Exam 3 4 Lectures

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Exam 3 4 Lectures - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The tuberculin skin test measures DTH to a purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin. With reference to this test

    • A.

      A negative PPD test can be obtained from an individual who had a primary infection 20 years ago

    • B.

      A positive PPD indicates that the individual has active tuberculosis

    • C.

      A positive PPD cannot be obtained from an individual who had a primary infection twenty years ago

    • D.

      A positive PPD can be obtained within 24 hours after an inidivudal is infected with M. Tuberuclosis

    • E.

      A negative PPD test in an individual with AIDS show the patient is not infected with M. tuberculosis

    Correct Answer
    A. A negative PPD test can be obtained from an individual who had a primary infection 20 years ago
    Explanation
    A negative PPD test can be obtained from an individual who had a primary infection 20 years ago because the tuberculin skin test measures delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to the purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin. After a primary infection, the immune system develops a memory response to the tuberculin antigen. However, over time, the immune response may decrease and become undetectable, resulting in a negative PPD test even if the individual had a previous infection. Therefore, a negative PPD test does not necessarily indicate that the individual is not infected with M. tuberculosis.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is a false statement about reactivation TB?

    • A.

      Tubercle bacilli can remain viable for long periods of time and be casual agents of reactivation

    • B.

      It is associated with immunosuppression due to malnutrition, alchool, age, and puberty

    • C.

      The primary infection can merge into the reactivation type

    • D.

      The chronic fever and weight loss may be mediated by macrophage derived TNF

    • E.

      The majority of individuals succumb to reactivation TB

    Correct Answer
    E. The majority of individuals succumb to reactivation TB
    Explanation
    Reactivation TB is a form of tuberculosis that occurs when a latent infection becomes active again. The statement "The majority of individuals succumb to reactivation TB" is false because most individuals with reactivation TB can be successfully treated with appropriate medication. While reactivation TB can be serious if left untreated, it does not typically result in death for the majority of individuals.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following statements is false regarding Mycobacterium tuberculosis and tb?

    • A.

      Humans have a high innate immunity to M. Tuberculosis

    • B.

      Less than 10 bacilli can initiate a pulmonary infection in suceptible individuals

    • C.

      A animal variant (m. bovis) found in cows can cause tuberculosis in humans

    • D.

      Spread of M. tuberculosis outside of the lung has no serious clinical manifestations

    • E.

      Because of the high lipid content of the cell wall, once stained M. tuberculosis cannot be easily distained

    Correct Answer
    D. Spread of M. tuberculosis outside of the lung has no serious clinical manifestations
    Explanation
    The spread of M. tuberculosis outside of the lung can have serious clinical manifestations. This is because the bacteria can disseminate through the bloodstream and affect other organs, leading to conditions such as miliary tuberculosis or extrapulmonary tuberculosis. These conditions can be severe and potentially life-threatening.

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  • 4. 

    In which of the following would penicillin be the treament of choice (assuming no resistance)

    • A.

      Treponema pallidium

    • B.

      Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    • C.

      Mycoplasma hominins

    • D.

      Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Correct Answer
    A. Treponema pallidium
    Explanation
    Penicillin would be the treatment of choice for Treponema pallidum. This is because Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, and penicillin is the most effective antibiotic for treating syphilis. It is important to note that the assumption here is that there is no resistance to penicillin.

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  • 5. 

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection can be diagnosed by

    • A.

      The celar distinction of its clinical manifestations relative to those of bacterail and viral infections

    • B.

      The rapid growht of cultures from throat swabs or sputum

    • C.

      The presence of low titer cold hemagglutinins

    • D.

      The rise in serum antibody, detected by compliment fixation

    • E.

      Demonstration of urease activity

    Correct Answer
    D. The rise in serum antibody, detected by compliment fixation
    Explanation
    The rise in serum antibody, detected by compliment fixation, is a method used to diagnose Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. When a person is infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, their immune system produces antibodies to fight against the infection. Complement fixation is a laboratory technique that can detect the presence of these antibodies in the serum of the patient. This method is specific to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and can help confirm the diagnosis of the infection.

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  • 6. 

    In the lab, what is the distinguishing feature of mycolplasma hominins?

    • A.

      Serolgical tests such as complement fixation

    • B.

      Arginine break down

    • C.

      Urease production

    • D.

      Fried Egg Colonies

    Correct Answer
    B. Arginine break down
    Explanation
    Fried egg is L type

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  • 7. 

    All of the following statmenets concering Mycoplasma pneumonia are true except

    • A.

      It can be treated with erythormycin or tetracycline

    • B.

      It sometimes is called walking pneumonia

    • C.

      Predilection for an older individual

    • D.

      Pneumonia is usually less severe than other bacterial pneumonia

    • E.

      Accumulation of metabolites causes cytopathic effects

    Correct Answer
    C. Predilection for an older individual
    Explanation
    The given answer is incorrect because Mycoplasma pneumonia does not have a predilection for older individuals. It can affect individuals of all age groups. Mycoplasma pneumonia is an atypical bacterial pneumonia that is often referred to as walking pneumonia because the symptoms are milder and individuals can still carry out their daily activities. It can be treated with erythromycin or tetracycline antibiotics. The accumulation of metabolites caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia can lead to cytopathic effects.

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  • 8. 

    Rickettsia prowazekii

    • A.

      Causes endemic typhus

    • B.

      Replicates in endothelial cells

    • C.

      Is transmitted from birds to humans by mosquitoes

    • D.

      Exists in two different morphologic forms

    • E.

      Causes ornithosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Replicates in endothelial cells
    Explanation
    Rickettsia prowazekii is a bacterium that causes endemic typhus. It is known to replicate in endothelial cells, which are cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels. This bacterium is not transmitted from birds to humans by mosquitoes, as that is the mode of transmission for a different bacterium called Chlamydia psittaci, which causes ornithosis. Rickettsia prowazekii exists in two different morphologic forms, but this information is not directly related to its ability to replicate in endothelial cells.

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  • 9. 

    Rickettsia prowazekii

    • A.

      Causes epidemic typhus

    • B.

      Replicates in columnar epithelial cells

    • C.

      Is transmitted from birds to humans by mosquitoes

    • D.

      Exists as two different morphologic forms

    • E.

      Causes ornithosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Causes epidemic typhus
    Explanation
    Rickettsia prowazekii is a bacterium that causes epidemic typhus. This disease is characterized by high fever, headache, rash, and severe muscle pain. The bacterium replicates in columnar epithelial cells, which are cells that line the inner surface of organs. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Rickettsia prowazekii exists in two different morphologic forms, including the infectious form called elementary bodies and the replicative form called reticulate bodies. Therefore, the correct answer is that Rickettsia prowazekii causes epidemic typhus.

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  • 10. 

    R. Rickettsi

    • A.

      Causes rocky mountain spotted fever

    • B.

      Causes epidemic typhus

    • C.

      Causes endemic typhus

    • D.

      Is transmitted from birds to humans by mosquitos

    • E.

      Causes ornithosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Causes rocky mountain spotted fever
    Explanation
    R. Rickettsi is the correct answer because it causes rocky mountain spotted fever. Rocky mountain spotted fever is a bacterial infection transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It is characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, rash, and muscle pain. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications.

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  • 11. 

    C. Burnetti

    • A.

      Causes rocky mountain spotted fever

    • B.

      Causes epidemic typhus

    • C.

      Causes endemic typhus

    • D.

      Is transmitted from birds to humans by mosquitos

    • E.

      Causes Q fever

    Correct Answer
    E. Causes Q fever
    Explanation
    The given answer states that "C. Burnetti" causes Q fever. Q fever is indeed caused by a bacterium called Coxiella burnetii. This bacterium is commonly found in animals, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, and can be transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated particles or consumption of contaminated dairy products. Q fever can cause flu-like symptoms, including fever, headache, and muscle pain, and can sometimes lead to more severe complications. Therefore, the given answer is correct.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the folowing causes Ornithosis?

    • A.

      C. psittaci

    • B.

      C. trachomatis

    • C.

      C. pneumonaie

    • D.

      R. rickettsil

    • E.

      R. prowazeki

    Correct Answer
    A. C. psittaci
    Explanation
    Ornithosis is caused by the bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci. This bacterium is commonly found in birds, especially parrots, pigeons, and poultry. Humans can become infected with Ornithosis by inhaling the bacteria from bird droppings, feathers, or respiratory secretions. The infection can cause flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches, and in severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia. Proper hygiene and handling of birds can help prevent the transmission of Ornithosis to humans.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is the causitive agent for syphilis?

    • A.

      Treponema pallidium

    • B.

      Borrelia burgdorferi

    • C.

      M. Tuberculosis

    • D.

      M. avium

    • E.

      M. hominins

    Correct Answer
    A. Treponema pallidium
    Explanation
    Treponema pallidum is the causative agent for syphilis. It is a spiral-shaped bacterium that is primarily transmitted through sexual contact. This bacterium infects the skin and mucous membranes, leading to the development of various stages of syphilis. If left untreated, syphilis can cause serious complications such as cardiovascular damage, neurological disorders, and organ damage. Therefore, identifying Treponema pallidum as the causative agent is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of syphilis.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is the causitive agent for lime disease?

    • A.

      Treponema pallidium

    • B.

      Borrelia burgdorferi

    • C.

      M. Tuberculosis

    • D.

      M. avium

    • E.

      M. hominins

    Correct Answer
    B. Borrelia burgdorferi
    Explanation
    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent for Lyme disease. It is a type of bacteria that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks. These ticks are commonly found in wooded and grassy areas. Lyme disease can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes. If left untreated, it can lead to more serious complications, affecting the joints, heart, and nervous system. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial for managing Lyme disease.

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  • 15. 

    Condylomata lata can occur as a result of an infection with

    • A.

      Treponema pallidium

    • B.

      Borrelia burgdorferi

    • C.

      M. Tuberculosis

    • D.

      M. avium

    • E.

      M. hominins

    Correct Answer
    B. Borrelia burgdorferi
    Explanation
    Condylomata lata is a type of skin lesion that is typically associated with secondary syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Therefore, the correct answer, Borrelia burgdorferi, is incorrect.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is transmitted from rats to humans?

    • A.

      R. Typhi

    • B.

      R. rickettsil

    • C.

      R. prowazeki

    • D.

      Coxiella burnetti

    • E.

      C. pneumonaie

    Correct Answer
    A. R. Typhi
    Explanation
    R. Typhi is transmitted from rats to humans.

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  • 17. 

    Infection with which one of the following organisms results in the generation of autoantibodies to heart muscle, probably resulting in atherosclerosis?

    • A.

      C. pneumoniae

    • B.

      C. psittaci

    • C.

      C. trachomatis

    • D.

      R. rickettsil

    • E.

      R. prowazeki

    Correct Answer
    A. C. pneumoniae
    Explanation
    Infection with C. pneumoniae can lead to the generation of autoantibodies to heart muscle, which can potentially result in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing and hardening of the arteries. Autoantibodies are antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own tissues. In the case of C. pneumoniae infection, the production of autoantibodies against heart muscle can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in affected individuals.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following statements concerning lyme disease is false?

    • A.

      It is primarily transmitted via ticks

    • B.

      It can later develop into chronic arthritis

    • C.

      Erythema migrans preffered treatment is doxycycline, although the definitive lab diagnosis involves an ELISA test and Western Blot analysis

    • D.

      It is not possible to develop a multi system infection from it

    • E.

      The primary treatment invovles doxycycline and amoxicilin

    Correct Answer
    D. It is not possible to develop a multi system infection from it
    Explanation
    Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which can infect multiple systems in the body including the nervous system, joints, heart, and skin. Therefore, it is possible to develop a multi-system infection from Lyme disease.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following causes blindness?

    • A.

      C. trachomatis (A-C)

    • B.

      C. trachomatis (D-K)

    • C.

      C. trachomatis (L)

    • D.

      C. Psittaci

    • E.

      C. Pneumonaie

    Correct Answer
    A. C. trachomatis (A-C)
    Explanation
    C. trachomatis (A-C) causes blindness.

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  • 20. 

    The preferred threatment of the Ehrlichia species is

    • A.

      Doxycycline

    • B.

      Tetracycline

    • C.

      Chloramphnicol

    • D.

      Erythromycin

    • E.

      Oxfloaxin

    Correct Answer
    A. Doxycycline
    Explanation
    Doxycycline is the preferred treatment for Ehrlichia species. It is a type of antibiotic known as a tetracycline, which is effective against a wide range of bacterial infections. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the growth and spread of bacteria, including Ehrlichia species. It is a commonly used medication for treating tick-borne diseases caused by Ehrlichia, such as human monocytic ehrlichiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Doxycycline is well-tolerated, has a high success rate in treating Ehrlichia infections, and is generally the first-line treatment recommended by healthcare professionals.

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  • 21. 

    Concerning C. trachomatis, which is incorrect?

    • A.

      C. trachomatis is a obligate intracellular parasite

    • B.

      C. trachomatis is found primarily in epithelial cells

    • C.

      C. trachomatus is detected via specific foulurescence - conjugate antibodies

    • D.

      C. trachomatis is tested for using ELISA and PCR

    • E.

      C. trachomatis is tested for using iodine staining

    Correct Answer
    B. C. trachomatis is found primarily in epithelial cells
    Explanation
    Found primarily in columnar epithelial cells

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is associated with Brill's disease?

    • A.

      R. prowazekii

    • B.

      R. rickettsil

    • C.

      R. typhi

    • D.

      Coxiella burnetti

    • E.

      C. psittaci

    Correct Answer
    A. R. prowazekii
    Explanation
    Brill's disease is a rare form of epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii. This bacterium is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected body lice. The symptoms of Brill's disease include high fever, severe headache, rash, and muscle pain. If left untreated, it can lead to complications such as pneumonia, heart inflammation, and central nervous system involvement. Therefore, Rickettsia prowazekii is the correct answer as it is the causative agent associated with Brill's disease.

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  • 23. 

    All of the following are traits of mycoplasma pneumonia except

    • A.

      The bacteria adheres via P1 to sialic acid residues on epithelia cells

    • B.

      It inhibits catalase, leading to a increase in H2O2

    • C.

      Itt causes alpha hemolysis on a plate of sheep blood

    • D.

      It is treated by tetracycline or erythromycin

    Correct Answer
    C. Itt causes alpha hemolysis on a plate of sheep blood
  • 24. 

    Concerining mycoplasma hominins, which statement is false?

    • A.

      It is sensitive to tetracycline and reistant to erythormycin

    • B.

      It inhabits the GI tract

    • C.

      It is a opporutnistic organism

    • D.

      It is broken down by urease

    Correct Answer
    D. It is broken down by urease
    Explanation
    Mycoplasma hominis is not broken down by urease. Urease is an enzyme that breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Mycoplasma hominis is a bacterium that inhabits the genital and urinary tracts, and it is considered an opportunistic organism. It is sensitive to tetracycline, an antibiotic, but resistant to erythromycin.

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  • 25. 

    Mycobacterium leprae is the causal agent for leprosy. Which statement is correct?

    • A.

      Two disease forms of leprosy are recognized, tuberculoid and lepromatous

    • B.

      The incubation period for leprosy is usually less than 6 months

    • C.

      Using a skin test based on DTH to lepromin, tuberculoid cases are negative and lepromatous cases are positive

    • D.

      In tuberculoid leprosy, CMI is defiient, nad growth of M. leprae is unimpeded

    • E.

      There are a estimated 100 thousand people infected with M. leprae in asia, africa, and latin america

    Correct Answer
    A. Two disease forms of leprosy are recognized, tuberculoid and lepromatous
    Explanation
    Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, and two disease forms of leprosy, tuberculoid and lepromatous, are recognized. The statement correctly identifies this fact.

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  • 26. 

    Lyme Disease

    • A.

      Is caused by Borrelia hermsii or B. turicatae which are often present in cabins in wilderness areas

    • B.

      When properly treate with doxycline in its early stages will generally cure patients and prevent subsequent reinfection from tick bites

    • C.

      Can be serologically diagnosed by a immunoflourescent assay or by an ELISA, both of which are more reliable as the disease progresses

    • D.

      Can be clinically diagnosed by the appearance of erythema chronicum migrans, which generally appears in the later stages of the disease

    • E.

      Is sexually transmitted and can result in arthritis, neurological symptoms, and cardiac failure

    Correct Answer
    C. Can be serologically diagnosed by a immunoflourescent assay or by an ELISA, both of which are more reliable as the disease progresses
    Explanation
    Lyme disease can be serologically diagnosed using an immunofluorescent assay or an ELISA. These tests become more reliable as the disease progresses. This means that in the early stages of the disease, these tests may not always detect the presence of Lyme disease accurately. However, as the disease progresses, the antibodies produced by the body in response to the infection become more detectable, making these serological tests more reliable for diagnosis.

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  • Nov 17, 2023
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