General Plan Part II (Without Membranes) & Integumentary SySTEM

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General Plan Part II (Without Membranes) & Integumentary System - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Any abnormal growth of cells is called a...

    Explanation
    Any abnormal growth of cells is referred to as a tumor. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors are non-cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and have the ability to invade nearby tissues and spread to other areas of the body. Therefore, the term "tumor" encompasses all types of abnormal cell growth, regardless of whether it is cancerous or not.

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  • 2. 

    This term means non-cancerous, and does not spread

    Explanation
    The term "benign" refers to a condition that is non-cancerous and does not have the ability to spread to other parts of the body. It describes a tumor or growth that is not harmful and does not pose a threat to the individual's health. Unlike malignant tumors, benign tumors do not invade nearby tissues or metastasize to other organs. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is "benign."

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  • 3. 

    This term means cancerous, and can spread

    Explanation
    The term "malignant" refers to a condition that is cancerous and has the ability to spread to other parts of the body. It is the opposite of benign, which means non-cancerous. Malignant tumors have the potential to invade nearby tissues and organs, as well as metastasize or spread to distant sites through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Therefore, the term "malignant" accurately describes the nature of cancerous conditions.

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  • 4. 

    Tumors that have spread are called...

    Explanation
    Tumors that have spread to other parts of the body are referred to as metastasis or mets. This occurs when cancer cells break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to form new tumors in different organs or tissues. The terms metastasis and mets are used interchangeably to describe this process of cancer spreading.

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  • 5. 

    This type of malignant tumor originates in epithelium and is the most common form of cancer. It is usually found in the skin, mouth, lung, breast, stomach, colon, prostate, and uterus

    Explanation
    Carcinoma is the correct answer because it is a type of malignant tumor that originates in epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the organs and structures in the body. Carcinomas are the most common form of cancer and can be found in various locations such as the skin, mouth, lung, breast, stomach, colon, prostate, and uterus.

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  • 6. 

    Carcinomas are usually spread by what system?

    Explanation
    Carcinomas are usually spread by the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is responsible for the transportation of lymph fluid, which contains white blood cells and waste products, throughout the body. Carcinomas, which are a type of cancer that originates in the epithelial cells, can spread to nearby lymph nodes through the lymphatic vessels. This process is known as lymphatic metastasis and is a common way for carcinomas to spread and establish secondary tumors in different parts of the body.

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  • 7. 

    This type of malignant tumor is a cancer of connective tissue, and could be found anywhere on the body.

    Explanation
    Sarcoma is a type of malignant tumor that originates in the connective tissue. Unlike carcinomas, which develop in epithelial tissues, sarcomas can be found anywhere in the body. They can arise in bones, muscles, blood vessels, and other types of connective tissue. Sarcomas are characterized by their ability to invade nearby tissues and spread to distant parts of the body. Due to their diverse origins and locations, sarcomas can present with a wide range of symptoms and require specialized treatment approaches.

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  • 8. 

    Sarcoma cells are usually spread by what?

    Explanation
    Sarcoma cells are usually spread through the blood stream. This means that the cancerous cells can enter the bloodstream and travel to other parts of the body, where they can form new tumors. This method of spreading is known as metastasis and is common in many types of cancers. By spreading through the blood stream, sarcoma cells have the potential to affect multiple organs and tissues, making the cancer more difficult to treat.

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  • 9. 

    Sarcomas often form secondary growths where?

    Explanation
    Sarcomas often form secondary growths in the lungs. This means that when sarcomas spread from their original site, such as bones or soft tissues, they tend to metastasize and form new tumors in the lungs. This can occur through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, as cancer cells travel to other parts of the body. Lung metastases can cause symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Detecting and treating these secondary growths is crucial in managing sarcoma and preventing further spread of the disease.

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  • 10. 

    This system consists of the skin and its appendages

    Explanation
    The term "integumentary" refers to the system of the body that includes the skin and its appendages. The skin is the largest organ of the body and serves as a protective barrier against external threats, regulates body temperature, and helps in the synthesis of vitamin D. The appendages of the skin include hair, nails, and glands. Together, these structures work to protect the body from physical injury, regulate body temperature, and provide sensory information. Therefore, the term "integumentary" accurately describes the system consisting of the skin and its appendages.

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  • 11. 

    This protective covering of the body is the largest organ

    Explanation
    The skin is the largest organ in the body and serves as a protective covering. It acts as a barrier against external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and harmful substances. The skin also helps regulate body temperature, stores fat and water, and provides sensory information to the brain. Additionally, it plays a crucial role in the immune system by producing certain cells that help fight off infections. Overall, the skin is essential for maintaining the body's integrity and overall health.

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  • 12. 

    The _________ are derived from the overlying epidermis and include two types of sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair and nails.

    Explanation
    The term "appendages" refers to the structures that are derived from the overlying epidermis, including sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair, and nails. These structures are considered appendages because they are attached or connected to the skin, serving various functions such as regulating body temperature, producing oils, and providing protection.

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  • 13. 

    The _________ is the only organ that can be inspected in its entirety without requiring surgery or special equipment.

    Explanation
    The skin is the largest organ in the human body and covers the entire external surface. It can be visually inspected without the need for surgery or special equipment. This is because the skin is located on the outside of the body and can be easily observed for any abnormalities or changes in color, texture, or appearance. It acts as a protective barrier and provides valuable information about a person's overall health and well-being.

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  • 14. 

    Another name for skin is _____________ ____________________

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "cutaneous membrane." The term "cutaneous" refers to anything related to the skin, while "membrane" refers to a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface or lines a cavity. Therefore, "cutaneous membrane" is another name for the skin, as it describes the thin layer of tissue that covers the body's surface.

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  • 15. 

    The cutaneous membrane is composed of two layers

    Explanation
    The cutaneous membrane, also known as the skin, is made up of two layers - the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and is responsible for protecting the body from external factors such as germs and UV radiation. The dermis is located beneath the epidermis and consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. It provides structural support to the skin and contains important structures like hair follicles and sweat glands. Together, these two layers form the cutaneous membrane and play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and functionality of the skin.

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  • 16. 

    The layers of the skin are supported by a thick layer of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue called ________ __________ or the ____________

    Explanation
    The layers of the skin are supported by a thick layer of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue called subcutaneous tissue or the hypodermis. This layer is located beneath the dermis and serves as a cushioning and insulation layer for the body. It also contains blood vessels and nerves that supply the skin. The subcutaneous tissue plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature and protecting the underlying structures of the body.

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  • 17. 

    This tissue connects the skin to the surface muscles. The fat insulates the body and serves as a stored source of energy for the body. It also acts as a shock absorbing pad, protecting underlying tissues from injury.

    Explanation
    The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of tissue that connects the skin to the underlying muscles. It serves multiple functions, including insulation of the body, acting as a stored source of energy, and providing protection to underlying tissues by acting as a shock-absorbing pad.

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  • 18. 

    This layer is the outermost layer of skin, composted entirely of epithelial cells and contains no blood vessels.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Epidermis." The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and is composed entirely of epithelial cells. It does not contain any blood vessels, which is why it is avascular. The epidermis acts as a protective barrier for the underlying layers of the skin and helps to regulate the loss of water from the body.

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  • 19. 

    The epidermis is made up of a thin sheet of what type of epithelium?

    Explanation
    The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, and it is primarily composed of stratified squamous epithelium. This type of epithelium consists of multiple layers of flat cells, which provide protection and prevent water loss. The stratified nature of this epithelium allows for durability and resistance to abrasion. Therefore, the correct answer is stratified squamous.

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  • 20. 

    Each layer of epidermis is called...

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "strata" because it refers to the multiple layers of the epidermis. The term "strata" is used to describe the hierarchical arrangement of these layers, with each layer having its own distinct function and characteristics.

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  • 21. 

    The innermost layer of epidermis is called the...

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "stratum germinativum, stratum basale". The innermost layer of the epidermis is known as the stratum germinativum or stratum basale. This layer is responsible for the constant renewal of the epidermis, as it contains cells that undergo rapid division and differentiation. These cells then migrate towards the outer layers of the epidermis, providing a continuous supply of new cells to replace the old ones that are shed from the surface of the skin.

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  • 22. 

    The outermost layer is called the ....

    Explanation
    The outermost layer of the skin is called the stratum corneum. This layer is composed of dead skin cells that have flattened and hardened. It acts as a protective barrier, preventing the loss of moisture and protecting the underlying layers of the skin from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and UV radiation. The stratum corneum also helps to regulate temperature and plays a role in the skin's overall appearance and texture.

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  • 23. 

    This layer is the only layer of living cells, and gets its nourishment from capillaries in the underlying dermis. The cells undergo mitosis, and as cells divide they are constantly being pushed up toward the surface. As the cells push upward they die from the loss of nourishment and undergo changes

    Explanation
    The given answer, "stratum germinativum," is correct because it accurately describes the layer of living cells in the skin that undergo mitosis and continuously divide. These cells receive nourishment from capillaries in the underlying dermis and as they push upward towards the surface, they eventually die from the loss of nourishment and undergo changes. The stratum germinativum is responsible for the regeneration of new skin cells and plays a vital role in maintaining the health and integrity of the skin.

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  • 24. 

    The cytoplasm of the epidermis is replaced by...

    Explanation
    Keratin is a protein found in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. It provides structural support and protection to the skin cells. The cytoplasm, which is the gel-like substance inside the cells, is replaced by keratin as the cells mature and move towards the surface of the skin. This process, known as keratinization, helps to form a tough, waterproof barrier that prevents the loss of moisture and protects the underlying layers of the skin.

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  • 25. 

    This outermost layer is made up of dead skin cells that have been changed to keratin and sloughs off.

    Explanation
    The outermost layer of the skin is called the stratum corneum. It is composed of dead skin cells that have undergone a process called keratinization, where they have been converted into a tough protein called keratin. These dead skin cells continuously shed or slough off, allowing for the regeneration of new skin cells underneath. The stratum corneum acts as a protective barrier for the underlying layers of the skin, preventing water loss and protecting against external factors such as UV radiation and pathogens.

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  • 26. 

    The stratum germinativum is sometimes called the ____ layer because it is responsible for the production of melanin, which gives color to the skin.

    Explanation
    The stratum germinativum is sometimes called the pigment layer because it is responsible for the production of melanin, which gives color to the skin. Melanin is a pigment that determines the color of our hair, skin, and eyes. It is produced by specialized cells called melanocytes located in the stratum germinativum. These cells produce melanin and transfer it to nearby skin cells, giving the skin its color. Therefore, the stratum germinativum is referred to as the pigment layer due to its role in melanin production.

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  • 27. 

    The pigment producing cells in the stratum germinativum are called...

    Explanation
    Melanocytes are the pigment-producing cells found in the stratum germinativum, the deepest layer of the epidermis. These cells are responsible for producing melanin, the pigment that gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes. Melanocytes transfer melanin to nearby skin cells, providing protection against the harmful effects of UV radiation from the sun. This pigment also determines the color of an individual's skin and hair.

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  • 28. 

    The _________ is the deeper of the two primary skin layers and is much thicker than the epidermis. It is composed largely of connective tissue and also contains many blood vessels, nerve endings, and glands.

    Explanation
    The dermis is the deeper layer of the skin and is much thicker than the epidermis. It is composed mainly of connective tissue and contains numerous blood vessels, nerve endings, and glands. This layer provides structural support to the skin and houses important components such as collagen and elastin fibers, which give the skin its strength and elasticity. The dermis also plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature and providing sensation to the skin.

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  • 29. 

    Most of the appendages of the skin, including the sweat glands, oil glands and the hair are located in the ____________ and may extend into the subcutaneous layer under the skin.

    Explanation
    The dermis is the layer of skin that contains most of the skin appendages, such as sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles. These appendages are located within the dermis and may extend into the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin. The dermis is responsible for providing structural support to the skin and houses important components like blood vessels and nerve endings.

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  • 30. 

    The thickest part of the dermis is located on the...

    Explanation
    The thickest part of the dermis is located on the palms and soles because these areas of the body experience the most friction and pressure. The dermis is the middle layer of the skin and provides structural support and elasticity. The palms and soles are constantly in contact with surfaces and subjected to repetitive movements, which require a thicker dermis to protect the underlying tissues and provide extra cushioning.

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  • 31. 

    The thinnest part of the dermis is located on the...

    Explanation
    The thinnest part of the dermis is located on the eyelids. This is because the skin on the eyelids is delicate and sensitive, requiring a thinner dermis for flexibility and ease of movement. Additionally, the eyelids have a thinner dermis to allow for better blood circulation and oxygenation of the surrounding tissues. The thin dermis on the eyelids also helps to protect the underlying structures, such as the eyes, from injury and damage.

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  • 32. 

    The upper portion of the dermis is characterized by ridges called _______ ___________, which gives us our fingerprints.

    Explanation
    The upper portion of the dermis is characterized by ridges called dermal papillae, which gives us our fingerprints. These dermal papillae are small projections that extend into the epidermis, creating unique patterns on the surface of our skin. These patterns are formed during fetal development and remain constant throughout our lives, making fingerprints a reliable form of identification.

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  • 33. 

    Three major functions of the skin are...

    Explanation
    The skin serves as a protective barrier for the body, shielding it from harmful external factors such as UV radiation, pathogens, and physical injuries. It also plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature by controlling the loss or conservation of heat through sweating or constriction of blood vessels. Additionally, the skin contains numerous sensory receptors that allow us to perceive and respond to various stimuli such as touch, pressure, pain, and temperature changes.

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  • 34. 

    The surface cells of the skin constantly being shed, causing the mechanical removal of pathogens is an example of how the skin is a form of ____________

    Explanation
    The shedding of surface cells on the skin helps to physically remove pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, from the body. This process acts as a form of protection by preventing these harmful microorganisms from penetrating deeper into the skin and causing infections or diseases. The constant renewal of skin cells also helps to maintain a healthy barrier against external threats, making the skin an effective protective barrier for the body.

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  • 35. 

    The skin also protects the body from excessive water loss because of...

    Explanation
    Keratin is a protein found in the outer layer of the skin, hair, and nails. It forms a protective barrier that helps to prevent excessive water loss from the body. The structure of keratin allows it to create a waterproof layer on the surface of the skin, reducing the evaporation of water from the body. This helps to maintain the body's hydration levels and prevent dehydration.

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  • 36. 

    ____________ prevents the sun's harmful UV rays from penetrating the interior of the body.

    Explanation
    Melanin is a pigment produced by cells called melanocytes, which are found in the skin, hair, and eyes. It is responsible for giving color to these tissues. One of the main functions of melanin is to protect the body from the harmful effects of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. When UV rays penetrate the skin, they can damage DNA and lead to sunburn and other skin problems. Melanin acts as a natural sunscreen by absorbing and scattering UV rays, preventing them from reaching the deeper layers of the skin and causing damage.

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  • 37. 

    Both the loss of excessive heat and protection from the cold are examples of __________ ____________

    Explanation
    Both the loss of excessive heat and protection from the cold are examples of temperature regulation. Temperature regulation refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal temperature despite changes in the external environment. When the body is exposed to excessive heat, it uses mechanisms such as sweating and vasodilation to release heat and cool down. On the other hand, when exposed to cold temperatures, the body uses mechanisms like shivering and vasoconstriction to conserve heat and stay warm. These processes collectively help in regulating body temperature and maintaining homeostasis.

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  • 38. 

    The skin being one of the chief sensory organs of the body, having many more nerve endings and other special receptors for pain, touch, pressure and temperature is an example of how the skin is a ___________ ___________

    Explanation
    The skin is considered a sensory organ because it contains numerous nerve endings and specialized receptors that allow us to perceive and respond to different sensations such as pain, touch, pressure, and temperature. These sensory receptors send signals to the brain, enabling us to interpret and react to our environment.

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  • 39. 

    True or false- the skin also functions to synthesize vitamins, communicate, and provide a transdermal medication route.

    Explanation
    The skin is not only a protective barrier, but it also plays a vital role in synthesizing vitamins, such as vitamin D, when exposed to sunlight. Additionally, the skin is involved in communication through various sensory receptors, allowing us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain. Moreover, the skin can provide a transdermal medication route, where certain medications can be absorbed through the skin and enter the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system.

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  • 40. 

    Each piece of hair develops within a sheath within the dermis called a _________ __________

    Explanation
    The hair follicle is a structure within the dermis where each piece of hair develops. It provides nourishment and support to the hair as it grows. The hair follicle also contains the hair root, which is responsible for producing new hair cells.

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  • 41. 

    At the base of a hair follicle, there is a cluster of cells where hair growth begins called the...

    Explanation
    The hair papilla is a cluster of cells located at the base of a hair follicle where hair growth begins. It is responsible for supplying nutrients and oxygen to the hair bulb, which is essential for hair growth. The hair papilla also contains specialized cells called dermal papilla cells, which play a crucial role in regulating the growth and development of hair follicles. Without the hair papilla, hair growth would not be possible.

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  • 42. 

    Part of the hair lies hidden within the follicle, this is called the _______ _________

    Explanation
    The hair root refers to the part of the hair that is hidden within the follicle. It is the portion of the hair that is anchored in the scalp and provides nourishment to the hair as it grows. The hair root is responsible for producing new hair cells, which push older cells upward and out of the scalp, resulting in hair growth.

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  • 43. 

    The visible part of the hair is called the

    Explanation
    The visible part of the hair is called the shaft. The shaft is the part of the hair that is above the surface of the skin and is composed of dead cells. It is the part that we see and can style or cut. The shaft is made up of three layers: the cuticle, the cortex, and the medulla. The cuticle is the outermost layer that protects the hair, while the cortex gives the hair its strength and color. The medulla is the innermost layer, which is not always present in every hair strand.

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  • 44. 

    Attached to most hair follicles is a thin band of involuntary muscles called the ____________ __________ muscle.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "arrector pili." The arrector pili muscle is a thin band of involuntary muscles that is attached to most hair follicles. When this muscle contracts, it causes the hair to stand up, resulting in the phenomenon commonly known as "goosebumps." This muscle contraction is often triggered by cold temperatures or strong emotions, and it helps to trap a layer of air close to the skin, providing insulation.

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  • 45. 

    Our nose hairs, ear hairs, and eyelashes provide a protective barrier against...

    Explanation
    Our nose hairs, ear hairs, and eyelashes act as a protective barrier against foreign bodies such as dust, dirt, and other particles that could potentially enter our respiratory system, ears, or eyes. They help to filter and trap these foreign substances, preventing them from reaching sensitive areas and causing irritation or damage. This protective mechanism helps to maintain the health and proper functioning of our respiratory system, ears, and eyes.

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  • 46. 

    ______ are formed when epidermal cells over the terminal ends of the fingers and toes fill with keratin and become hard and plate- like.

    Explanation
    Nails are formed when epidermal cells over the terminal ends of the fingers and toes fill with keratin and become hard and plate-like. Nails serve as a protective covering for the fingertips and toes, providing support and allowing for fine motor skills. They also help in gripping objects and scratching. Nails are made up of several layers of keratinized cells and grow from the nail matrix at the base of the nail.

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  • 47. 

    These types of glands are sweat glands, and are coiled, tube-like structures located in the dermis and exit the epidermis at an angle to serve as a valve. They function to regulate body temperature through the evaporation of sweat.

    Explanation
    Sudoriferous glands are sweat glands that are coiled, tube-like structures located in the dermis. They exit the epidermis at an angle to serve as a valve. These glands play a crucial role in regulating body temperature by producing sweat, which evaporates from the skin surface, cooling down the body.

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  • 48. 

    Other modified sweat glands include __________ glands in the eyelids and ___________ glands

    Explanation
    The question is asking for the names of modified sweat glands found in the eyelids and mammary glands. The correct answer is ciliary and mammary glands. Ciliary glands are found in the eyelids and secrete an oily substance that helps lubricate the eyes. Mammary glands, on the other hand, are found in the breasts and produce milk.

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  • 49. 

    These glands are sac-like structures that open into the hair follicles.

    Explanation
    Sebaceous glands are sac-like structures that open into the hair follicles. These glands are responsible for producing sebum, an oily substance that helps lubricate and protect the skin and hair. Sebum helps to moisturize the skin, preventing it from becoming dry and brittle. It also helps to waterproof the skin and hair, preventing excessive moisture loss. The sebaceous glands are most abundant on the face and scalp, but they are found throughout the body.

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  • 50. 

    The sebaceous glands' oily secretions, used to lubricate the hair and skin to prevent drying is called..

    Explanation
    Sebum is the correct answer because it is the oily secretion produced by the sebaceous glands. Sebum helps to lubricate the hair and skin, preventing them from drying out.

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  • Jun 27, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 02, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Mnathan21
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