Heredity And Environment Unit Exam

35 Questions | Total Attempts: 703

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    In the male, the twenty-third pair of chromosomes is designated_______; in the female, this pair is designated_______.
    • A. 

      XX; XY

    • B. 

      XY; XX

    • C. 

      XO; XXY

    • D. 

      XXY; XO

  • 2. 
    When a zygote splits, the two identical, independent clusters that develop become:
    • A. 

      Dizygotic twins

    • B. 

      Monzygotic twins

    • C. 

      Fraternal twins

    • D. 

      Trizygotic twins

  • 3. 
    In scientific research, the best way to separate the effects of genes and the environment is to study:
    • A. 

      Dizygotic twins

    • B. 

      Adopted children and their biological parents

    • C. 

      Adopted children and their adoptive parents

    • D. 

      Monozygotic twins raised in different environments

  • 4. 
    Most of the known genetic disorders are:
    • A. 

      Dominant

    • B. 

      Recessive

    • C. 

      Seriously disabling

    • D. 

      Sex-linked

  • 5. 
    Genes are segments of molecules of:
    • A. 

      Genotype

    • B. 

      Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

    • C. 

      Karyotype

    • D. 

      Phenotype

  • 6. 
    The potential for genetic diversity is humans is so great because:
    • A. 

      There are approximately 8 million possible combinations of chromosomes

    • B. 

      When the sperm and ovum unite, genetic combinations not present in either parent can be formed

    • C. 

      Just before a chromosome pair divides during the formation of gametes, genes cross over, producing recombinations

    • D. 

      All of the above reasons

  • 7. 
    Polygenic complexity is most apparent in _______ characteristics.
    • A. 

      Physical

    • B. 

      Psychological

    • C. 

      Recessive gene

    • D. 

      Dominant gene

  • 8. 
    Babies born with trisomy-21 (Down syndrome) are often
    • A. 

      Born to older parents

    • B. 

      Unusually aggressive

    • C. 

      Abnormally tall by adolescence

    • D. 

      Blind

  • 9. 
    Some genetic diseases are recessive, so the child cannot inherit the condition unless both parents
    • A. 

      Have Kleinfelter syndrome

    • B. 

      Carry the same recessive gene

    • C. 

      Have XO chromosome

    • D. 

      Have the disease

  • 10. 
    Dizygotic twins result when:  
    • A. 

      A single egg is fertilized by a sperm and then splits

    • B. 

      A single egg is fertilized by two different sperm

    • C. 

      Two eggs are fertilized by two different sperm

    • D. 

      Either a single egg is fertilized by one sperm or two eggs are fertilized by two different sperm

  • 11. 
    Molecules of DNA that in humans are organized into twenty-three complementary pairs are called:
    • A. 

      Zygotes

    • B. 

      Genes

    • C. 

      Chromosomes

    • D. 

      Ova

  • 12. 
    If an ovum is fertilized by a sperm bearing a Y chromosome:
    • A. 

      A female will develop

    • B. 

      Cell division will result

    • C. 

      A male will develop

    • D. 

      Spontaneous abortion will occur

  • 13. 
    Most human traits are...
    • A. 

      Polygenic

    • B. 

      Multifactorial

    • C. 

      Determined by dominant-recessive patterns

    • D. 

      Both a. and b.

  • 14. 
    The genes that influence height and skin color interact according to the _______ pattern.
    • A. 

      Nonadditive

    • B. 

      Additive

    • C. 

      Dominant-recessive

    • D. 

      X-linked

  • 15. 
    X-linked recessive genes explain why some traits seem to be passed from
    • A. 

      Mother to son

    • B. 

      Father to son

    • C. 

      Mother to daughter

    • D. 

      Father to daughter

  • 16. 
    According the text, the effects of environment on genetic inheritance include
    • A. 

      Direct effects, such as nutrition, climate, and medical care

    • B. 

      Indirect effects, such as the individual’s broad economic, political, and cultural context

    • C. 

      Irreversible effects, such as those due to brain injury

    • D. 

      Everything that can interact with the person’s genetic inheritance at every point in life

  • 17. 
    The personality trait of inhibition (shyness) seems to be partly genetic. A child who inherits the genes for shyness will be shy
    • A. 

      Under most circumstances

    • B. 

      Only if shyness is the dominant gene

    • C. 

      If the environment does not encourage greater sociability

    • D. 

      If he or she is raised by biological rather than adoptive parents

  • 18. 
    Laurie and Brad, who both have a history of alcoholism in their families, are concerned that the child they hope to have will inherit a genetic predisposition to alcoholism. Based on information presented in the text, what advice should you offer them?
    • A. 

      “Stop worrying, alcoholism is only weakly genetic.”

    • B. 

      “It is almost certain that your child will become alcoholic.”

    • C. 

      “Social influences, such as the family and peer environment, play a critical role in determining whether alcoholism is expressed.”

    • D. 

      “Wait to have children until you are both middle aged, in order to see if the two of you become alcoholic.”

  • 19. 
    Genetically, Claude’s potential height is 6’0. Because he did not receive a balanced diet, however, he grew to only 5’9”. Claude’s actual height is an example of a
    • A. 

      Phenotype

    • B. 

      Genotype

    • C. 

      Dominant gene

    • D. 

      Recessive gene

  • 20. 
    Winona inherited a gene from her mother that, regardless of her father’s contribution to her genotype, will be expressed in her phenotype. Evidently, the gene Winona received from her mother is a(n) _______ gene
    • A. 

      X-linked

    • B. 

      Dominant

    • C. 

      Recessive

    • D. 

      Polygenic

  • 21. 
    The female will determine the sex of the child. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    Sickle cell anemia involves abnormal blood cells
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    The only cure for club foot is surgery when the child is first born
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    The birth defect Turner Syndrome is the lack of the 2nd X chromosome and only occurs in females
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    Congenital heart defects occur when the heart forms abnormally after the baby is born.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

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