Establish gender equality
Provide codes of behavior
Introduced Islam and Christianity to Central Africa
Established colonies throughout northern Europe
Developed the first carts with wheels
Traded goods and spread ideas throughout the Mediterranean region
Islamic art was more abstract than Greek art.
Muslims were the best early mathematicians.
Islamic society preserved Greek and Roman culture.
Muslim artists had more talent than European artists.
Hunting and gathering
Farming and cattle ranching
Trading in salt and gold
Working in bronze and brass
Unified central government
Isolationist economic policies
System of social equality
Access to inland cities
More mineral resources
Extensive canal systems
Strengthened the power of the pope
Led to the exploration of Africa
Limited the power of the English monarchy
Settled religious conflicts
Age of Exploration
Age of Reason
Boys in Sparta were trained to be soldiers.
Athens had a better culture than that of Sparta.
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were Greek philosophers.
Many adults in Athens did not have the right to vote.
Attempts to colonize North America
Frequent conflicts between Christians and Jews
Advances in mathematics, science, and medicine
Policies to reduce trade between the Middle East and China
Leaders may use any method to achieve what is best for the state.
The general public always acts in its own best interest.
Pleasing all of the people at any given time is possible.
Leaders must always act for the common good.
Contact with kingdoms in western Europe greatly increased.
The Chinese writing system was introduced and adopted.
Most Russians converted from Orthodox Christianity to Islam.
Russian leaders adopted the idea of strong, centralized control of the empire.
Religious beliefs were the most important element in many African societies.
Some African societies achieved a high level of economic and cultural development.
North African societies were more advanced than South African societies.
Most African societies were hundreds of years behind Asian societies in using technology.
Food supplies became more reliable.
New sources of energy became available.
People became more nomadic.
Decreased interest in inventions and technology
The limited migration of peoples
Increased cultural diffusion
The development of subsistence agriculture
Had the right to vote
Enjoyed some legal rights
Were equal to men
Could hold political offices
People are born into a specific caste.
Believers must follow the Ten Commandments.
Followers must fast during Ramadan.
People can overcome their desires by following the Eight-Fold Path.
A decentralized political system
An increased emphasis on education
The development of a wealthy middle class
Led to nationalistic movements
Helped to spread the ideas of religious leaders
Stimulated the expansion of trade
Supported democratic forms of government