Food Science Protein Vocabulary Quiz

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| By DianeMoroney
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 18 | Total Attempts: 5,435
Questions: 16 | Attempts: 144

Food Science Protein Vocabulary Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Egg custard is a liquid going into the oven and a solid coming out because heat unfolds and _____________ the egg proteins. (Hint: Mrs. Moroney's favorite word!)

    When egg custard is heated in the oven, the heat causes the egg proteins to unfold and come apart from their natural structure. This unfolding and separation of the proteins allows them to bond together and form a solid mass, resulting in the custard coagulating. Coagulation is the process by which a liquid changes into a solid or semi-solid state, and in the case of egg custard, it occurs due to the coagulation of the egg proteins when exposed to heat.

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  • 2. 

    The addition of side groups, carbon chains, and other components makes the protein molecule a large ____________.

    The addition of side groups, carbon chains, and other components increases the size of the protein molecule, making it a large macromolecule. Macromolecules are large molecules made up of smaller subunits, and proteins are one of the major types of macromolecules found in living organisms. They play essential roles in various biological processes and are composed of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Therefore, the given answer, "macromolecule," accurately describes the increased size and complexity of the protein molecule due to the addition of side groups, carbon chains, and other components.

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  • 3. 

    A food that supplies leucine, lysine, and valine, in the proportion that your body requires, may be a source of _____.

    A food that supplies leucine, lysine, and valine in the proportion that your body requires indicates that it contains essential amino acids in the right balance. Since these amino acids are necessary for protein synthesis and are not produced by the body, a food with this composition is considered to be a high-quality protein source.

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  • 4. 

    The _____________ is an important structure in the protein molecule, because it contains the influential nitrogen atom.

    The amine group is an important structure in the protein molecule because it contains a nitrogen atom. Nitrogen is an essential element for the formation of peptide bonds, which are crucial for the structure and function of proteins. The presence of the amine group allows for the formation of these bonds, which contribute to the overall stability and shape of the protein molecule. Additionally, the nitrogen atom in the amine group can participate in various chemical reactions, making it influential in the protein's function.

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  • 5. 

    In a biscuit recipe, adding milk to flour begins the development of __________, which will allow the biscuits to rise and hold their shape.

    Adding milk to flour begins the development of gluten, which is a protein found in wheat and other grains. When the flour is mixed with liquid, such as milk, the proteins in the flour form gluten strands. These strands give the dough its elasticity and structure, allowing the biscuits to rise and hold their shape during baking. Gluten is responsible for the chewy texture of bread and other baked goods.

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  • 6. 

    ______ is composed mostly of ovalbumin, one of the main proteins in eggs.

    Albumin is the correct answer because it is a protein found in eggs, and ovalbumin is one of its main components. Ovalbumin is a type of albumin that makes up a significant portion of the protein content in eggs. Therefore, albumin is the protein that is mostly composed of ovalbumin in eggs.

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  • 7. 

    The body itself cannot manufacture ________________; you can meet this protein need by eating a variety of foods from plant and animal sources.

    The body cannot produce essential amino acids on its own, so they must be obtained through diet. These amino acids are crucial for various bodily functions and are necessary for the synthesis of proteins. By consuming a diverse range of foods from both plant and animal sources, one can fulfill their protein requirements and ensure an adequate intake of essential amino acids.

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  • 8. 

    Protein molecules grow through the nitrogen-carbon links known as ____________.

    Protein molecules grow through the nitrogen-carbon links known as peptide bonds. Peptide bonds are formed between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another amino acid. These bonds are formed through a condensation reaction, where a water molecule is eliminated. Peptide bonds are essential for the formation of polypeptide chains, which then fold into functional protein structures.

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  • 9. 

    Eating ________________ensures that the body gets certain nutrients that it cannot make itself.

    Eating complete protein ensures that the body gets certain nutrients that it cannot make itself. Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly. These amino acids are necessary for various bodily functions, including building and repairing tissues, producing enzymes and hormones, and supporting the immune system. Since the body cannot produce these essential amino acids on its own, it is important to consume complete proteins from dietary sources such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

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  • 10. 

    Without proteins, the body could not form __________, leaving it open to infection by foreign substances.

    Proteins play a crucial role in the formation of antibodies, which are proteins produced by the immune system to fight against foreign substances like bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. Without proteins, the body would not be able to generate antibodies, leaving it vulnerable to infections caused by these foreign substances. Antibodies recognize and bind to specific targets on these pathogens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells, thus protecting the body from infections.

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  • 11. 

    ___________ changes a protein's shape and properties, making it useful in food preparation.

    Denaturation refers to the process of altering a protein's structure and properties, typically by exposing it to heat, acid, or other chemicals. This process disrupts the protein's secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures, resulting in a change in its shape and properties. Denaturation is commonly used in food preparation to modify proteins, such as in cooking eggs or meat, as it can enhance their texture, flavor, and digestibility.

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  • 12. 

    A(n) ____________ is distinguished by the side group attached to its central carbon atom.

    An amino acid is distinguished by the side group attached to its central carbon atom. The side group, also known as the R-group, varies among different amino acids and gives each amino acid its unique characteristics and properties. This side group can be a simple hydrogen atom or a complex structure containing different elements such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. The side group determines the amino acid's role and function in biological processes, such as protein synthesis and enzyme catalysis.

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  • 13. 

    Since plants contain __________, strict vegetarians need to choose foods wisely to get all the protein their body needs.

    The correct answer is "incomplete protein" because plants do not contain all the essential amino acids required by the human body. While plants are a good source of protein, they often lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Therefore, strict vegetarians need to carefully choose a variety of plant-based foods to ensure they are getting all the necessary amino acids to meet their protein needs.

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  • 14. 

    Whipping egg whites into a(n) __________ lightens a souffle' by trapping air in bubbles within a protein film.

    Whipping egg whites into a foam lightens a souffle by trapping air in bubbles within a protein film. The process of whipping incorporates air into the egg whites, creating a foam-like texture. The protein in the egg whites forms a film around the air bubbles, stabilizing them and preventing them from collapsing. This trapped air expands when the souffle is baked, resulting in a light and airy texture.

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  • 15. 

    Chains containing hundreds of different amino acids may join to form a protein molecule called a(n) ______________.

    Polypeptide is the correct answer because it refers to a protein molecule formed by the joining of hundreds of different amino acids. Amino acids are linked together through peptide bonds to form polypeptides, which can then fold into complex three-dimensional structures to create functional proteins. Therefore, polypeptide accurately describes the chain of amino acids that make up a protein molecule.

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  • 16. 

    Which adult does not work with this Food Science Class?

    • A.

      Santa Claus

    • B.

      Mrs. Moroney

    • C.

      Coach O'Neal

    • D.

      Mr. Greb

    Correct Answer
    A. Santa Claus
    The correct answer is Santa Claus because he is not mentioned as an adult who works with the Food Science Class. The other three options, Mrs. Moroney, Coach O'Neal, and Mr. Greb, are all mentioned as adults who work with the class.

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  • Mar 15, 2024
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