Releasing sulfur molecules into the atmosphere that reflect sunlight away from the Earth.
Cooling the planet for 1-2 years after the eruption.
Cooling the planet for 3-4 years after the eruption.
Releasing sulfur molecules into the atmosphere that absorb sunlight increasing the Earth's absorption of heat.
A difference from a long term average.
Data points measured consecutively at regular intervals in time.
Human intervention in complex systems that tend to create unintended results.
The study of when things become apparent.
Sunspots appearing in increased numbers.
The melting of Montana's glaciers.
Droughts occurring in California.
The decline of bald eagle populations before the 21st century.
A decrease in air quality.
An increase in forest health.
A decrease in agricultural production.
A positive effect on power production.
Legal protection such as the Endangered Species Act.
The implementation of fines for interfering with protected nesting areas.
Banning the use of DDT in the United States.
Deliberate reintroduction of bald eagles.
Upper air stations
LACCORE collecting lake-bed sediment to analyze the lake's history.
Measuring the amount of radiocarbon within preserved plants and insects to dates to what is found in lake sediment.
Collecting CO2 measurements at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii.
Studying ancient ring cores to compare to climatic events.
The use of concrete, glass, and steel have different thermal bulk properties than natural elements and change the energy balance due to the holding of heat.
The urban environment causes human health issues such as asthma.
Energy consumption is down due to most of the population living in condensed urban environments now and not in rural areas.
Temperatures in the urban core are lower at night due to the lack of solar radiation reaching the man-made surfaces.
It is affected by the surrounding ecological context, the size of the city, and the shape of the city.
Grasslands produce small but frequent fires.
Frequency and severity of fires are determined by the availability of fuel.
Closed forests produce large but infrequent fires.
This diagram shows how a fire ladder works.