on trademark and corporate design for clients such as IBM. Additionally, his book "Thoughts on Design" is mentioned as an inspiration for a generation of designers.

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  • 18. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________ emerged as one of the most influential graphic designers in postwar America. His designs for Westvaco Inspirations, four-color publications demonstrating printing papers, made a significant impact. A thorough knowledge of printing and typesetting, combined with a penchant for adventurous experimentation, allowed him to expand the range of design possibilities. He discovered and explored the potential of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century engravings as design resources. Large, bold, organic and geometric shapes were used to bring graphic and symbolic power to the page. Letterforms and patterns, such as the details from halftone reproductions, were often enlarged and used as design elements or to create visual patterns and movements. During the 1960s and 1970s, he turned increasingly to a classical approach to book and editorial format design. Readability, formal harmony, and a sensitive use of old style typefaces marked his work for periodicals such as Smithsonian and ARTnews.

    • A.

      Alvin Lustig

    • B.

      Bradbury Thompson

    • C.

      Paul Rand

    • D.

      Saul Bass

    Correct Answer
    B. Bradbury Thompson
    Explanation
    Bradbury Thompson emerged as one of the most influential graphic designers in postwar America. His designs for Westvaco Inspirations, four-color publications demonstrating printing papers, made a significant impact. He had a thorough knowledge of printing and typesetting and combined it with adventurous experimentation, expanding the range of design possibilities. He discovered and explored the potential of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century engravings as design resources, using large, bold, organic, and geometric shapes to bring graphic and symbolic power to the page. In the 1960s and 1970s, he shifted towards a classical approach to book and editorial format design, focusing on readability, formal harmony, and a sensitive use of old-style typefaces. His work for periodicals like Smithsonian and ARTnews showcased these design principles.

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  • 19. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} ____________ brought the sensibilities of the New York School to Los Angeles in 1950. He frequently reduced his graphic designs to a single dominant image, often centered in the space. The simplicity and directness of his work allowed the viewer to interpret the content immediately. He had a remarkable ability to identify the nucleus of a design problem and to express it with images that became glyphs, or elemental pictorial signs, which exerted great graphic power. The 1955 design program for Otto Preminger’s film The Man with the Golden Arm was the first comprehensive design program unifying both print and media graphics for a movie. In addition to his film work, he created numerous corporateidentity programs, such as AT&T’s, the Girl Scouts’, and United Airlines’.

    • A.

      Paul Rand

    • B.

      Saul Bass

    • C.

      Alvin Lustig

    • D.

      Brabury Thompson

    Correct Answer
    B. Saul Bass
    Explanation
    Saul Bass is the correct answer because he brought the sensibilities of the New York School to Los Angeles in 1950. He was known for reducing his graphic designs to a single dominant image and his ability to express the nucleus of a design problem with elemental pictorial signs. He was also the first to create a comprehensive design program for a movie, The Man with the Golden Arm, which unified both print and media graphics. In addition to his film work, he also created corporate identity programs for various companies.

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  • 20. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1940s, only a moderate number of American magazines were designed well. These included Fortune, Harper’s Bazaar, and Vogue. An art director’s assistant at Vogue during the 1930s, ____________ made a major contribution to editorial design during the 1940s and 1950s, first as the art director at Glamour, then at Seventeen, Charm, and Mademoiselle. Her publication designs were characterized by a lyrical appreciation of color, pattern, and form. She became the first woman admitted to membership in the New York Art Director’s Club. On a cover for Seventeen she designed in 1949, stripe patterns and a mirror-image reflection achieved a graphic vitality.

    • A.

      Rosmarie Tissi

    • B.

      Jaqueline Casey

    • C.

      Cipe Pineles

    • D.

      Bea Feitler

    Correct Answer
    C. Cipe Pineles
    Explanation
    Cipe Pineles is the correct answer because the passage mentions that she was an art director's assistant at Vogue during the 1930s and made a major contribution to editorial design during the 1940s and 1950s. It also states that her publication designs were characterized by a lyrical appreciation of color, pattern, and form. Additionally, it mentions that she became the first woman admitted to membership in the New York Art Director's Club, showcasing her significance in the field of design.

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  • 21. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The initial contribution of Brownjohn, Chermayeff, and Geismar to American graphic design sprang from a strong aesthetic background and an understanding of the major ideas of European modern art, which had been reinforced by their contacts with architect-teacher Serge Chermayeff, Ivan Chermayeff’s father; László Moholy-Nagy, with whom Brownjohn had studied painting and design; and Alvin Lustig, for whom Ivan Chermayeff had worked as an assistant. Solutions grew out of the needs of the client, and design problems were characterized by inventive and symbolic manipulation of imagery and forms, including letterforms and typography. Images and symbols were combined with a surreal sense of dislocation to convey the essence of the subject on posters and book jackets, such as the cover of Bertrand Russell’s Common Sense and Nuclear Warfare, on which the atomic blast became a visual metaphor for the brain. In 1960, Brownjohn left the partnership and moved to England, where he made significant contributions to British graphic design, especially in the area of film titles, such as for the motion picture Goldfinger. The firm then changed its name to Chermayeff & Geismar Associates and played a major role in the development of _____________.

    • A.

      Furniture design

    • B.

      Corporate identity

    • C.

      Advertising

    • D.

      Packaging

    Correct Answer
    B. Corporate identity
    Explanation
    The correct answer is corporate identity. The passage mentions that the design firm, after Brownjohn left, changed its name to Chermayeff & Geismar Associates and played a major role in the development of corporate identity. This suggests that the firm focused on creating visual identities for companies, including logos, branding, and overall design aesthetics.

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  • 22. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Many of the pioneers of the New York School were either guest lecturers or served on the faculty of _____________’s graphic design program under the direction of Alvin Eisenman and later Sheila de Bretteville, the current director. This program has contributed to the advancement of graphic design and design education throughout the world, as many of its alumni have become prominent designers and educators; the first among them to receive an MFA after Josef Spelling Albers restructured the program was Norman Ives.

    • A.

      New York University

    • B.

      The Chicago Art Institute

    • C.

      The School of Visual Arts

    • D.

      Yale University

    Correct Answer
    D. Yale University
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Yale University because the passage mentions that many of the pioneers of the New York School were either guest lecturers or served on the faculty of a graphic design program. It also states that the program has contributed to the advancement of graphic design and design education, and that alumni from the program have become prominent designers and educators. The passage then specifically mentions Norman Ives as the first person to receive an MFA after Josef Albers restructured the program, indicating that Yale University is the correct answer.

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  • 23. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Over the course of the 1950s, a revolution in editorial design occurred, and editorial design experienced one of its greatest eras. In 1953, ____________ was named the art director of McCall’s magazine and in 1958 was given a free hand to upgrade the graphics; an astounding visual approach subsequently developed. Typography was unified with photography by designing the type to lock tightly into the photographic image. Type was warped and bent, or became the illustration. He ranks among the major innovators of the period. His philosophy that idea, copy, art, and typography should be inseparable in editorial design influenced both editorial and advertising graphics.

    • A.

      Henry Wolf

    • B.

      Otto Storch

    Correct Answer
    B. Otto Storch
    Explanation
    Otto Storch was named the art director of McCall's magazine in 1953 and was given the freedom to upgrade the graphics in 1958. As a result, he developed an astounding visual approach in editorial design. Storch unified typography with photography by designing the type to tightly lock into the photographic image. He also experimented with warping and bending the type or using it as an illustration. Storch's philosophy that idea, copy, art, and typography should be inseparable greatly influenced both editorial and advertising graphics during this period.

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  • 24. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1953, Vienna-born ________________ became the art director of Esquire, and in 1958 he became art director of Harper’s Bazaar. He sought to make the magazines he designed visually beautiful. He experimented with typography, making it large enough to fill the page on one spread and then using petite headlines on other pages. His vision of the magazine cover was an exquisitely simple image conveying a visual idea. The sophistication and inventiveness of photography commissioned by Harper's Bazaar during his tenure were extraordinary.

    • A.

      Henry Wolf

    • B.

      Otto Storch

    Correct Answer
    A. Henry Wolf
    Explanation
    Henry Wolf is the correct answer for this question because the passage states that he became the art director of Esquire in 1953 and then became art director of Harper's Bazaar in 1958. It also mentions that he sought to make the magazines visually beautiful and experimented with typography. The passage further describes the sophistication and inventiveness of photography commissioned by Harper's Bazaar during his time as art director.

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  • 25. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} During the 1960s in America, a new, smaller-format breed of periodicals emerged and thrived by addressing the interests of specialized audiences. The new editorial climate, with more emphasis on content, longer articles, and less opportunity for lavish visual treatment, necessitated a new approach to editorial design. Layout became more controlled, and the use of a consistent typographic 171 format and grid became the norm. Among the magazines listed below, which one became the journal of record for public opposition to the Vietnam War and for a host of other social and environmental issues? The art director, Dugald Stermer, did not commission images to illustrate the articles and topics; he used images as a separate communication to provide “information, direction, and purpose” distinct from the printed word. One cover of this magazine depicted four hands burning facsimile draft cards of Stermer and the three editors. ______________

    • A.

      New York

    • B.

      Ms.

    • C.

      Ramparts

    • D.

      Rolling Stone

    Correct Answer
    C. Ramparts
    Explanation
    Ramparts became the journal of record for public opposition to the Vietnam War and for a host of other social and environmental issues. The magazine's art director, Dugald Stermer, used images as a separate communication to provide "information, direction, and purpose" distinct from the printed word. This approach, along with the magazine's focus on content and longer articles, aligned with the new editorial climate of the 1960s and made Ramparts a leading publication in addressing the interests of specialized audiences.

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  • 26. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The 1940s were a lackluster decade for advertising. On June 1, 1949, a new advertising agency opened its doors at 350 Madison Avenue in New York City. For each campaign, this agency developed strategy surrounding any important advantage, useful difference, or superior feature of the product. It combined words and images in a new way and established a synergistic relationship between visual and verbal components. It evolved the visual/verbal syntax: word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent. One of its most memorable ad campaigns was for Volkswagen, in which “strange little cars with their beetle shapes” were marketed to a public used to luxury and high horsepower as status symbols. What is the name of the agency? ___________

    • A.

      Pentagram

    • B.

      George Nelson & Associates

    • C.

      Brownjohn, Chermayeff & Geismar

    • D.

      Doyle Dane Bembach

    Correct Answer
    D. Doyle Dane Bembach
    Explanation
    Doyle Dane Bembach is the correct answer because the passage mentions that a new advertising agency opened in 1949 and developed innovative strategies for advertising campaigns. It also mentions that one of its most memorable campaigns was for Volkswagen, which matches the description of Doyle Dane Bembach's famous "Think Small" campaign for Volkswagen in the 1950s.

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  • 27. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In the 1950s and 1960s, a playful direction called ____________ emerged among New York graphic designers. Letterforms became objects; objects became letterforms. Gene Federico was one of the first graphic designers who delighted in using letterforms as images, as shown in this 1953 double-page advertisement from the New Yorker magazine, in which the perfectly round Os of Futura form bicycle wheels.

    • A.

      The International Typographic Style

    • B.

      New wave

    • C.

      Figurative typography

    • D.

      Typogram

    Correct Answer
    C. Figurative typography
    Explanation
    In the 1950s and 1960s, a playful direction called figurative typography emerged among New York graphic designers. This involved using letterforms as images, blurring the line between letters and objects. Gene Federico was one of the first designers to embrace this style, as seen in the 1953 advertisement where the round Os of the Futura font are used as bicycle wheels. This style allowed for a creative and visually engaging approach to graphic design.

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  • 28. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Hailed as the typographic genius of his time (1918–1981), ____________’s achievements included advertising and editorial design, trademark and typeface design, posters, and packaging. He abandoned traditional typographic rules and practice and looked at the characters of the alphabet as both visual forms and a means of communication. Words and letters could become images; images could become a word or a letter. He practiced design as a means of giving visual form to a concept or message, as in the proposed logo for Mother and Child magazine, in which the ampersand enfolds and protects the “child” in a visual metaphor for motherly love. Among his typeface designs is Avant Garde. He was also the design director for International Typeface Corporation’s tabloid-size journal known as U&lc.

    • A.

      George Lois

    • B.

      Mike Salisbury

    • C.

      Herb Lubalin

    Correct Answer
    C. Herb Lubalin
    Explanation
    Herb Lubalin is the correct answer because the given description matches his achievements and design philosophy. Lubalin was known for his innovative approach to typography and his ability to transform words and letters into visual forms. He was a pioneer in breaking traditional typographic rules and his designs often incorporated visual metaphors and unconventional layouts. Lubalin's notable works include the Avant Garde typeface and his role as the design director for International Typeface Corporation's journal, U&lc. Therefore, based on the information provided, Herb Lubalin is the most suitable answer.

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  • 29. 

    Phototypography

    • A.

      The Bernbach approach—word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent— evolved during the 1950s and 1960s by Bill Bernbach at the New York advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach.

    • B.

      A playful direction taken by New York graphic designers during the 1950s and 1960s spearheaded by Gene Frederico, which took many forms. Letterforms sometimes became images, such as the wheels in the Frederico’s ad for Woman’s Day. Sometimes, the visual properties of words themselves, or their organization in space, were used to express an idea, such as in Don Egensteiner’s “Tonnage” advertisement, in which the visual form of the word takes on a connotative meaning.

    • C.

      The setting of type by exposing negatives of alphabet characters to photographic paper dawned in 1925 with the public announcement of the Thothmic photographic composing machine invented by E. K. Hunter and J. R. C. August of London. A keyboard produced a punched tape to control a long, opaque master film with transparent letterforms. As a given letter moved into position in front of a lens, it was exposed to photographic paper by a beam of light.

    • D.

      A brief, visual typographic form in which concept and visual form are merged into a oneness.

    Correct Answer
    C. The setting of type by exposing negatives of alphabet characters to photographic paper dawned in 1925 with the public announcement of the Thothmic photographic composing machine invented by E. K. Hunter and J. R. C. August of London. A keyboard produced a punched tape to control a long, opaque master film with transparent letterforms. As a given letter moved into position in front of a lens, it was exposed to photographic paper by a beam of light.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains the process of phototypography, which involves setting type by exposing negatives of alphabet characters to photographic paper. This process was first introduced in 1925 with the invention of the Thothmic photographic composing machine. The machine used a keyboard to control a master film with transparent letterforms, and as each letter moved into position in front of a lens, it was exposed to photographic paper using a beam of light. This process allowed for the merging of concept and visual form in a brief, visual typographic form.

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  • 30. 

    Visual/verbal syntax

    • A.

      The Bernbach approach—word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent— evolved during the 1950s and 1960s by Bill Bernbach at the New York advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach.

    • B.

      A playful direction taken by New York graphic designers during the 1950s and 1960s spearheaded by Gene Frederico, which took many forms. Letterforms sometimes became images, such as the wheels in the Frederico’s ad for Woman’s Day. Sometimes, the visual properties of words themselves, or their organization in space, were used to express an idea, such as in Don Egensteiner’s “Tonnage” advertisement, in which the visual form of the word takes on a connotative meaning.

    • C.

      The setting of type by exposing negatives of alphabet characters to photographic paper dawned in 1925 with the public announcement of the Thothmic photographic composing machine invented by E. K. Hunter and J. R. C. August of London. A keyboard produced a punched tape to control a long, opaque master film with transparent letterforms. As a given letter moved into position in front of a lens, it was exposed to photographic paper by a beam of light.

    • D.

      A brief, visual typographic form in which concept and visual form are merged into a oneness.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Bernbach approach—word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent— evolved during the 1950s and 1960s by Bill Bernbach at the New York advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach.
    Explanation
    During the 1950s and 1960s, Bill Bernbach developed the Bernbach approach at the New York advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach. This approach involved merging words and images together to create a conceptual expression of an idea. The goal was to make the word and image completely interdependent, so that they relied on each other to convey the intended message. This approach was a departure from traditional advertising methods and allowed for more creative and playful designs, where letterforms could become images or the visual properties of words themselves could be used to express an idea.

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  • 31. 

    Figurative typography

    • A.

      The Bernbach approach—word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent— evolved during the 1950s and 1960s by Bill Bernbach at the New York advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach.

    • B.

      A playful direction taken by New York graphic designers during the 1950s and 1960s spearheaded by Gene Frederico, which took many forms. Letterforms sometimes became images, such as the wheels in the Frederico’s ad for Woman’s Day. Sometimes, the visual properties of words themselves, or their organization in space, were used to express an idea, such as in Don Egensteiner’s “Tonnage” advertisement, in which the visual form of the word takes on a connotative meaning.

    • C.

      The setting of type by exposing negatives of alphabet characters to photographic paper dawned in 1925 with the public announcement of the Thothmic photographic composing machine invented by E. K. Hunter and J. R. C. August of London. A keyboard produced a punched tape to control a long, opaque master film with transparent letterforms. As a given letter moved into position in front of a lens, it was exposed to photographic paper by a beam of light.

    • D.

      A brief, visual typographic form in which concept and visual form are merged into a oneness.

    Correct Answer
    B. A playful direction taken by New York graphic designers during the 1950s and 1960s spearheaded by Gene Frederico, which took many forms. Letterforms sometimes became images, such as the wheels in the Frederico’s ad for Woman’s Day. Sometimes, the visual properties of words themselves, or their organization in space, were used to express an idea, such as in Don Egensteiner’s “Tonnage” advertisement, in which the visual form of the word takes on a connotative meaning.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that figurative typography is a playful direction taken by New York graphic designers during the 1950s and 1960s. It was spearheaded by Gene Frederico and took many forms. Sometimes, letterforms would become images, like the wheels in Frederico's ad for Woman's Day. Other times, the visual properties of words themselves or their organization in space would be used to express an idea, as seen in Don Egensteiner's "Tonnage" advertisement, where the visual form of the word takes on a connotative meaning. This approach merged concept and visual form into a oneness.

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  • 32. 

    Typogram

    • A.

      The Bernbach approach—word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent— evolved during the 1950s and 1960s by Bill Bernbach at the New York advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach.

    • B.

      A playful direction taken by New York graphic designers during the 1950s and 1960s spearheaded by Gene Frederico, which took many forms. Letterforms sometimes became images, such as the wheels in the Frederico’s ad for Woman’s Day. Sometimes, the visual properties of words themselves, or their organization in space, were used to express an idea, such as in Don Egensteiner’s “Tonnage” advertisement, in which the visual form of the word takes on a connotative meaning.

    • C.

      The setting of type by exposing negatives of alphabet characters to photographic paper dawned in 1925 with the public announcement of the Thothmic photographic composing machine invented by E. K. Hunter and J. R. C. August of London. A keyboard produced a punched tape to control a long, opaque master film with transparent letterforms. As a given letter moved into position in front of a lens, it was exposed to photographic paper by a beam of light.

    • D.

      A brief, visual typographic form in which concept and visual form are merged into a oneness.

    Correct Answer
    D. A brief, visual typographic form in which concept and visual form are merged into a oneness.
    Explanation
    The correct answer describes a typogram as a brief, visual typographic form where the concept and visual form are merged into a oneness. This means that in a typogram, the visual design of the typography is used to convey and enhance the meaning or concept of the message being communicated. It involves the fusion of word and image, where the letterforms themselves may become images or the arrangement of words in space is used to express an idea. This approach was developed by Bill Bernbach in the 1950s and 1960s and was further explored by New York graphic designers like Gene Frederico and Don Egensteiner.

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  • 33. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} After World War II, the technological advances made during the war were applied to the production of _____________.

    • A.

      Military tanks

    • B.

      Bombs

    • C.

      Military airplanes

    • D.

      Consumer goods

    Correct Answer
    D. Consumer goods
    Explanation
    After World War II, the technological advances made during the war were applied to the production of consumer goods. This is because the war had resulted in significant advancements in manufacturing processes, materials, and technologies, which could be utilized to improve the production of everyday products for civilian use. This led to a post-war boom in consumer goods, as industries adapted their capabilities to meet the growing demand for household items, appliances, and other products.

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  • 34. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _______________ was the rallying cry within the graphic design community during the 1950s, and more perceptive corporate leaders understood the need to develop corporate design programs to help shape their companies’ reputations for quality and reliability.

    • A.

      "Design for all."

    • B.

      "Good design is good business."

    • C.

      "We start by designing the price."

    Correct Answer
    B. "Good design is good business."
    Explanation
    During the 1950s, the graphic design community had a rallying cry, which was "Good design is good business." This statement emphasizes the importance of design in shaping a company's reputation for quality and reliability. It suggests that investing in well-designed products, branding, and marketing materials can have a positive impact on a company's success and profitability. This rallying cry reflects the understanding of perceptive corporate leaders who recognized the value of corporate design programs in achieving business goals.

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  • 35. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The visual identification systems during the 1950s went beyond_____________ , which had been in use since the medieval guilds, to produce consistent design systems that projected a cohesive image for corporations with expanding national and multinational presences.

    • A.

      Ideographs

    • B.

      Logotypes

    • C.

      Trademarks

    • D.

      Pictographs

    Correct Answer
    C. Trademarks
    Explanation
    During the 1950s, visual identification systems evolved from the traditional use of trademarks, which had been used since medieval guilds. These systems aimed to create consistent design systems that projected a cohesive image for corporations with national and multinational presence.

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  • 36. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} William Golden designed one of the most successful trademarks of the twentieth century for ____________. Two circles and two arcs form a pictographic eye. When the pictographic eye first appeared, it was superimposed over a cloudfilled sky and projected an almost surreal sense of an eye in a sky. The effectiveness of the symbol demonstrated to the larger management community 178 how a contemporary graphic mark could compete successfully with more traditional illustrative or alphabetic trademarks.

    • A.

      CBS

    • B.

      CBS Television Network

    • C.

      Columbia Broadcasting System

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The question asks for the correct answer to the question "William Golden designed one of the most successful trademarks of the twentieth century for ____________." The correct answer is "All of the above" because William Golden designed the trademark for CBS, CBS Television Network, and Columbia Broadcasting System. The explanation provides information about the design of the trademark and how it demonstrated the effectiveness of a contemporary graphic mark.

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  • 37. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Early black-and-white television was incapable of differentiating between subtle color and tonal contrasts, and television sets often markedly cropped the edges of the signal. Two-dimensional titles were only on the air for a few seconds, requiring rapid viewer comprehension. To overcome these problems, _____________ designed on-air graphics from the center out, using simple symbolic imagery with strong silhouettes and linear properties. Emphasis was placed on concepts that quickly captured the essence of each program, using the connotative power of simple signs, symbols, and images, such as the zippered mouth (Fig. 20-6) that becomes an immediate and unequivocal symbolic statement for the television program I’ve Got a Secret. This designer was the grandson of a slave from a northern Kentucky plantation and the first African American to achieve prominence as a graphic designer.

    • A.

      Lou Dorfsman

    • B.

      Giovanni Pintori

    • C.

      Georg Olden

    • D.

      William Golden

    Correct Answer
    C. Georg Olden
    Explanation
    Georg Olden is the correct answer because the explanation states that he designed on-air graphics for early black-and-white television to overcome the limitations of the technology. He used simple symbolic imagery with strong silhouettes and linear properties to quickly capture the essence of each program. The explanation also mentions that Georg Olden was the first African American to achieve prominence as a graphic designer, providing additional context and information about his significance.

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  • 38. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________ became the art director for CBS Radio in 1946; in 1954 he was named the director of advertising and promotion for the CBS Radio Network. After William Golden’s sudden death at age forty-eight, he became the creative director of CBS Television. He was named director of design for the entire CBS Corporation in 1964 and vice president in 1968, in keeping with CBS President Frank Stanton’s philosophy that design is a vital area that should be managed by a professional.

    • A.

      Lou Dorfsman

    • B.

      Eero Saarinen

    • C.

      Georg Olden

    • D.

      Reynolds Ruffin

    Correct Answer
    A. Lou Dorfsman
    Explanation
    Lou Dorfsman is the correct answer because the passage states that he became the art director for CBS Radio in 1946 and later held various positions within the CBS Corporation, including creative director of CBS Television and director of design for the entire company. This information aligns with the statement in the passage about his career progression and his role within CBS.

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  • 39. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Who designed the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad trademark in 1954? The design included a geometric slab-serif capital N above an H, and a red, black, and white color scheme.

    • A.

      Herbert Matter

    • B.

      Norman Ives

    • C.

      Paul Rand

    • D.

      Chermayeff & Geismar

    Correct Answer
    A. Herbert Matter
    Explanation
    Herbert Matter is the correct answer because he designed the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad trademark in 1954. The design featured a geometric slab-serif capital N above an H, and a red, black, and white color scheme.

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  • 40. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica} “A symbol is an image of a company, an institution or an idea that should convey with a clear statement, or by suggestion, the activity it represents…. The symbol, besides being memorable and legible, must be designed so that it can be used in many sizes and situations without losing its identity. The designer must distort, unify, and create a new form for the letter, so that it is unique, and yet has the necessary attributes of the letter for recognition. There is no part of a symbol that can be eliminated without destroying the image it creates. It is a true gestalt, in which the psychological effect of the total image is greater than the sum of its parts would indicate….” Who said this in 1960 about the designer’s mission in logo design?

    • A.

      Herbert Matter

    • B.

      Norman Ives

    • C.

      Paul Rand

    • D.

      Chermayeff & Geismar

    Correct Answer
    B. Norman Ives
  • 41. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The trademark for International Business Machines (IBM) was developed from an infrequently used typeface called City Medium, designed by Georg Trump in 1930. City Medium is a geometric slab-serif typeface. The slab serifs and square negative spaces in the B lent the trademark unity and distinction. In the 1970s, the IBM corporate trademark was updated by introducing stripes to unify the three letterforms and evoke scan lines on video terminals. Who designed this powerful logo? ___________

    • A.

      Herbert Matter

    • B.

      Norman Ives

    • C.

      Paul Rand

    • D.

      Chermayeff & Geismar

    Correct Answer
    C. Paul Rand
    Explanation
    Paul Rand designed the powerful logo for IBM. The logo was updated in the 1970s to introduce stripes that unified the three letterforms and evoked scan lines on video terminals. Paul Rand is a renowned graphic designer known for his iconic logo designs, and he was responsible for creating the updated IBM logo.

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  • 42. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Which designer designed the trademarks for the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and Westinghouse? ________

    • A.

      Herbert Matter

    • B.

      Norman Ives

    • C.

      Paul Rand

    • D.

      Chermayeff & Geismar

    Correct Answer
    C. Paul Rand
    Explanation
    Paul Rand is the correct answer because he was a renowned graphic designer who designed the trademarks for the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and Westinghouse. He was known for his clean, modern, and iconic designs, and his work had a significant impact on the field of graphic design.

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  • 43. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Chermayeff & Geismar Associates moved to the forefront of the corporate identity movement in 1960 with a comprehensive visual image program for _____________. The logo was composed of four geometric wedges rotating around a central square to form an external octagon. It was an abstract form unto itself, free from alphabetic, pictographic, or figurative connotations. Although it had overtones of security or protection because four elements confined the square, it proved a completely abstract form could successfully function as a large organization’s visual identifier.

    • A.

      NeXT

    • B.

      The International Paper Company

    • C.

      Minolta

    • D.

      Chase Manhattan Bank of New York

    Correct Answer
    D. Chase Manhattan Bank of New York
    Explanation
    Chermayeff & Geismar Associates created a visual image program for the Chase Manhattan Bank of New York in 1960. The logo they designed consisted of four geometric wedges rotating around a central square to form an external octagon. This abstract form did not have any specific meaning or representation, but it successfully served as the visual identifier for a large organization like the bank. The logo gave a sense of security and protection with the four elements confining the square, making it an effective corporate identity for the Chase Manhattan Bank.

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  • 44. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________’s mastery of elemental form can be seen in the iconic and widely imitated trademarks produced by his firm. He believed a trademark must be readily understood yet possess elements of metaphor and ambiguity that will attract the viewer again and again. Many of his trademarks became important cultural icons. Within two years after he redesigned the Bell Telephone System bell trademark, public recognition of the symbol rose from 71 to more than 90 percent. After the AT&T long-distance telephone network was split from the local Bell system telephone companies in 1984, he designed a new mark to reposition the firm as “a global communications company” rather than “the national telephone system.” This concept was expressed through a computer graphics animation with information bits circling a globe, which became the identification tag for AT&T television commercials.

    • A.

      Ivan Chermayeff

    • B.

      Saul Bass

    • C.

      Lester Beall

    • D.

      Paul Rand

    Correct Answer
    B. Saul Bass
    Explanation
    Saul Bass is the correct answer because the passage describes how the person's mastery of elemental form can be seen in the iconic and widely imitated trademarks produced by his firm. It also mentions that he believed a trademark should be readily understood yet possess elements of metaphor and ambiguity, which aligns with Saul Bass's design philosophy. Additionally, the passage mentions specific examples of trademarks that he designed, such as the Bell Telephone System bell trademark and the new mark for AT&T.

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  • 45. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} _____________, an international design firm, was founded in Chicago by a group of partners including Ralph Eckerstrom, James K. Fogleman, and Massimo Vignelli. The firm rejected individualistic design, believing that design could be a system: a basic structure set up so that other people could implement it effectively. The basic tool for this effort was the grid, which standardized all graphic communications for dozens of large clients, including Alcoa, Ford Motor Company, JCPenney, Memorex, Panasonic, Steelcase, and Xerox. Helvetica was the preferred typeface for all their visual identity systems, as it was considered the most legible type family. Objectivity was the firm’s goal, and it 181 spread a generic conformity across the face of multinational corporate communications. The design programs that it created were rational and so rigorously systemized that they became virtually foolproof as long as the standards were maintained.

    • A.

      Vignelli Associates

    • B.

      Unimark

    • C.

      Chermayeff & Geismar Associates

    • D.

      Saul Bass & Associates

    Correct Answer
    B. Unimark
    Explanation
    Unimark is the correct answer because the passage states that an international design firm, founded by a group of partners including Ralph Eckerstrom, James K. Fogleman, and Massimo Vignelli, rejected individualistic design and believed in creating a system for design. They used the grid as a basic tool and standardized graphic communications for large clients. The passage does not mention any of the other design firms listed as options.

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  • 46. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In May 1974, the U.S. government initiated the Federal Design Improvement Program in response to a growing awareness of design as an effective tool for achieving objectives. All aspects of federal design, including architecture, interior space planning, landscaping, and graphic design were upgraded under the program. The Graphics Improvement Program set out to improve the quality of visual communications and the ability of governmental agencies to communicate effectively to citizens. One of the most successful federal visual identification systems was the Unigrid system, developed in 1977 for the _______________. The Unigrid unified the hundreds of informational folders used at about 350 different locations. The standardized format of the Unigrid enabled the publications staff to focus on achieving excellence in the development and presentation of pictorial and typographic information.

    • A.

      U.S. Internal Revenue Service

    • B.

      U.S. Department of Transportation

    • C.

      U.S. National Park Service

    • D.

      U.S. Department of Labor

    Correct Answer
    C. U.S. National Park Service
    Explanation
    The correct answer is U.S. National Park Service. The passage states that the Unigrid system was developed to unify the hundreds of informational folders used at about 350 different locations. This suggests that the Unigrid system was implemented by an organization that had multiple locations and needed a standardized format for their informational materials. The U.S. National Park Service fits this description as they have numerous national parks and visitor centers across the country.

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  • 47. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} In 1974, the U.S. Department of Transportation commissioned ____________ to create a master set of thirty-four passenger- and pedestrian-oriented symbols for use in transportation facilities. This effort represented an important first step toward the goal of unified and effective graphic communications transcending cultural and linguistic barriers in a shrinking world. A 225-page book published by the Department of Transportation provides invaluable information about the design and evaluation process used to arrive at this system.

    • A.

      The American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA)

    • B.

      Vignelli Associates

    • C.

      John Massey

    • D.

      Chermayeff & Geismar Associates

    Correct Answer
    A. The American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA)
    Explanation
    In 1974, the U.S. Department of Transportation commissioned the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) to create a master set of symbols for use in transportation facilities. This initiative aimed to establish a standardized and effective graphic communication system that could be universally understood, transcending cultural and linguistic barriers. The AIGA's involvement in this project suggests their expertise and reputation in the field of graphic design, making them a suitable choice for this commission.

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  • 48. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} By the late 1960s, the concept of comprehensive design systems had become a reality. Planners realized that comprehensive planning for large organizations and events was not only functional and desirable but actually necessary if large numbers of people were to be accommodated. This was particularly true for international events, including world’s fairs and Olympic Games, for which international and multilingual audiences had to be directed and informed. Among many outstanding efforts to develop comprehensive design systems for the Olympic Games, three of the following were cited in Chapter 20 as milestones in the evolution of graphic systems. Which one does NOT belong? ____________

    • A.

      The 1968 Mexico City Nineteenth Olympiad

    • B.

      The 1972 Munich Twentieth Olympiad

    • C.

      The 1980 Moscow Twenty-second Olympiad

    • D.

      The 1984 Los Angeles Twenty-third Olympiad

    Correct Answer
    C. The 1980 Moscow Twenty-second Olympiad
    Explanation
    The 1980 Moscow Twenty-second Olympiad does not belong because it is not mentioned as one of the milestones in the evolution of graphic systems for the Olympic Games in Chapter 20.

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  • 49. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} The concept of a logo with a constantly changing persona is contrary to the widely held belief that trademarks and visual identifiers should be absolutely fixed and used in a consistent manner. The _____________ logo changed the face, the idea, and the speed of graphic design; it played a major role in redefining visual identity in the electronic age. This logo anticipated the kinetic world of motion graphics soon to explode as cable television, video games, and computer graphics expanded the variety and range of kinetic graphic messages.

    • A.

      1984 Los Angeles Olympiad “Star-in-Motion”

    • B.

      U.S. Department of Labor “Striped Ls”

    • C.

      Lufthansa Airlines

    • D.

      Music Television (MTV)

    Correct Answer
    D. Music Television (MTV)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Music Television (MTV). The passage mentions that the logo changed the face, idea, and speed of graphic design, and played a major role in redefining visual identity in the electronic age. It also mentions that the logo anticipated the kinetic world of motion graphics, which aligns with MTV's use of dynamic and constantly changing visuals in their branding. Additionally, MTV's logo is widely recognized and associated with the cable television and music industry, making it the most fitting choice among the options given.

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  • 50. 

    p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Arial} Music Television (MTV), a round-the-clock music television station, first went on the air in 1981 at a time when music videos had not yet reached their peak as a creative medium. ___________, a New York City studio noted for its independence and risk-taking experimentation, especially for music-industry clients, was commissioned to design the logo.

    • A.

      Vignelli Associates

    • B.

      Chermayeff & Geismar Associates

    • C.

      Manhattan Design

    • D.

      John Jerde Partnership

    Correct Answer
    C. Manhattan Design
    Explanation
    Manhattan Design was commissioned to design the logo for MTV because they were known for their independence and risk-taking experimentation, which made them a suitable choice for a creative medium like music videos.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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