Exercise Leadership Final Test

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Exercise Leadership Final Test - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Children have the same ability to generate ATP via glycolysis that adults have.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Children do not have the same ability as adults to generate ATP via glycolysis. While both children and adults can generate ATP through glycolysis, children have a higher reliance on this pathway compared to adults. This is because children have higher rates of glycolysis due to their higher metabolic demands for growth and development. As children mature into adulthood, their reliance on glycolysis decreases and they rely more on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 2. 

    Children have the same ability to dissipate heat that adults have.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Children do not have the same ability to dissipate heat as adults. This is because children have a larger surface area to body mass ratio compared to adults, which means that they lose heat more quickly. Additionally, children have less developed sweat glands, which affects their ability to regulate body temperature effectively. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 3. 

    Children have the same economy of walking that adults have.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that children and adults have the same economy of walking. However, this is not true. Children have a different economy of walking compared to adults. Children have shorter legs and a different stride length, which affects their walking efficiency. Additionally, children are still developing their motor skills and coordination, so their walking economy is not as efficient as that of adults. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 4. 

    Children have the same max METs as adults.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Children have the same max METs as adults because METs, or metabolic equivalents, are a measure of the amount of energy expended during physical activity. The max METs represent the maximum amount of energy that can be expended by an individual during exercise. While children may have different energy requirements and capabilities compared to adults, their maximum energy expenditure during physical activity can still be measured using METs. Therefore, children can have the same max METs as adults.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not assessed in most youth fitness tests?

    • A.

      Agility

    • B.

      Body composition

    • C.

      Cardiorespiratory fitness

    • D.

      Flexibility

    Correct Answer
    A. Agility
    Explanation
    Agility is not typically assessed in most youth fitness tests. These tests often focus on evaluating body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, and flexibility. Agility refers to the ability to change direction quickly and efficiently, which may not be a primary concern in standard youth fitness assessments. These tests usually aim to measure overall fitness levels and identify areas that may need improvement, such as body composition, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility.

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  • 6. 

    Adult exercise recommendations can be used for

    • A.

      Infants

    • B.

      Preschool children

    • C.

      Elementary school children

    • D.

      Adolescents

    Correct Answer
    D. Adolescents
    Explanation
    The exercise recommendations that are designed for adults may not be suitable for infants, preschool children, or elementary school children as their bodies and physical capabilities are different. However, these recommendations can be applied to adolescents as they are in a stage of physical development that is closer to that of adults. Therefore, the exercise guidelines for adults can be used for adolescents to promote their physical health and well-being.

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  • 7. 

    Resistance training for children and youth should emphasize strength rather than endurance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Resistance training for children and youth should not solely emphasize strength but also endurance. It is important for young individuals to develop both muscular strength and endurance to support their overall physical development and performance. By incorporating exercises that target both aspects, children can improve their muscular strength, endurance, and overall fitness levels. This balanced approach ensures that they develop a well-rounded foundation for their physical abilities and reduces the risk of imbalances or injuries.

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  • 8. 

    All physiological systems (e.g., cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, etc.) decrease in function with age at the same rate. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Physiological systems do not decrease in function at the same rate with age. Each system may experience different rates of decline. For example, the cardiovascular system may show more significant age-related changes compared to the respiratory system. Therefore, the statement that all physiological systems decrease in function with age at the same rate is false.

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  • 9. 

    Maximal oxygen uptake decreases at the rate of __ per decade in sedentary individuals. 

    • A.

      1%

    • B.

      10%

    • C.

      15%

    • D.

      20%

    Correct Answer
    B. 10%
    Explanation
    Maximal oxygen uptake refers to the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual's body can utilize during intense exercise. The given answer states that maximal oxygen uptake decreases at a rate of 10% per decade in sedentary individuals. This means that as individuals age, their ability to utilize oxygen during exercise decreases by 10% every ten years if they lead a sedentary lifestyle. Regular physical activity and exercise can help slow down this decline in maximal oxygen uptake.

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  • 10. 

    Endurance training programs increase V\od\O2max in older individuals by 

    • A.

      2% to 5%

    • B.

      10% to 30%

    • C.

      40% to 50%

    • D.

      100%

    Correct Answer
    B. 10% to 30%
    Explanation
    Endurance training programs have been found to significantly increase V\od\O2max (maximal oxygen consumption) in older individuals. This increase is typically in the range of 10% to 30%. This means that older individuals who engage in endurance training can expect to see a substantial improvement in their aerobic capacity, which is important for overall cardiovascular health and fitness. The range of 10% to 30% represents a moderate to high increase in V\od\O2max and highlights the effectiveness of endurance training in older individuals.

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  • 11. 

    Muscle mass and strength are relatively stable until what age? 

    • A.

      20

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      40

    • D.

      50

    Correct Answer
    D. 50
    Explanation
    Muscle mass and strength are relatively stable until the age of 50. After this age, there is a gradual decline in muscle mass and strength due to various factors such as hormonal changes, decreased physical activity, and age-related muscle loss. Regular exercise and strength training can help slow down this decline and maintain muscle mass and strength as individuals age.

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  • 12. 

    The primary activity to improve balance and reduce falls is 

    • A.

      Resistance training

    • B.

      Walking

    • C.

      Movements requiring weight transfer

    • D.

      all of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. all of the above
    Explanation
    Resistance training, walking, and movements requiring weight transfer are all effective activities for improving balance and reducing falls. Resistance training helps to strengthen muscles and improve stability, while walking helps to improve coordination and proprioception. Movements requiring weight transfer, such as shifting from one foot to another or performing exercises that involve shifting body weight, can also enhance balance and stability. Therefore, engaging in all of these activities can contribute to improving balance and reducing the risk of falls.

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  • 13. 

    What is the average gain in body fat that occurs in men or women between the ages of 25 and 75? 

    • A.

      5 kg

    • B.

      10 kg

    • C.

      15 kg

    • D.

      20 kg

    Correct Answer
    B. 10 kg
    Explanation
    The average gain in body fat that occurs in men or women between the ages of 25 and 75 is 10 kg. This means that, on average, both men and women tend to gain 10 kg of body fat during this time period.

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  • 14. 

    The energy demand to sustain pregnancy is ____ kcal · day–1.

    • A.

      150

    • B.

      250

    • C.

      300

    • D.

      400

    Correct Answer
    C. 300
    Explanation
    During pregnancy, a woman's body requires additional energy to support the growth and development of the fetus. This energy demand is necessary to provide nutrients and fuel for the baby's development. The correct answer of 300 kcal per day indicates the approximate amount of additional energy needed to sustain a healthy pregnancy. This extra energy requirement ensures that both the mother and the baby receive adequate nutrition and support optimal growth and development.

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  • 15. 

    If using submaximal testing for a pregnant woman, the test should be stopped at ____ HRR.

    • A.

      50%

    • B.

      60%

    • C.

      70%

    • D.

      75%

    Correct Answer
    D. 75%
    Explanation
    During pregnancy, the body undergoes various physiological changes, including an increase in blood volume and cardiac output. This means that the heart has to work harder to meet the increased demands of the body. The Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) is the difference between the maximum heart rate and resting heart rate. It is used as a measure of exercise intensity. Since pregnant women have an increased resting heart rate, it is recommended to stop submaximal testing at a higher percentage of HRR to ensure the safety of the mother and the baby. Therefore, the test should be stopped at 75% HRR.

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  • 16. 

    Women of ____ descent are particularly at risk for developing osteoporosis.

    • A.

      Caucasian

    • B.

      African

    • C.

      Asian

    • D.

      Caucasian and Asian

    Correct Answer
    D. Caucasian and Asian
    Explanation
    Women of Caucasian and Asian descent are particularly at risk for developing osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, and these two ethnic groups have been found to have a higher prevalence of the disease compared to others. This may be due to a combination of genetic factors, lifestyle choices, and hormonal differences. Both Caucasian and Asian women tend to have lower bone density and are more prone to experiencing bone loss as they age, making them more susceptible to osteoporosis.

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  • 17. 

    A myocardial infarction usually results from an atherosclerotic blockage in which of the following arteries?

    • A.

      Coronary artery

    • B.

      Carotid artery

    • C.

      Peripheral artery

    • D.

      Renal artery

    Correct Answer
    A. Coronary artery
    Explanation
    A myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when there is a blockage in the coronary artery. The coronary artery supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. If this artery becomes narrowed or blocked due to atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the artery walls, it can lead to a lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle, resulting in a heart attack. The carotid artery supplies blood to the brain, the peripheral artery supplies blood to the limbs, and the renal artery supplies blood to the kidneys, so they are not directly involved in causing a myocardial infarction.

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  • 18. 

     Which of the following is a true statement regarding the atherosclerotic process?

    • A.

      It only affects older individuals past 50 yr of age.

    • B.

      It occurs exclusively in the coronary arteries.

    • C.

      It is more likely to occur in individuals who have risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol.

    • D.

      Once atherosclerosis has occurred there is no way to reverse it.

    Correct Answer
    C. It is more likely to occur in individuals who have risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol.
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing and hardening of the arteries. This process is not limited to older individuals past 50 years of age, as it can occur in individuals of any age. Additionally, atherosclerosis can affect various arteries in the body, not just the coronary arteries. The statement that is true is that atherosclerosis is more likely to occur in individuals who have risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol. These risk factors contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. While it is difficult to reverse the effects of atherosclerosis completely, lifestyle modifications and medical interventions can help slow down its progression and reduce the risk of complications.

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  • 19. 

    The double product (systolic BP · heart rate) is often used clinically to estimate which of the following parameters?

    • A.

      Stroke volume

    • B.

      Cardiac output

    • C.

      Myocardial oxygen consumption

    • D.

      Angina

    Correct Answer
    C. Myocardial oxygen consumption
    Explanation
    The double product, which is the product of systolic blood pressure and heart rate, is often used clinically to estimate myocardial oxygen consumption. This is because the heart's workload and oxygen demand increase with higher blood pressure and heart rate. By measuring the double product, healthcare professionals can assess the oxygen needs of the heart and evaluate myocardial oxygen consumption.

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  • 20. 

    For those exercising to lose weight, the ACSM recommends that the frequency of exercise should be ____ days each week.

    • A.

      3 to 4

    • B.

      3 to 5

    • C.

      5 to 7

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. 5 to 7
    Explanation
    The ACSM recommends that individuals who are exercising to lose weight should aim for a frequency of 5 to 7 days each week. This recommendation is based on the understanding that regular and consistent exercise is necessary for weight loss. By exercising most days of the week, individuals can increase their calorie expenditure and create a calorie deficit, which is essential for losing weight. Additionally, exercising frequently helps to improve cardiovascular health, build muscle, and increase overall fitness levels. Therefore, the answer "5 to 7" is the most appropriate recommendation according to the ACSM.

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  • 21. 

    For weight loss, the ACSM recommends that people engage in at least ____ min of aerobic exercise each week.

    • A.

      75

    • B.

      100

    • C.

      150

    • D.

      200

    Correct Answer
    C. 150
    Explanation
    The ACSM recommends that people engage in at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise each week for weight loss. This duration allows for a sufficient amount of physical activity to burn calories and improve cardiovascular health. By engaging in regular aerobic exercise, individuals can create a calorie deficit, which is essential for weight loss. This recommendation aligns with the general guideline of getting at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week for overall health benefits.

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  • 22. 

    Elevated plasma glucose is also known as 

    • A.

      Hyperglycemia

    • B.

      Hypoglycemia

    • C.

      Hyperglucosemia

    • D.

      Hypoglucosemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Hyperglycemia
    Explanation
    Elevated plasma glucose refers to high levels of glucose in the blood. This condition is known as hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. It is commonly associated with diabetes, but can also occur due to other factors such as stress, certain medications, or hormonal imbalances. Hyperglycemia can lead to various symptoms including increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, and blurred vision. It is important to manage and treat hyperglycemia to prevent complications and maintain overall health.

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  • 23. 

    Normal fasting glucose level is ____ mg · dl–1.

    • A.

      20 to 40

    • B.

      Less than 100

    • C.

      100 to 125

    • D.

      Greater than or equal to 126

    Correct Answer
    B. Less than 100
    Explanation
    A normal fasting glucose level is typically less than 100 mg/dl. This means that when a person has not eaten for at least 8 hours, their blood sugar level should be below 100 mg/dl. This is considered normal and indicates good glucose control in the body. Levels between 100 and 125 mg/dl may indicate prediabetes, while levels equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl may indicate diabetes. Therefore, the correct answer is "less than 100".

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  • 24. 

    Type 1 diabetes results from a lack of 

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Glucagon

    • C.

      Carbohydrate

    • D.

      Insulin

    Correct Answer
    D. Insulin
    Explanation
    Type 1 diabetes results from a lack of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. In individuals with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a deficiency of insulin. Without enough insulin, the body is unable to properly process glucose, resulting in high blood sugar levels. Therefore, the lack of insulin is the underlying cause of type 1 diabetes.

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  • 25. 

    ______ is a condition in which the body’s insulin receptors no longer respond normally.

    • A.

      Type 1 diabetes

    • B.

      Insulin Resistance

    • C.

      Glucose Insufficiency

    • D.

      Impaired fasting glucose

    Correct Answer
    B. Insulin Resistance
    Explanation
    Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's insulin receptors no longer respond normally. This means that the body's cells are unable to effectively use insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to compensate for the resistance, leading to high levels of insulin in the blood. Insulin resistance is often associated with conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.

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  • 26. 

    Medical clearance 

    • A.

      Is needed only for people with type 1 diabetes

    • B.

      Is needed only for people with type 2 diabetes

    • C.

      Is needed for both people with type 1 diabetes and people with type 2 diabetes

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Is needed for both people with type 1 diabetes and people with type 2 diabetes
    Explanation
    Medical clearance is required for both people with type 1 diabetes and people with type 2 diabetes. This is because medical clearance ensures that individuals with diabetes are physically and medically fit to engage in certain activities, such as participating in sports or undergoing surgery. It helps to assess the overall health and management of diabetes in order to prevent any potential complications or risks. Therefore, medical clearance is necessary for both types of diabetes.

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  • 27. 

    The ACSM recommends that people with type 2 diabetes engage in 

    • A.

      Aerobic exercise

    • B.

      Resistance exercise

    • C.

      Both a and b

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Both a and b
    Explanation
    The ACSM recommends that people with type 2 diabetes engage in both aerobic exercise and resistance exercise. Aerobic exercise helps improve cardiovascular health, increases insulin sensitivity, and aids in weight management. Resistance exercise helps increase muscle strength, improves glucose control, and enhances overall physical function. By combining both types of exercise, individuals with type 2 diabetes can experience a wide range of benefits that can help manage their condition effectively.

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  • 28. 

    Diagnostic exercise testing is suggested for people ____ before they begin any exercise program.

    • A.

      With type 1 diabetes for >15 yr

    • B.

      With peripheral vascular disease

    • C.

      With known coronary artery disease

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Diagnostic exercise testing is suggested for people with type 1 diabetes for >15 yr, with peripheral vascular disease, and with known coronary artery disease before they begin any exercise program. This is because these individuals may have specific cardiovascular risks or complications that need to be assessed before engaging in physical activity.

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  • 29. 

    The percent saturation of hemoglobin in the arterial blood (SaO2) can be noninvasively measured with

    • A.

      Spirometer

    • B.

      Pulse oximeter

    • C.

      A dyspnea rating scale

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulse oximeter
    Explanation
    A pulse oximeter is a device that can measure the percent saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood (SaO2) noninvasively. It works by shining light through the skin and measuring the amount of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood. This information is then used to calculate the SaO2 level. A spirometer is a device used to measure lung function and cannot directly measure SaO2. A dyspnea rating scale is a subjective measure of breathlessness and is not used to directly measure SaO2. Therefore, the correct answer is pulse oximeter.

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  • 30. 

    In prescribing exercise for individuals with pulmonary disease, it is important to keep the percent saturation of hemoglobin in the arterial blood (SaO2) at or above ______. Supplemental oxygen may be required if it falls below this level.

    • A.

      100

    • B.

      90

    • C.

      80

    • D.

      70

    Correct Answer
    B. 90
    Explanation
    In prescribing exercise for individuals with pulmonary disease, it is important to keep the percent saturation of hemoglobin in the arterial blood (SaO2) at or above 90. Supplemental oxygen may be required if it falls below this level. This is because a SaO2 level below 90 indicates that there is not enough oxygen being carried by the blood to the body's tissues. Therefore, maintaining a SaO2 level of 90 or above is crucial to ensure that the body is receiving an adequate oxygen supply during exercise.

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  • 31. 

    A symptom of pulmonary disease that often worsens during exercise is shortness of breath, also known as 

    • A.

      Hypoxia

    • B.

      Hypoxemia

    • C.

      Dyspnea

    • D.

      Angina

    Correct Answer
    C. Dyspnea
    Explanation
    Dyspnea is the correct answer because it refers to the symptom of shortness of breath, which is commonly experienced by individuals with pulmonary disease and tends to worsen during exercise. Hypoxia refers to a deficiency of oxygen in the tissues, while hypoxemia refers to low levels of oxygen in the blood. Angina is chest pain or discomfort that occurs when the heart muscle does not receive enough blood.

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  • 32. 

    A general class of medications used to relax smooth muscle surrounding airways in the lungs and relieve symptoms of dyspnea is

    • A.

      Decongestants

    • B.

      Bronchodilators

    • C.

      Antihistamines

    • D.

      Diuretics

    Correct Answer
    B. Bronchodilators
    Explanation
    Bronchodilators are a class of medications that are commonly used to relax the smooth muscle surrounding the airways in the lungs. They are specifically designed to relieve symptoms of dyspnea, which is shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing. By relaxing the muscles, bronchodilators help to widen the airways, allowing for easier passage of air and improving breathing. This makes bronchodilators an effective treatment option for conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory disorders.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following mindful exercise modalities is not appropriate for phase II (1-4 wk after hospital discharge) cardiac rehabilitation?

    • A.

      Restorative yoga

    • B.

      Bikram yoga

    • C.

      Qigong exercise

    • D.

      Yogic breathing

    Correct Answer
    B. Bikram yoga
    Explanation
    Bikram yoga is not an appropriate mindful exercise modality for phase II cardiac rehabilitation. Bikram yoga involves practicing a series of 26 postures in a heated room, which can lead to dehydration and increased cardiovascular strain. During phase II, patients are still in the early stages of recovery and need to gradually increase their exercise intensity. Bikram yoga's high temperature and intense nature may be too demanding for their cardiovascular system at this stage. Restorative yoga, qigong exercise, and yogic breathing, on the other hand, are more gentle and suitable for phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

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