Exam 3 Practice Quiz

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Practice Test Quizzes & Trivia

Lots of very specific questions. Some came from the book and are intended to connect some of the things that were hard to follow in lecture.

Note: you can click more than one answer per question.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which sutures join at the lambda?

    • A.

      Coronal and parietal

    • B.

      Temporal and parietal

    • C.

      Lambdoid and sagittal

    • D.

      Lambdoid and occipital

    • E.

      Lambdoid and parietal

    Correct Answer
    C. Lambdoid and sagittal
    Explanation
    The lambda is a specific point on the skull where the lambdoid and sagittal sutures intersect. The lambdoid suture is located at the back of the skull, separating the occipital bone from the parietal bones. The sagittal suture runs along the midline of the skull, separating the two parietal bones. Therefore, the correct answer is lambdoid and sagittal, as these are the sutures that meet at the lambda.

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  • 2. 

    The coronal and parietal sutures join at the ___.

    • A.

      Lambda

    • B.

      Bregma

    • C.

      Pterion

    • D.

      Parietal suture

    • E.

      Viscerocranium

    Correct Answer
    B. Bregma
    Explanation
    The coronal and parietal sutures join at the bregma. The bregma is a point on the skull where the coronal and sagittal sutures intersect. It is located at the anterior fontanelle in infants and typically closes by the age of two. The bregma is an important landmark in neuroanatomy and is used as a reference point for various measurements and surgical procedures.

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  • 3. 

    How many bones are in the viscerocranium?

    • A.

      8

    • B.

      12

    • C.

      15

    • D.

      16

    • E.

      23

    Correct Answer
    C. 15
    Explanation
    The viscerocranium is the facial skeleton, which consists of the bones that form the structure of the face. There are a total of 15 bones in the viscerocranium, including the mandible, maxilla, zygomatic bones, nasal bones, and others. These bones are responsible for providing support and protection to the facial organs and also play a crucial role in facial expressions.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is not a paired bone in the viscerocranium?

    • A.

      Maxilla

    • B.

      Ethmoid

    • C.

      Palatine

    • D.

      Lacrimal

    • E.

      Sphenoid

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Ethmoid
    E. Sphenoid
    Explanation
    The viscerocranium is the facial skeleton, and it is composed of several paired and unpaired bones. The maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid bones are all paired bones in the viscerocranium. However, the sphenoid bone is not a paired bone in the viscerocranium. Therefore, the sphenoid bone is the correct answer because it is the only option that is not a paired bone in the viscerocranium.

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  • 5. 

    The crista galli is part of the ___ bone.

    • A.

      Frontal

    • B.

      Sphenoid

    • C.

      Ethmoid

    • D.

      Maxillary

    • E.

      Palatine

    Correct Answer
    C. Ethmoid
    Explanation
    The crista galli is a bony ridge that projects from the ethmoid bone, which is located at the front of the skull between the eye sockets. It serves as an attachment point for the falx cerebri, a fold of the dura mater that helps support and stabilize the brain. The ethmoid bone also contains several other important structures, such as the cribriform plate, which allows for the passage of olfactory nerves involved in the sense of smell. Therefore, the correct answer is ethmoid.

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  • 6. 

    What structure in the sella turcica covers the pituitary gland?

    • A.

      Anterior clinoid process

    • B.

      Posterior clinoid process

    • C.

      Hypophyseal fossa

    • D.

      Dorsum sella

    • E.

      Infundibulum

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypophyseal fossa
    Explanation
    The hypophyseal fossa is the structure in the sella turcica that covers the pituitary gland. The sella turcica is a bony depression in the sphenoid bone, and the hypophyseal fossa is the deepest part of this depression. It is shaped like a saddle and provides a protective covering for the pituitary gland, which is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls the release of hormones that regulate various bodily functions.

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  • 7. 

    Which cranial nerve passes through the cribiform plate?

    • A.

      CN I

    • B.

      CN II

    • C.

      CN III

    • D.

      CN IV

    • E.

      CN V

    Correct Answer
    A. CN I
    Explanation
    The correct answer is CN I. The olfactory nerve, also known as cranial nerve I, is the only cranial nerve that passes through the cribiform plate. This nerve is responsible for the sense of smell and carries sensory information from the nasal cavity to the brain.

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  • 8. 

    Which part of the sphenoid bone is most anterior?

    • A.

      Pterygoid process

    • B.

      Anterior clinoid process

    • C.

      Greater wings

    • D.

      Lesser wings

    • E.

      Pterygoid process

    Correct Answer
    D. Lesser wings
    Explanation
    The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are the most anterior part. They are thin, triangular-shaped structures that extend horizontally from the body of the sphenoid bone. The greater wings, on the other hand, are larger and extend laterally from the body of the sphenoid bone. The pterygoid process is a bony projection that extends inferiorly from the body of the sphenoid bone. The anterior clinoid process is a small bony projection located at the anterior end of the sella turcica, a depression in the sphenoid bone.

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  • 9. 

    Which bones comprise the clivus?

    • A.

      Sphenoid

    • B.

      Parietal

    • C.

      Ethmoid

    • D.

      Occipital

    • E.

      Temporal

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sphenoid
    D. Occipital
    Explanation
    The clivus is a bony ridge located at the base of the skull. It is formed by the fusion of the sphenoid and occipital bones. The sphenoid bone is a butterfly-shaped bone located in the middle of the skull, while the occipital bone is located at the back of the skull. These two bones come together to form the clivus, which provides support and stability to the skull. The parietal, ethmoid, and temporal bones do not contribute to the formation of the clivus.

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  • 10. 

    Which does not pass through the jugular foramen?

    • A.

      Internal jugular vein

    • B.

      Cranial nerve IX

    • C.

      Cranial nerve XI

    • D.

      Cranial nerve XII

    • E.

      Cranial nerve X

    Correct Answer
    D. Cranial nerve XII
    Explanation
    Cranial nerve XII, also known as the hypoglossal nerve, does not pass through the jugular foramen. The jugular foramen is a large opening in the base of the skull that allows for the passage of important structures such as the internal jugular vein and several cranial nerves. However, cranial nerve XII exits the skull through its own separate opening called the hypoglossal canal, which is located just anterior to the jugular foramen. Therefore, cranial nerve XII does not pass through the jugular foramen.

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  • 11. 

    The meningeal artery passes through ____.

    • A.

      Jugular foramen

    • B.

      Foramen magnum

    • C.

      Stylomastoid foramen

    • D.

      Foramen spinosum

    • E.

      Superior orbital fissure

    Correct Answer
    D. Foramen spinosum
    Explanation
    The meningeal artery passes through the foramen spinosum.

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  • 12. 

    Foramen spinosum is part of the ___ bone.

    • A.

      Sphenoid

    • B.

      Ethmoid

    • C.

      Inferior nasal concha

    • D.

      Zygomatic

    • E.

      Maxillary

    Correct Answer
    A. Sphenoid
    Explanation
    The foramen spinosum is a small opening located in the sphenoid bone. It is situated on the lateral aspect of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, posterior to the foramen ovale. This foramen serves as a passageway for the middle meningeal artery, which supplies blood to the meninges and bones of the cranial vault. Therefore, the correct answer is sphenoid.

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  • 13. 

    Cranial nerve VII passes through ___ in the ___ bone.

    • A.

      Stylomastoid foramen/occipital

    • B.

      Stylomastoid foramen/temporal

    • C.

      Foramen rotundum/maxillary

    • D.

      Foramen rotundum/sphenoid

    • E.

      Foramen spinosum/sphenoid

    Correct Answer
    B. Stylomastoid foramen/temporal
    Explanation
    Cranial nerve VII, also known as the facial nerve, passes through the stylomastoid foramen. This foramen is located in the temporal bone.

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  • 14. 

    The external auditory meatus is in the __ bone.

    • A.

      Occipital

    • B.

      Parietal

    • C.

      Temporal

    • D.

      Maxilla

    • E.

      Sphenoid

    Correct Answer
    C. Temporal
    Explanation
    The external auditory meatus is a part of the ear canal, which is located in the temporal bone. This bone is situated on the sides and base of the skull, and it houses important structures such as the ear canal, middle ear, and inner ear. The temporal bone is responsible for protecting these delicate structures and also plays a role in hearing and balance.

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  • 15. 

    The sella turcica is part of the ___ cranial fossa.

    • A.

      Anterior

    • B.

      Middle

    • C.

      Posterior

    Correct Answer
    B. Middle
    Explanation
    The sella turcica is part of the middle cranial fossa. The cranial fossa is the concave base of the skull that houses the brain. It is divided into three regions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The sella turcica is a saddle-shaped depression located in the middle cranial fossa. It houses the pituitary gland and is surrounded by bony structures such as the sphenoid bone.

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  • 16. 

    Which is not in the middle cranial fossa?

    • A.

      Superior orbital fissure

    • B.

      Foramen rotundum

    • C.

      Foramen ovale

    • D.

      Foramen magnum

    • E.

      Optic canal

    Correct Answer
    D. Foramen magnum
    Explanation
    The foramen magnum is not in the middle cranial fossa. It is located at the base of the skull, specifically in the posterior cranial fossa. The foramen magnum is a large opening through which the spinal cord passes and connects to the brain. It allows for the passage of important structures such as blood vessels and nerves. The other options listed, including the superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, and optic canal, are all located in the middle cranial fossa.

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  • 17. 

    Which is/are not in the posterior cranial fossa?

    • A.

      Internal acoustic meatus

    • B.

      Hypoglossal canal

    • C.

      Foramen magnum

    • D.

      Jugular foramen

    • E.

      Foramen rotundum

    Correct Answer
    E. Foramen rotundum
    Explanation
    The foramen rotundum is not located in the posterior cranial fossa. The posterior cranial fossa is a depression in the base of the skull that contains various openings for nerves and blood vessels. The internal acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, foramen magnum, and jugular foramen are all structures that are found in the posterior cranial fossa. However, the foramen rotundum is not located in this region. It is actually located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a different compartment of the skull.

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  • 18. 

    Which is not a point where the trigeminal nerve passes through the skull?

    • A.

      Superior orbital fissure

    • B.

      Foramen ovale

    • C.

      Foramen spinosum

    • D.

      Stylomastoid foramen

    • E.

      Foramen rotunda

    Correct Answer
    D. Stylomastoid foramen
    Explanation
    The stylomastoid foramen is not a point where the trigeminal nerve passes through the skull. The trigeminal nerve passes through the superior orbital fissure, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, and foramen rotunda. The stylomastoid foramen is located in the temporal bone and serves as an exit point for the facial nerve.

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  • 19. 

    The hypoglossal canal runs ____.

    • A.

      Between the jugular foramen and foramen spinosum

    • B.

      Between foramen ovale and foramen lacerum

    • C.

      Between the jugular foramen and foramen magnum

    • D.

      Between foramen rotundum and jugular foramen

    • E.

      Between foramen magnum and foramen lacerum

    Correct Answer
    C. Between the jugular foramen and foramen magnum
    Explanation
    The hypoglossal canal is a bony canal that runs between the jugular foramen and the foramen magnum. It is located in the base of the skull and allows the passage of the hypoglossal nerve, which is responsible for the movement of the tongue.

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  • 20. 

    Which cranial meninge creates falxes?

    • A.

      Pia mater

    • B.

      Arachnoid mater

    • C.

      Dura mater (meningeal layer)

    • D.

      Dura mater (periosteal layer)

    Correct Answer
    C. Dura mater (meningeal layer)
    Explanation
    The dura mater is the outermost and toughest layer of the cranial meninges. It is composed of two layers: the meningeal layer and the periosteal layer. The meningeal layer of the dura mater is responsible for creating the falx cerebri and other falxes in the brain. These falxes are important structures that help to separate and support different parts of the brain. Therefore, the correct answer is dura mater (meningeal layer).

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  • 21. 

    Which is not an infolding of dura mater?

    • A.

      Falx cerebelli

    • B.

      Sellar diaphragm

    • C.

      Tentorium cerebri

    • D.

      Falx cerebri

    • E.

      Tentorium cerebelli

    Correct Answer
    C. Tentorium cerebri
    Explanation
    The tentorium cerebri is not an infolding of the dura mater. It is a thick, crescent-shaped fold of dura mater that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum in the brain. The falx cerebelli is an infolding of the dura mater that separates the two cerebellar hemispheres. The sellar diaphragm is a small infolding of the dura mater that covers the sella turcica, a bony structure in the skull. The falx cerebri is a large infolding of the dura mater that runs vertically in the midline, separating the two cerebral hemispheres.

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  • 22. 

    .Which sinus does not meet at the confluence of sinuses?

    • A.

      Superior sagittal sinus

    • B.

      Straight sinus

    • C.

      Inferior petrosal sinus

    • D.

      Cerebral vein

    • E.

      Occipital sinus

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Inferior petrosal sinus
    D. Cerebral vein
    Explanation
    The inferior petrosal sinus and cerebral vein do not meet at the confluence of sinuses. The confluence of sinuses is a region in the brain where several sinuses, including the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, and occipital sinus, come together. The inferior petrosal sinus and cerebral vein drain into other veins in the brain, but not at the confluence of sinuses.

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  • 23. 

    The cerebral vein flows into the ___ sinus.

    • A.

      Superior sagittal

    • B.

      Inferior sagittal

    • C.

      Straight

    • D.

      Occipital

    • E.

      Superior petrosal

    Correct Answer
    C. Straight
    Explanation
    The cerebral vein flows into the straight sinus.

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  • 24. 

    The transverse sinuses meet the inferior petrosal sinuses to to form the ___.

    • A.

      Internal jugular vein

    • B.

      Sigmoid sinuses

    • C.

      Confluence of sinuses

    • D.

      Superior petrosal sinuses

    • E.

      Lateral sinuses

    Correct Answer
    B. Sigmoid sinuses
    Explanation
    The transverse sinuses meet the inferior petrosal sinuses to form the sigmoid sinuses. The sigmoid sinuses are located in the posterior cranial fossa and drain into the internal jugular vein. They are responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood away from the brain and back to the heart.

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  • 25. 

    Where does the supply to the dural venous sinuses come from?

    • A.

      The internal jugular vein

    • B.

      Superior cerebral veins

    • C.

      Emissary veins

    • D.

      The internal carotid artery

    • E.

      Inferior cerebral veins

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Superior cerebral veins
    C. Emissary veins
    Explanation
    The supply to the dural venous sinuses comes from the superior cerebral veins and emissary veins. The superior cerebral veins drain blood from the superior parts of the brain and contribute to the venous drainage of the dural sinuses. Emissary veins are small veins that connect the dural sinuses with the veins outside the skull, allowing for the exchange of blood between the intracranial and extracranial venous systems.

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  • 26. 

    What comes through the subarachnoid granulations?

    • A.

      Venous blood

    • B.

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    • C.

      Plasma

    • D.

      Nutrients

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebrospinal fluid
    Explanation
    The subarachnoid granulations are responsible for allowing the cerebrospinal fluid to pass through. These granulations are small, finger-like projections found in the arachnoid mater, one of the layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord. The cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the ventricles of the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing buoyancy and protection. The subarachnoid granulations act as one-way valves, allowing the cerebrospinal fluid to exit the subarachnoid space and enter the venous system, where it is eventually reabsorbed into the bloodstream.

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  • 27. 

    Where does the CSF from subarachnoid granulations go?

    • A.

      It joins the venous blood in the superior sagittal sinus, which flows posteriorly to the confluence of sinuses and follows a path to leave the brain via the internal jugular vein

    • B.

      Iit joins the CSF in the superior sagittal sinuses, which flows posteriorly to the confluence of sinuses

    • C.

      It joins the blood in the inferior sagittal sinuses, which flows via the straight sinus to the confluence of sinuses

    • D.

      It joins the blood in the inferior petrosal sinuses, which joins the sigmoid sinuses and eventually leaves the brain through the jugular foramen as the IJV

    • E.

      It joins the CSF in the fourth ventricle.

    Correct Answer
    A. It joins the venous blood in the superior sagittal sinus, which flows posteriorly to the confluence of sinuses and follows a path to leave the brain via the internal jugular vein
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the CSF from subarachnoid granulations joins the venous blood in the superior sagittal sinus, which flows posteriorly to the confluence of sinuses and follows a path to leave the brain via the internal jugular vein. This is because the superior sagittal sinus is a major dural venous sinus located in the midline of the brain, and it receives blood from the subarachnoid space through the arachnoid granulations. The blood in the superior sagittal sinus then flows posteriorly to the confluence of sinuses, where it merges with other sinuses before leaving the brain through the internal jugular vein.

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  • 28. 

    Which does not pass through the cavernous sinus?

    • A.

      Internal carotid artery

    • B.

      Cranial nerve III

    • C.

      Cranial nerve V3

    • D.

      Cranial nerve V2

    • E.

      Cranial nerve V1

    Correct Answer
    C. Cranial nerve V3
    Explanation
    Cranial nerve V3, also known as the mandibular nerve, does not pass through the cavernous sinus. The cavernous sinus is a large vein-filled space located on each side of the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland. Cranial nerves III, V1, and V2 all pass through the cavernous sinus. Cranial nerve V3, however, exits the skull through the foramen ovale and does not enter the cavernous sinus.

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  • 29. 

    What comprises the leptomeninx?

    • A.

      The two layers of dura mater

    • B.

      The three cranial meninges

    • C.

      The arachnoid mater and the pia mater

    • D.

      The arachnoid mater and the two layers of dura mater

    • E.

      The arachnoid mater and the meningeal layer of dura mater

    Correct Answer
    C. The arachnoid mater and the pia mater
    Explanation
    The leptomeninx refers to the two innermost layers of the meninges, which are the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. These two layers are located beneath the dura mater and provide protection and support for the brain and spinal cord. The arachnoid mater is a delicate, web-like membrane that lies between the dura mater and the pia mater. The pia mater is a thin, transparent membrane that adheres closely to the surface of the brain and spinal cord, providing nourishment and support. Together, these two layers make up the leptomeninx.

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  • 30. 

    What developed from the prosencephalon?

    • A.

      Telencephalon

    • B.

      Diencephalon

    • C.

      Mesencephalon

    • D.

      Metencephalon

    • E.

      Myelencephalon

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Telencephalon
    B. Diencephalon
    Explanation
    The prosencephalon is one of the three primary divisions of the embryonic brain. It further develops into two major regions known as the telencephalon and diencephalon. The telencephalon is responsible for higher cognitive functions, such as memory, language, and sensory processing. It includes structures like the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system. On the other hand, the diencephalon plays a crucial role in relaying sensory information and regulating various homeostatic processes. It consists of structures like the thalamus and hypothalamus.

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  • 31. 

    The metencephalon and the myelencephalon developed from the ___.

    • A.

      Prosencephalon

    • B.

      Mesencephalon

    • C.

      Rhombencephalon

    • D.

      Telencephalon

    • E.

      Diencephalon

    Correct Answer
    C. Rhombencephalon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is rhombencephalon. The metencephalon and the myelencephalon are both parts of the rhombencephalon, which is one of the three primary vesicles that develop during early brain development. The prosencephalon, mesencephalon, telencephalon, and diencephalon are all different parts of the brain, but they do not give rise to the metencephalon and myelencephalon.

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  • 32. 

    The cerebral aqueduct develops from the ___.

    • A.

      Telencephalon

    • B.

      Diencephalon

    • C.

      Mesencephalon

    • D.

      Metencephalon

    • E.

      Myelencephalon

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesencephalon
    Explanation
    The cerebral aqueduct, also known as the aqueduct of Sylvius, is a narrow canal that connects the third and fourth ventricles in the brain. It develops from the mesencephalon, which is also known as the midbrain. The mesencephalon is one of the major divisions of the brainstem and plays a crucial role in relaying sensory and motor information.

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  • 33. 

    The cortex is made up of ___ matter.

    • A.

      Grey

    • B.

      White

    Correct Answer
    A. Grey
    Explanation
    The cortex is made up of grey matter. Grey matter refers to the regions of the brain that primarily consist of cell bodies and dendrites of neurons. It is responsible for processing information and controlling various functions of the brain. The grey color is due to the presence of cell bodies and lack of myelin, which gives it a distinct appearance compared to the white matter. White matter, on the other hand, consists of myelinated axons that connect different regions of the brain.

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  • 34. 

    A ____ is a collection of ____ in the ___.

    • A.

      Nerve/axons/CNS

    • B.

      Nerve/axons/PNS

    • C.

      Ganglia/axons/CNS

    • D.

      Ganglia/cell bodies/PNS

    • E.

      Tract/axons/CNS

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Nerve/axons/PNS
    D. Ganglia/cell bodies/PNS
    E. Tract/axons/CNS
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ganglia/cell bodies/PNS. A ganglia is a collection of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The other options are incorrect because nerves are collections of axons, not ganglia, and tracts are collections of axons in the central nervous system (CNS), not ganglia or cell bodies.

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  • 35. 

    What separates the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain?

    • A.

      Temporal sulcus

    • B.

      Central sulcus

    • C.

      Sagitttal sulcus

    • D.

      Transverse cerebral fissure

    Correct Answer
    B. Central sulcus
    Explanation
    The central sulcus is a prominent fissure that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe in the brain. It runs laterally from the top of the brain to the side, dividing the two lobes. This sulcus is important as it marks the boundary between the primary motor cortex in the frontal lobe and the primary somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe. It plays a crucial role in motor control and sensory perception.

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  • 36. 

    The lateral sulcus separates:

    • A.

      Temporal and parietal lobes

    • B.

      Temporal and occipital lobes

    • C.

      Temporal and frontal lobes

    • D.

      Temporal lobe from cerebellum

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Temporal and parietal lobes
    C. Temporal and frontal lobes
    Explanation
    The lateral sulcus, also known as the Sylvian fissure, is a prominent landmark in the brain that separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes. It runs horizontally along the side of the brain, starting near the temple and extending towards the back. This fissure plays a crucial role in separating different functional areas of the brain, with the temporal lobe responsible for auditory processing and memory, while the frontal and parietal lobes are involved in higher cognitive functions such as decision-making, attention, and sensory integration.

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  • 37. 

    The ___ area is posterior to the central sulcus

    • A.

      Sensory

    • B.

      Motor

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sensory. The central sulcus is a prominent groove that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe in the brain. The sensory area, also known as the somatosensory cortex, is located posterior to the central sulcus in the parietal lobe. This area is responsible for processing sensory information such as touch, temperature, and pain from different parts of the body.

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  • 38. 

    What does the internal capsule pass through?

    • A.

      The cerebellum

    • B.

      Basal nuclei

    • C.

      Red nucleus

    • D.

      The subarachnoid space

    • E.

      The internal jugular foramen

    Correct Answer
    B. Basal nuclei
    Explanation
    The internal capsule is a white matter structure in the brain that connects the cerebral cortex to the brainstem and spinal cord. It passes through the basal nuclei, which are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in motor control and other functions. The basal nuclei play a crucial role in relaying information from the cerebral cortex to the brainstem and spinal cord, and the internal capsule serves as a pathway for this communication.

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  • 39. 

    A stroke effecting the genu of the internal capsule effects ___

    • A.

      Intellect and personality

    • B.

      Sensory functions

    • C.

      Motor functions

    • D.

      Somatic association

    • E.

      Physical movements associated with speech

    Correct Answer
    C. Motor functions
    Explanation
    A stroke affecting the genu of the internal capsule affects motor functions. The genu of the internal capsule is a crucial pathway that carries motor fibers from the brain to the spinal cord. When this area is affected by a stroke, it can lead to weakness or paralysis on the opposite side of the body. This can result in difficulties with movements such as walking, grasping objects, or performing coordinated tasks. Therefore, the correct answer is motor functions.

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  • 40. 

    What is the brain within the brain?

    • A.

      Cerebellum

    • B.

      Island of Reil

    • C.

      Broca's area

    • D.

      Insula

    • E.

      Circle of Willis

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Island of Reil
    D. Insula
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the island of Reil, also known as the insula. It is a small region within the brain that is located deep within the lateral sulcus. The insula is involved in various functions such as processing emotions, self-awareness, empathy, and interoception. It also plays a role in language processing, motor control, and sensory integration.

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  • 41. 

    Where is the visual cortex or the right visual field?

    • A.

      Right frontal lobe

    • B.

      Left frontal lobe

    • C.

      Right occipital lobe

    • D.

      Left occipital lobe

    Correct Answer
    D. Left occipital lobe
    Explanation
    The visual cortex is responsible for processing visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe, which is situated at the back of the brain. The left occipital lobe specifically processes visual information from the right visual field. Therefore, the correct answer is left occipital lobe.

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  • 42. 

    What is released by the hypothalamus?

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      Epinephrine

    • C.

      Norepinephrine

    • D.

      Oxytocin

    • E.

      Vasopressin

    Correct Answer(s)
    D. Oxytocin
    E. Vasopressin
    Explanation
    vasopressin is another name for ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

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  • 43. 

    How many cranial nerves originate on the brain stem?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      8

    • D.

      10

    • E.

      12

    Correct Answer
    D. 10
    Explanation
    There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves in total, with 10 of them originating directly from the brain stem. These nerves play a crucial role in controlling various functions of the head and neck, including sensory and motor functions.

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  • 44. 

    What continues from the medulla oblongata to the spinal cord?

    • A.

      Cerebral aqueduct

    • B.

      Intraventricular foramen

    • C.

      Central canal

    • D.

      Fourth ventricle

    Correct Answer
    C. Central canal
    Explanation
    The central canal continues from the medulla oblongata to the spinal cord. The central canal is a fluid-filled channel that runs through the center of the spinal cord and connects with the ventricular system of the brain. It serves as a pathway for cerebrospinal fluid and is involved in the circulation and distribution of nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the central nervous system.

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  • 45. 

    Which cranial nerves arise in the midbrain?

    • A.

      II

    • B.

      III

    • C.

      III

    • D.

      IV

    • E.

      V

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. III
    D. IV
    Explanation
    Cranial nerves III (oculomotor) and IV (trochlear) arise in the midbrain. Cranial nerve III controls the movement of the eye muscles and pupil constriction, while cranial nerve IV controls the movement of the superior oblique muscle of the eye.

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  • 46. 

    Corticospinal fibers arise in the ___.

    • A.

      Pyramids

    • B.

      Cerebral peduncle

    • C.

      Precentral gyrus

    • D.

      Central canal

    • E.

      Pons

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebral peduncle
    Explanation
    Corticospinal fibers arise in the cerebral peduncle, which is a part of the brainstem located between the midbrain and the pons. These fibers originate from the precentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex and descend through the brainstem to the spinal cord. The cerebral peduncle serves as a pathway for these motor fibers, allowing for the transmission of signals from the brain to the spinal cord and ultimately controlling voluntary movements of the body. The other options listed are not directly involved in the origin or transmission of corticospinal fibers.

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  • 47. 

    What connects the third and fourth ventricles?

    • A.

      Intraventricular foramen

    • B.

      Median aperture

    • C.

      Lateral apertures

    • D.

      Cerebral aqueduct

    • E.

      Arachnoid granulations

    Correct Answer
    D. Cerebral aqueduct
    Explanation
    The cerebral aqueduct connects the third and fourth ventricles in the brain. It is a narrow canal that allows cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to flow between these two ventricles. CSF plays a crucial role in cushioning and protecting the brain, as well as providing nutrients and removing waste products. The cerebral aqueduct is located within the midbrain and is an important pathway for the circulation of CSF throughout the ventricular system.

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  • 48. 

    Where is the reflex center for visual stimulation?

    • A.

      Red nucleus

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Superior colliculi

    • D.

      Inferior colliculi

    • E.

      Clivus

    Correct Answer
    C. Superior colliculi
    Explanation
    The superior colliculi is the reflex center for visual stimulation. Located in the midbrain, these structures play a crucial role in directing eye movements and coordinating visual responses. They receive input from the retina and other visual pathways, allowing for the quick and automatic processing of visual information. This reflexive response helps orient our gaze towards visual stimuli and is essential for visual tracking and attention.

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  • 49. 

    Collectively the superior and inferior colliculi are called

    • A.

      Reflex centers

    • B.

      Corpora quadrigemina of tectum

    • C.

      Choroid plexa

    • D.

      Cerebral peduncles

    Correct Answer
    B. Corpora quadrigemina of tectum
    Explanation
    The superior and inferior colliculi are two pairs of small structures located in the midbrain. Together, they are known as the corpora quadrigemina of the tectum. The tectum is the dorsal part of the midbrain and is responsible for processing sensory information, particularly visual and auditory stimuli. The colliculi play a crucial role in coordinating reflex responses to visual and auditory stimuli, such as the startle reflex. Therefore, the correct answer is corpora quadrigemina of tectum.

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  • 50. 

    Which cranial nerve doesn't originate in the pons?

    • A.

      IV

    • B.

      V

    • C.

      VI

    • D.

      VII

    • E.

      VIII

    Correct Answer
    A. IV
    Explanation
    Cranial nerve IV, also known as the trochlear nerve, is the only cranial nerve that doesn't originate in the pons. It originates in the midbrain, specifically in the trochlear nucleus. The trochlear nerve is responsible for the motor control of the superior oblique muscle, which is involved in eye movement.

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Day4517 |MedicalEducation |
Jessica, a seasoned Physician Associate with a decade of clinical expertise, seamlessly integrates over five years of teaching experience. Her unique background in journalism adds a distinctive dimension to her multifaceted approach to healthcare and education, creating a rich and diverse professional profile.
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