Final Exam Bio 111

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Final Exam Bio 111 - Quiz

Compilation of all multiple choice questions from prior tests.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is an adaptation of flowering plants to life on land?

    • A.

      The production of an embryo sac to protect of the embryo from drying out.

    • B.

      A waxy cuticle on leaves to prevent drying out.

    • C.

      The production of stomata and guard cells to regulate gas exchange with the atmosphere.

    • D.

      A vascular system to more water internally.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Flowering plants have evolved various adaptations to survive and thrive on land. The production of an embryo sac helps protect the embryo from drying out, ensuring its survival. The presence of a waxy cuticle on leaves acts as a barrier, preventing excessive water loss through evaporation. The production of stomata and guard cells allows the plant to regulate gas exchange with the atmosphere, enabling it to obtain carbon dioxide for photosynthesis while minimizing water loss. Finally, the presence of a vascular system helps transport water internally, ensuring that the plant receives an adequate supply for survival. Therefore, all of the given options are adaptations of flowering plants to life on land.

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  • 2. 

    The term for the leafy primary body of a liverwort (Hepaticophyta), such as Marchantia is

    • A.

      Thallus

    • B.

      Rhizoid

    • C.

      Protonema

    • D.

      Archegonium

    • E.

      Antheridium

    Correct Answer
    A. Thallus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Thallus. In the context of liverworts (Hepaticophyta), the term "thallus" refers to the leafy primary body of the plant. It is a flattened, lobed structure that lacks true roots, stems, or leaves. The thallus of liverworts like Marchantia is the main vegetative part of the plant, responsible for photosynthesis and nutrient absorption. The other options listed, such as rhizoid, protonema, archegonium, and antheridium, are structures or organs found in liverworts, but they do not specifically refer to the leafy body of the plant like the term "thallus" does.

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  • 3. 

    In the fern life cycle, the ________ generation is dominant, whereas in the moss life cycle, the _______ generation is dominant.

    • A.

      Diploid gametophyte; haploid gametophyte

    • B.

      Haploid gametophyte; haploid sporophyte

    • C.

      Diploid gametophyte; haploid sporophyte

    • D.

      Haploid sporophyte; diploid sporophyte

    • E.

      Diploid sporophyte; haploid gametophyte

    Correct Answer
    E. Diploid sporophyte; haploid gametophyte
    Explanation
    In the fern life cycle, the dominant generation is the diploid sporophyte, which produces spores through meiosis. These spores develop into haploid gametophytes, which produce gametes through mitosis. In contrast, in the moss life cycle, the dominant generation is the haploid gametophyte, which produces gametes through mitosis. These gametes fuse to form a diploid sporophyte, which produces spores through meiosis.

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  • 4. 

    Which of these statements is NOT true about fertilization in a fern plant?

    • A.

      An egg is produced in an archegonium.

    • B.

      A sperm is produced in an antheridium.

    • C.

      Flagellated sperm are primarily carried by wind to the egg.

    • D.

      The egg and sperm are produced on the prothallus.

    • E.

      Eggs and sperm are produced by the gametophyte generation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Flagellated sperm are primarily carried by wind to the egg.
    Explanation
    In fern plants, fertilization occurs through the union of an egg and a sperm. The egg is produced in an archegonium, while the sperm is produced in an antheridium. Unlike the statement, flagellated sperm are not primarily carried by wind to the egg. Instead, they require water for their movement and are typically transported through water to reach the egg. The eggs and sperm are produced on the prothallus, which is the gametophyte generation in ferns.

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  • 5. 

    In conifers, microspores develope into

    • A.

      Seeds

    • B.

      Sporophytes

    • C.

      Mature female gametophytes

    • D.

      Mature male gametophytes

    • E.

      Ovules

    Correct Answer
    D. Mature male gametophytes
    Explanation
    In conifers, microspores develop into mature male gametophytes. This is because microspores are produced by the male cones of conifers and they undergo mitosis to develop into mature male gametophytes, which produce sperm cells. These sperm cells are then transferred to the female cones for fertilization, leading to the formation of seeds. Therefore, the correct answer is mature male gametophytes.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following plants does NOT belong to the gymnosperm group?

    • A.

      Gnetophye

    • B.

      Cycad

    • C.

      Conifer

    • D.

      Horsetail

    • E.

      Ginkgo

    Correct Answer
    D. Horsetail
  • 7. 

    Which is NOT a characteristic of Monocots?

    • A.

      One cotyelydon

    • B.

      Leaves with netted veins

    • C.

      Herbacious plants

    • D.

      Flower parts in fours and fives or whorls of fours or fives

    • E.

      Vascular bundles arranged irregularly in the stem

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Leaves with netted veins
    D. Flower parts in fours and fives or whorls of fours or fives
    Explanation
    Monocots are characterized by having one cotyledon, herbaceous plants, and vascular bundles arranged irregularly in the stem. Therefore, the characteristics that are NOT typical of monocots are leaves with netted veins and flower parts in fours and fives or whorls of fours or fives.

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  • 8. 

    How are ferns different from mosses?

    • A.

      Only ferns produce spore for reprodution

    • B.

      Ferns have vascular tissue.

    • C.

      In the fern life cycle, the mature gametophye and mature sporophyte are both independent

    • D.

      Both B & C are correct.

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. Both B & C are correct.
    Explanation
    Both B & C are correct. Ferns have vascular tissue, which allows them to transport water and nutrients throughout their bodies. Mosses, on the other hand, lack vascular tissue and rely on diffusion to obtain water and nutrients. In the fern life cycle, both the mature gametophyte (which produces gametes) and the mature sporophyte (which produces spores) are independent and can live separately. In contrast, mosses have a dominant gametophyte stage and a dependent sporophyte stage.

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  • 9. 

    Which of these pairs is mismatched?

    • A.

      Anther -- produces microspores

    • B.

      Carpel -- produces pollen

    • C.

      Ovule -- becomes seed

    • D.

      Ovary -- becomes fruit

    • E.

      Flower -- reproductive structure

    Correct Answer
    B. Carpel -- produces pollen
    Explanation
    The given answer is correct because carpel does not produce pollen. Instead, the carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower and it produces ovules, which eventually become seeds. Pollen is produced by the anther, which is the male reproductive organ of a flower.

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  • 10. 

    Which of these is found in the seed plants?

    • A.

      Complex vascular tissue

    • B.

      Pollen grains that are not flagellated

    • C.

      Retention of the female gametophyte within the ovule

    • D.

      Roots, stems, and leaves

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above options are found in seed plants. Seed plants possess complex vascular tissue, which helps in the transport of water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant. They also have pollen grains that are not flagellated, meaning they do not require water for fertilization. The female gametophyte is retained within the ovule, which protects and nourishes the developing embryo. Additionally, seed plants have roots, stems, and leaves, which are essential for their growth, nutrient absorption, and photosynthesis.

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  • 11. 

    PRimary meristemic tissue that gives rise to epidermal tissue is called?

    • A.

      Procambium

    • B.

      Protoderm

    • C.

      Ground meristem

    • D.

      Periderm

    • E.

      Epiderm

    Correct Answer
    B. Protoderm
    Explanation
    The primary meristematic tissue that gives rise to epidermal tissue is called protoderm. The protoderm is responsible for the formation of the outermost layer of cells in plants, known as the epidermis. This tissue provides protection to the plant and helps in regulating water loss through the presence of specialized structures such as stomata. The other options, procambium, ground meristem, and periderm, are involved in the formation of other tissues in plants such as vascular tissue, ground tissue, and cork tissue respectively.

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  • 12. 

    In a typical terrestrial herbaceous eudicot stem, _____ tissue forms the outer protective covering of the plant and ______ tissues form plants

    • A.

      Epidermal; ground

    • B.

      Ground; vascular

    • C.

      Ground; epidermal

    • D.

      Vascular; ground

    • E.

      Meristematic; ground

    Correct Answer
    A. Epidermal; ground
    Explanation
    In a typical terrestrial herbaceous eudicot stem, the epidermal tissue forms the outer protective covering of the plant, while the ground tissues form the internal structures of the plant. The epidermal tissue is responsible for protecting the plant from water loss and external damage, while the ground tissues, such as parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma, provide support and storage functions. The vascular tissues, which include xylem and phloem, are responsible for transporting water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant. Therefore, the correct answer is "epidermal; ground."

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  • 13. 

    To prepare a microscope slides of mitosis, where could you most likely find examples of cell division in a plant root?

    • A.

      In the tissues directly about the root cap

    • B.

      In the tissues of the root cap

    • C.

      In the tissues of the upper vascular cylinder

    • D.

      In a root hair

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    A. In the tissues directly about the root cap
    Explanation
    Plant root tips are the regions where active cell division occurs. The root cap is located at the tip of the root and protects the growing root as it pushes through the soil. The tissues directly above the root cap, known as the meristematic region, are where mitosis takes place. Therefore, this is the most likely location to find examples of cell division in a plant root. The other options, such as the tissues of the root cap, the upper vascular cylinder, or a root hair, are not as likely to show active cell division as the tissues directly above the root cap.

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  • 14. 

    A __________ is an underground horizontal stem, whereas a ________ is an above ground horizontal stem; both of these structures can produce clones of the parental plant.

    • A.

      Prop root; fibrous root

    • B.

      Bulb; taproot

    • C.

      Taproot; bulb

    • D.

      Rhizome; stolon

    • E.

      Stolon; rhizome

    Correct Answer
    D. Rhizome; stolon
    Explanation
    A rhizome is an underground horizontal stem that grows horizontally underground and can produce clones of the parental plant. On the other hand, a stolon is an above ground horizontal stem that grows horizontally above the ground and can also produce clones of the parental plant. Both structures are specialized stems that allow plants to reproduce asexually by producing new individuals that are genetically identical to the parent plant.

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  • 15. 

    Which statement is NOT true about primary plant growth?

    • A.

      Only woody plants show primary growth

    • B.

      Primary growth increases the length of the plant.

    • C.

      The ground meristem is a primary meristem that gives rise to ground tissue system.

    • D.

      The procambium is a primary meristem that produces the primary vascular tissue system

    • E.

      The periderm is not involved in primary growth.

    Correct Answer
    A. Only woody plants show primary growth
    Explanation
    Primary growth refers to the increase in length of a plant. It occurs in all plants, not just woody plants. The ground meristem is a primary meristem that gives rise to the ground tissue system, and the procambium is a primary meristem that produces the primary vascular tissue system. The periderm, on the other hand, is involved in secondary growth, not primary growth. Therefore, the statement "Only woody plants show primary growth" is not true.

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  • 16. 

    ______ tissue is typically composed of cells with thick secondary cell walls, and is made up of fibers and sclereids, whereas _______ is typically composed of cells with primary walls thickened at the corners that provide support of growing plant organs body.

    • A.

      Collenchyma; parenchyma

    • B.

      Collenchymal; parenchyma

    • C.

      Sclerenchyma; collenchyma

    • D.

      Sclerenchyma; parenchyma

    • E.

      Parenchyma; collenchyma

    Correct Answer
    C. Sclerenchyma; collenchyma
    Explanation
    Sclerenchyma tissue is typically composed of cells with thick secondary cell walls, and is made up of fibers and sclereids. On the other hand, collenchyma tissue is typically composed of cells with primary walls thickened at the corners that provide support of growing plant organs body. Therefore, the correct answer is sclerenchyma; collenchyma.

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  • 17. 

    _______ tissue is composed of hollow nonliving tracheids and vessel elements that transport water water from the roots to the leaves, whereas _____ tissue is composed of sieve-tube cells and companion cells, and transports organic nutrients made in the leaves.

    • A.

      Phloem; xylem

    • B.

      Xylem; phloem

    • C.

      Collenchyma; parenchyma

    • D.

      Parenchyma; sclerenchyma

    • E.

      Sclerencym; parencyma

    Correct Answer
    B. Xylem; phloem
    Explanation
    Xylem tissue is composed of hollow nonliving tracheids and vessel elements that transport water from the roots to the leaves. On the other hand, phloem tissue is composed of sieve-tube cells and companion cells, and transports organic nutrients made in the leaves.

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  • 18. 

    The root endodermis:

    • A.

      Forms a boundary between the cortex and inner vascular cylinder of the root

    • B.

      Contains bands of impenetrable lidin and suberin called a Casperian strip that controls water and nutrient

    • C.

      Is a single layer of rectangular cells

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The root endodermis forms a boundary between the cortex and inner vascular cylinder of the root. It contains bands of impenetrable lignin and suberin called a Casparian strip that controls water and nutrient movement. It is a single layer of rectangular cells. Therefore, all of the above statements are correct.

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  • 19. 

    Which general statements is NOT true about woody stems?

    • A.

      Woody stems contain secondary growth

    • B.

      Secondary phloem accumulates to form wood

    • C.

      Secondary xylem accumulates to form wood

    • D.

      Cork cambium produces waterproof cork cells that become bark

    • E.

      The vascular cambium is located between the xylem and the phloem of the vascular bundles in a woody stem.

    Correct Answer
    B. Secondary phloem accumulates to form wood
    Explanation
    Woody stems do contain secondary growth, secondary xylem, and cork cambium that produces waterproof cork cells that become bark. The vascular cambium is also located between the xylem and phloem in a woody stem. However, secondary phloem does not accumulate to form wood. Instead, secondary phloem is responsible for transporting sugars and other nutrients throughout the plant.

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  • 20. 

    Which general statement about leaves is NOT correct?

    • A.

      Spines, tendrils, and traps are specialized leaf modifications

    • B.

      Gas exchange occurs through tiny openings in the leaf surface called stomata

    • C.

      Regulation of gas exchange through the leaf is the responsibility of the guard cels

    • D.

      Vascular tissue is found in both eudicot and monocot leaves

    • E.

      The photosynthetic mesophyll is typically made up of an upper spongy layer and a lower palasiade layer.

    Correct Answer
    E. The photosynthetic mesophyll is typically made up of an upper spongy layer and a lower palasiade layer.
    Explanation
    The photosynthetic mesophyll is typically made up of an upper spongy layer and a lower palisade layer. This statement is incorrect because the photosynthetic mesophyll is typically made up of an upper palisade layer and a lower spongy layer. The palisade layer contains tightly packed cells that are responsible for most of the photosynthesis, while the spongy layer contains loosely arranged cells that allow for gas exchange and storage of water and nutrients.

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  • 21. 

    Which of these cells of the vascular tissue transports sugars and is alive but lacks a nucleus, often dependant on a companion cell for its metabolic instructions?

    • A.

      Tracheid

    • B.

      Sieve-tube member

    • C.

      Vessel element

    • D.

      Guard cell

    • E.

      Fibers

    Correct Answer
    B. Sieve-tube member
    Explanation
    Sieve-tube members are cells in the vascular tissue that transport sugars. They are alive but lack a nucleus, relying on companion cells for metabolic instructions. Tracheids are also cells in the vascular tissue but are responsible for water transport. Vessel elements are another type of cell in the vascular tissue that aid in water and nutrient transport. Guard cells are found in the epidermis of leaves and regulate the opening and closing of stomata. Fibers are long, slender cells that provide support in the plant. Therefore, the correct answer is sieve-tube member.

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  • 22. 

    Annual rings in a woody stem

    • A.

      Represents the number of bark layers

    • B.

      Represents the number of layers of secondary xylem

    • C.

      Can be used to determine the age of a tree

    • D.

      Both A & C

    • E.

      Both B & C

    Correct Answer
    E. Both B & C
    Explanation
    Annual rings in a woody stem represent the number of layers of secondary xylem, which is responsible for transporting water and nutrients throughout the tree. These rings can be counted to determine the age of a tree, as each ring typically represents one year of growth. Therefore, both statement B (represents the number of layers of secondary xylem) and statement C (can be used to determine the age of a tree) are correct.

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  • 23. 

    In eudicots, the _______ retains its capacity to divide and gives rise to lateral roots.

    • A.

      Periderm

    • B.

      Phellom

    • C.

      Phloem

    • D.

      Pericycle

    • E.

      Casperian strip

    Correct Answer
    D. Pericycle
    Explanation
    In eudicots, the pericycle retains its capacity to divide and gives rise to lateral roots. The pericycle is a layer of cells located just inside the endodermis in the roots of plants. It is responsible for the formation of lateral roots, which branch off from the main root and help in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. The pericycle cells have the ability to divide and differentiate, allowing for the continuous growth and development of lateral roots.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the facts below contribute to the process of soil formation?

    • A.

      Decomposition of organic matter

    • B.

      Weathering or transport of bedrock

    • C.

      Activity of animals such as earthworms

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the mentioned facts contribute to the process of soil formation. Decomposition of organic matter adds nutrients to the soil, weathering or transport of bedrock breaks down rocks into smaller particles which become part of the soil, and the activity of animals such as earthworms helps in mixing and aerating the soil. Therefore, all three factors play a role in the formation of soil.

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  • 25. 

    Which is CORRECT description of the layers of soil?

    • A.

      The C horizon is newly weathered bedrock

    • B.

      The B horizon contains the soluble chemicals leeched from the A horizon

    • C.

      The A horizon is the rich topsoil and contains humus and litter

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above". This means that all three statements provided in the question are correct descriptions of the layers of soil. The C horizon is indeed the newly weathered bedrock, the B horizon does contain the soluble chemicals leached from the A horizon, and the A horizon is the rich topsoil that contains humus and litter.

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  • 26. 

    Because most roots need gaseous oxygen as well as liquid water, the best soil for agricultural plant is

    • A.

      Sand because is has the greatest pore space

    • B.

      Clay because it holds onto water better than silt or sand

    • C.

      Silt because it is intermediate between sand and clay in size

    • D.

      Loam, a mixture of all size soil particles and therefore able to hold onto water but be porous

    • E.

      Bedrock because its solid surface prevents the entry of water and gaseous oxygen

    Correct Answer
    D. Loam, a mixture of all size soil particles and therefore able to hold onto water but be porous
    Explanation
    Loam is the best soil for agricultural plants because it is a mixture of all size soil particles. This allows it to have a balance of water retention and porosity. Loam can hold onto water, which is essential for plant growth, while also allowing for proper drainage and oxygen flow to the roots. This combination of properties makes loam an ideal soil type for agricultural plants.

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  • 27. 

    Which statement is NOT true about stomata in flowering plants?

    • A.

      As guard cells become turgid, stomata open

    • B.

      There are two guard cells around each stomata

    • C.

      Guard cells take up potassium ions and water enters the guard cells

    • D.

      Guards cells surrounding stomata lack chloroplasts that other epidermal cells contain

    • E.

      Stomata open and close on a daily basis, even if kept in the dark, on a circadian rhythem

    Correct Answer
    D. Guards cells surrounding stomata lack chloroplasts that other epidermal cells contain
    Explanation
    Stomata are small openings on the surface of leaves that allow for gas exchange in plants. Guard cells surround each stomata and control their opening and closing. When guard cells become turgid, they open the stomata. This is because they take up potassium ions and water, which causes them to swell and create an opening. However, unlike other epidermal cells, guard cells lack chloroplasts, which are responsible for photosynthesis. This is because their main function is to regulate gas exchange, not to produce food through photosynthesis. Therefore, the statement "guard cells surrounding stomata lack chloroplasts that other epidermal cells contain" is true.

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  • 28. 

    How did scientist Marcello Malpighi,  in 1679, deduce the role of phloem before the chemistry was known?

    • A.

      He observed aphids and cut off their beaks

    • B.

      He was an early researcher on the cause of maple sap flow in producing syrup

    • C.

      He observed the effects of girdling a tree below the level of the majority of leaves

    • D.

      He used radioactive tracers to measure the flow of sap between two distances over time

    • E.

      He observed the uptake of ink into the stem of celery

    Correct Answer
    C. He observed the effects of girdling a tree below the level of the majority of leaves
    Explanation
    Marcello Malpighi deduced the role of phloem by observing the effects of girdling a tree below the level of the majority of leaves. Girdling involves removing a strip of bark around the circumference of a tree trunk, which disrupts the flow of nutrients and sugars through the phloem. By observing the effects of this process, Malpighi was able to infer that the phloem plays a crucial role in transporting nutrients and sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant. This observation provided evidence for the existence and function of the phloem before the chemistry behind it was known.

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  • 29. 

    Which statement is NOT true about the pressure-flow model of phloem transport?

    • A.

      Water is actively transported into phloem

    • B.

      Sugar sinks may later become sugar sources for growing plant structures

    • C.

      Pressure created in the phloem by the buildup of water and sugar

    • D.

      Sugar produced by photosyntesis is actively transported into phloem cells

    • E.

      Sugar is actively transported out of the phloem at a sink area such as the root

    Correct Answer
    A. Water is actively transported into phloem
    Explanation
    The pressure-flow model of phloem transport explains how sugars are transported in plants. According to this model, sugar produced by photosynthesis is actively transported into phloem cells, and pressure is created in the phloem by the buildup of water and sugar. Sugar sinks, which are areas where sugars are utilized or stored, can later become sugar sources for growing plant structures. Additionally, sugar is actively transported out of the phloem at sink areas such as the root. However, the statement that water is actively transported into the phloem is not true. In the pressure-flow model, water moves passively through the phloem due to osmosis, driven by the high concentration of sugars in the phloem.

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  • 30. 

    Transpiration rate in plants is increase by

    • A.

      Wind

    • B.

      Elevated temperature

    • C.

      Increased sunlight intensity

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The transpiration rate in plants is increased by wind, elevated temperature, and increased sunlight intensity. Wind increases transpiration by increasing the movement of air around the leaves, which in turn increases the rate of water evaporation. Elevated temperature also increases transpiration as it causes the stomata on the leaves to open wider, allowing for more water loss. Similarly, increased sunlight intensity leads to higher transpiration rates by stimulating the opening of stomata and promoting water evaporation. Therefore, all of the mentioned factors contribute to the increase in transpiration rate in plants.

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