First Three Weeks Of Development – Practice Questions

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First Three Weeks Of Development  Practice Questions - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    All of the following structures are necessary for blastocyst implantation EXCEPT?

    • A.

      All of the following structures are necessary for blastocyst implantation EXCEPT?

    • B.

      Zona pellucida

    • C.

      Syncytiotrophoblast

    • D.

      Cytotrophoblast

    • E.

      Functional layer of endometrium

    Correct Answer
    B. Zona pellucida
    Explanation
    The zona pellucida is not necessary for blastocyst implantation. The zona pellucida is a glycoprotein layer that surrounds the oocyte and early embryo. It plays a role in fertilization by preventing polyspermy, but once the blastocyst reaches the uterus, it needs to hatch out of the zona pellucida in order to implant into the endometrium. Therefore, the zona pellucida is not necessary for blastocyst implantation.

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  • 2. 

    A 20-year old woman presents at the ER with severe abdominal pain on the right side with signs of abdominal bleeding.  She indicated that she has been sexually active without contraception and missed her last menstrual period.  Based on this information, which of the following disorders must be included as an option in the diagnosis?

    • A.

      Ovarian cancer

    • B.

      Appendicitis

    • C.

      Normal pregnancy

    • D.

      Ectopic tubal pregnancy

    • E.

      Toxemia of pregnancy

    Correct Answer
    D. Ectopic tubal pregnancy
    Explanation
    The given information suggests that the woman is experiencing severe abdominal pain on the right side, signs of abdominal bleeding, and missed her last menstrual period. These symptoms are indicative of a possible ectopic tubal pregnancy. In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, most commonly in the fallopian tube. This can cause severe abdominal pain and bleeding. Therefore, ectopic tubal pregnancy must be included as an option in the diagnosis.

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  • 3. 

    Mesoderm is formed from

    • A.

      A) Hypoblast cells

    • B.

      B) Extraembryonic ectoderm

    • C.

      C) Notochordal cells

    • D.

      D) Epiblast cells

    • E.

      E) Amnioblasts

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Epiblast cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is d) Epiblast cells. During embryonic development, the mesoderm layer is formed from the epiblast cells. These cells undergo a process called gastrulation, where they migrate and differentiate into the mesoderm layer. The mesoderm gives rise to various structures in the body such as muscles, bones, connective tissues, and the circulatory system.

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  • 4. 

    . Which of the following statements regarding the uteroplacental circulation is CORRECT?

    • A.

      A) Lacunae form within the cytotrophoblast

    • B.

      B) Hydrolytic enzymes produced by the trophoblast degrade the endothelium of embryonic capillaries

    • C.

      C) It is established during the second week of development

    • D.

      D) It is a transient nutrient supply for the blastocyst during implantation

    • E.

      E) It only forms in ectopic implantations

    Correct Answer
    C. C) It is established during the second week of development
    Explanation
    The correct answer is c) It is established during the second week of development. During the second week of development, the uteroplacental circulation is established as the cytotrophoblast differentiates into syncytiotrophoblast and forms lacunae. These lacunae then merge to form the intervillous spaces, which allow for the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the maternal blood and the developing embryo. This circulation is crucial for the proper development and nourishment of the embryo.

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  • 5. 

    Between which two layers is the extraembryonic mesoderm located?

    • A.

      A) Exocoelomic membrane and cytotrophoblast

    • B.

      B) Epiblast and hypoblast

    • C.

      C) Syncytiotrophoblast and endometrium

    • D.

      D) Exocoelomic membrane and syncytiotrophoblast

    • E.

      E) Syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast

    Correct Answer
    A. A) Exocoelomic membrane and cytotrophoblast
    Explanation
    The extraembryonic mesoderm is located between the exocoelomic membrane and the cytotrophoblast.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following statements regarding the epiblast is CORRECT?

    • A.

      A) It is composed of small cuboidal cells

    • B.

      B) It forms the roof of the blastocyst cavity

    • C.

      C) It forms the primitive streak

    • D.

      D) Notochordal cells intercalate into it

    Correct Answer
    C. C) It forms the primitive streak
    Explanation
    The epiblast is a layer of cells in the blastocyst that gives rise to the three primary germ layers of the embryo. The primitive streak is a structure that forms during gastrulation, which is the process by which the three germ layers are established. Therefore, the correct statement is that the epiblast forms the primitive streak.

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  • 7. 

    A young woman was exposed to rubella virus during pregnancy which resulted in her having a baby with ventriculoseptal cardiac defect.  In which period was the mother most likely to have contracted the acute viral infection?

    • A.

      A) Weeks 1-5 before fertilization

    • B.

      B) Weeks 1-5 after fertilization

    • C.

      C) Months 4-5 after fertilization

    • D.

      D) Months 5-6 after fertilization

    • E.

      E) Weeks 9 to 12 after fertilization

    Correct Answer
    B. B) Weeks 1-5 after fertilization
    Explanation
    Rubella virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the baby. The timing of the infection is crucial because it determines the severity of the syndrome. The highest risk of CRS occurs when the mother is infected during the first trimester of pregnancy, specifically between weeks 1-5 after fertilization. This is when the baby's organs and systems are developing, including the heart. Therefore, the mother is most likely to have contracted the acute viral infection during weeks 1-5 after fertilization.

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  • 8. 

    The process of gastrulation is first indicated by the formation of the

    • A.

      A) Prechordal plate

    • B.

      B) Cloacal membrane

    • C.

      C) Primitive streak

    • D.

      D) Neural tube

    • E.

      E) somites

    Correct Answer
    C. C) Primitive streak
    Explanation
    The formation of the primitive streak is the first indication of gastrulation. Gastrulation is a crucial process in embryonic development where the single-layered blastula is transformed into a three-layered structure called the gastrula. The primitive streak is a groove that forms on the surface of the blastula and serves as the site of cell migration and differentiation. It is responsible for the establishment of the three germ layers - ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm - which give rise to different tissues and organs in the developing embryo. Therefore, the formation of the primitive streak marks the beginning of gastrulation.

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  • 9. 

    A 26 year old woman experiences episodes of bright red vaginal bleeding at week 28, week 32 and week 34 of pregnancy.  The bleeding spontaneously subsided each time.  Using ultrasound, the placenta is located in the lower right portion of the uterus over the internal os.  What is the diagnosis?

    • A.

      A) Hydatidiform mole

    • B.

      A) Premature rupture of the amniotic membrane

    • C.

      B) Placenta previa

    • D.

      C) Toxemia of pregnancy

    • E.

      D) Vasa previa

    Correct Answer
    C. B) Placenta previa
    Explanation
    Vaginal bleeding after 20 weeks of pregnancy is the primary symptom of placenta previa.

    The placenta normally attaches to the upper portion of the uterus which is more muscular and stronger to support the placenta. However, in placenta previa the placenta attaches to the lower portion of the uterus which is weaker, thinner, and more vascular. As you enter your second and third trimester, the cervix begins to thin and stretch in preparation for labor. As this area stretches it can cause the villi (blood vessels) to break therefore causing bleeding.

    Placenta previa can lead to complications for both mother and baby. Complications that may arise include placenta abruption, hemorrhaging, preterm labor, anemia for either mother or baby.

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  • 10. 

    True or false?  Intraembryonic mesoderm is located between the endoderm and ectoderm at the buccopharyngeal membrane but not the cloacal membrane

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The correct answer is False. The intraembryonic mesoderm is located between the endoderm and ectoderm at both the buccopharyngeal membrane and the cloacal membrane.

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  • 11. 

    A newborn presents with craniofacial abnormalities and a cardiac defect involving the outflow tract of the heart.  Why are you not surprised?

    • A.

      A) Paraxial mesoderm contributes to formation of both areas

    • B.

      B) HOX genes contribute to both areas and could be involved

    • C.

      C) Body folding is important for both areas and may produce combined defects

    • D.

      D) The mother took fertility drugs

    • E.

      E) Neural crest cells contribute greatly to development of both regions

    Correct Answer
    E. E) Neural crest cells contribute greatly to development of both regions
    Explanation
    Neural crest cells are a migratory population of cells that play a crucial role in the development of both the craniofacial region and the cardiac outflow tract. They contribute to the formation of various structures in these areas, including the bones and cartilage of the face, as well as the smooth muscle cells and connective tissue of the heart. Therefore, it is not surprising to see craniofacial abnormalities and cardiac defects in a newborn when neural crest cell development is affected.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is NOT derived from ectoderm?

    • A.

      A) Epidermis

    • B.

      B) Enamel of teeth

    • C.

      C) Dermis of skin

    • D.

      D) Forebrain

    • E.

      E) Mammary gland

    Correct Answer
    C. C) Dermis of skin
    Explanation
    The dermis of the skin is derived from the mesoderm, not the ectoderm. The ectoderm gives rise to the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin, as well as structures such as the enamel of teeth, the forebrain, and the mammary gland. The dermis, on the other hand, is a connective tissue layer that lies beneath the epidermis and is derived from the mesoderm.

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  • 13. 

    .  If an embryo failed to form the mesoderm germ layer which of the following would not develop?

    • A.

      A) hindbrain

    • B.

      B) Schwann cells

    • C.

      C) aorta

    • D.

      D) intestinal epithelia

    • E.

      E) nails

    Correct Answer
    C. C) aorta
    Explanation
    If an embryo fails to form the mesoderm germ layer, the aorta would not develop. The mesoderm germ layer is responsible for the development of various structures including the cardiovascular system. The aorta is a major blood vessel that arises from the embryonic mesoderm and is essential for transporting oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Without the mesoderm germ layer, the development of the aorta would be impaired, leading to potential cardiovascular abnormalities.

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  • 14. 

    Where do ectopic pregnancies most often occur?

    • A.

      A) Ovary

    • B.

      B) Mesentery of the intestine

    • C.

      C) Abdomen

    • D.

      D) ampullae region of uterine tube

    • E.

      E) isthmus region of uterine tube

    Correct Answer
    D. D) ampullae region of uterine tube
    Explanation
    Ectopic pregnancies most often occur in the ampullae region of the uterine tube. This is because the fertilized egg typically implants and grows in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus. This can be a dangerous condition as the fallopian tube is not designed to support the growth of a pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as rupture and internal bleeding.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following will form the lens of the eye?

    • A.

      A) lateral plate mesoderm

    • B.

      B) ectoderm

    • C.

      C) neural crest cells

    • D.

      D) endoderm

    • E.

      E) intermediate mesoderm

    Correct Answer
    B. B) ectoderm
    Explanation
    The lens of the eye is formed from the ectoderm. During embryonic development, a structure called the optic vesicle invaginates to form the optic cup, which eventually gives rise to various structures of the eye, including the lens. The lens placode, which is a thickening of the ectoderm, invaginates to form the lens vesicle, which then differentiates into the lens. Therefore, the correct answer is b) ectoderm.

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  • 16. 

    Splitting of the lateral plate mesoderm forms the

    • A.

      A) somites

    • B.

      B) paraxial and intermediate mesoderm

    • C.

      C) yolk sac cavity

    • D.

      D) intraembryonic cavity

    • E.

      E) amniotic cavity

    Correct Answer
    D. D) intraembryonic cavity
    Explanation
    The splitting of the lateral plate mesoderm forms the intraembryonic cavity. This cavity is formed during the process of gastrulation, where the mesoderm layer splits into two layers - the parietal layer and the visceral layer. The space between these two layers forms the intraembryonic cavity, which will later give rise to various structures such as the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and digestive system.

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  • 17. 

    Where are melanocytes derived from?

    • A.

      A) mesoderm

    • B.

      B) mesenchyme

    • C.

      C) ectoderm

    • D.

      D) neural crest cells

    • E.

      E) dermis

    Correct Answer
    D. D) neural crest cells
    Explanation
    Melanocytes are derived from neural crest cells. During embryonic development, neural crest cells migrate from the neural tube and give rise to various cell types, including melanocytes. These cells eventually settle in the skin, hair follicles, and other parts of the body where they produce the pigment melanin. This pigment is responsible for the coloration of the skin, hair, and eyes.

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  • 18. 

    What portion of the blastocyst will give rise to the embryo?

    • A.

      A) cytotrophoblast

    • B.

      B) outer cell mass

    • C.

      C) endoderm

    • D.

      D) inner cell mass

    • E.

      E) ectoderm

    Correct Answer
    D. D) inner cell mass
    Explanation
    The inner cell mass of the blastocyst will give rise to the embryo. This is because the inner cell mass contains pluripotent cells, which have the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) that form the various tissues and organs of the developing embryo. The outer cell mass, or trophoblast, will give rise to the placenta and other supporting structures. Therefore, the correct answer is d) inner cell mass.

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  • 19. 

    Where are the excretory units of the urinary system derived from?

    • A.

      A) endoderm

    • B.

      B) lateral plate mesoderm

    • C.

      C) ectoderm

    • D.

      D) splanchnic mesoderm

    • E.

      E) intermediate mesoderm

    Correct Answer
    E. E) intermediate mesoderm
    Explanation
    The excretory units of the urinary system, which include the kidneys and the ureters, are derived from the intermediate mesoderm. This germ layer gives rise to the urogenital system, which includes both the urinary and reproductive systems. The intermediate mesoderm undergoes further differentiation and development to form the structures of the urinary system.

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  • 20. 

    A sacrococcygeal teratoma is a tumor that arises from remnants of the

    • A.

      A) Neural plate

    • B.

      B) Cloacal membrane

    • C.

      C) Posterior neuropore

    • D.

      D) Primitive streak

    • E.

      E) Notochord

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Primitive streak
    Explanation
    The primitive streak is the correct answer because a sacrococcygeal teratoma is a tumor that arises from remnants of the primitive streak. The primitive streak is a structure that forms during early embryonic development and gives rise to the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). It is located on the dorsal surface of the embryo and is involved in establishing the body plan. In some cases, cells from the primitive streak can become displaced and form a tumor, such as a sacrococcygeal teratoma.

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  • 21. 

    The amniotic cavity appears on the eighth day as a slit-like space between the trophoblast and the

    • A.

      A) extraembryonic mesoderm

    • B.

      B) embryoblast

    • C.

      C) exocoelomic membrane

    • D.

      D) connecting stalk

    • E.

      E) chorion

    Correct Answer
    B. B) embryoblast
    Explanation
    The amniotic cavity appears on the eighth day as a slit-like space between the trophoblast and the embryoblast. This means that the correct answer is b) embryoblast. The embryoblast is the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, which gives rise to the embryo. The amniotic cavity is formed within the embryoblast and eventually becomes the amniotic sac, which surrounds and protects the developing embryo.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
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    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly
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