Plant & Fungal Parasites Quiz Questions

51 Questions | Total Attempts: 167

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  • 1. 
    Which of the following is a true statement concerning nematodes?
    • A. 

      There are 15 million species of nematodes; 100,000 are plant parasites.

    • B. 

      There are 1500 species. All of these are animal parasites, with the exception of ten, which are plant parasites.

    • C. 

      There are 15,000 species, most are free-living, but about 100 are plant parasites.

    • D. 

      There are 150,000 species, none are free-living. All nematodes are plant parasites.

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 2. 
    Which of the following is NOT a normal feature of soybean roots? 
    • A. 

      Root tips

    • B. 

      Root hairs

    • C. 

      Leguminous nodules

    • D. 

      Cysts

    • E. 

      None of these should be present on the healthy soybean root

  • 3. 
    Which of the following are examples of holoparasites? 
    • A. 

      Dodder (Cuscuta spp.)

    • B. 

      Witchweed (Striga spp.)

    • C. 

      Broomrape (Orobanche spp.)

    • D. 

      Both (a) and (c) are correct.

    • E. 

      All of the above are holoparasites.

  • 4. 
    "Watersoaking" and "wilting" of plants results from thawing after freezing temperatures because: 
    • A. 

      Cold temperatures cause irreversible denaturation of enzymes.

    • B. 

      Cold temperatures cause disruptions in photosynthesis (because of damage to thylakoid membranes).

    • C. 

      Protoplasts and apoplast freeze; ice crystals form, cell membranes rupture.

    • D. 

      All of the above are true.

    • E. 

      None of the above are true.

  • 5. 
    Plant-microbe interactions are dynamic. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    Which of the following are PREFORMED, MECHANICAL barriers to pathogen infection? 
    • A. 

      Cuticle

    • B. 

      Trichomes on plant surfaces

    • C. 

      Small stomates

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 7. 
    Which of the following is an example of a flavonoid phytoalexin? 
    • A. 

      Rishitin (produced by potato plants)

    • B. 

      Pisatin (produces by pea plants)

    • C. 

      Gossypol (produced by cotton plants)

    • D. 

      Farnesyl pyrophosphate (produced by many plants)

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 8. 
    Some plant parasitic nematodes have a muscular pumping organ associated with their esophogus. This is called a: 
    • A. 

      Cuticle

    • B. 

      Stylet

    • C. 

      Migratory endoparasite

    • D. 

      metacorpus (median bulb)

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 9. 
    Damage to roots by lesion nematodes can result in:
    • A. 

      Damage to roots and associated organs by secondary pathogens

    • B. 

      Stunting, chlorosis, and wilt above-ground

    • C. 

      All of the above

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 10. 
    Dodder (Cuscuta spp.) (we did not talk about this in class as much this year)
    • A. 

      Geographic range = Western U.S., Great Lakes, Canada

    • B. 

      Geographic range = Entire U.S.

    • C. 

      Geographic range = Eastern U.S. only

  • 11. 
    Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) 
    • A. 

      Geographic range = Western U.S., Great Lakes, Canada

    • B. 

      Geographic range = Entire U.S.

    • C. 

      Geographic range = Eastern U.S. only

  • 12. 
    Neutral pH favors uptake of __________ and _________; whereas, slightly acidic soils favor uptake of __________. 
    • A. 

      Iron, phosphorus; nitrogen

    • B. 

      Nitrogen, phosphorus; iron

    • C. 

      Nitrogen, iron; phosphorus

    • D. 

      None of the above are correct.

    • E. 

      More than one of the above are correct, but not all three.

  • 13. 
    Obligate saprophyte + phyllosphere =
    • A. 

      Disease

    • B. 

      No disease

  • 14. 
    Mutualist + Host = 
    • A. 

      Disease

    • B. 

      No disease

  • 15. 
    Pathogen + Non-host =
    • A. 

      Disease

    • B. 

      No disease

  • 16. 
    Pathogen + Susceptible Host =
    • A. 

      Disease

    • B. 

      No disease

  • 17. 
    Pathogen + Resistant Host 
    • A. 

      Disease

    • B. 

      No disease

  • 18. 
    Which of the following are PREFORMED, CHEMICAL barriers to pathogen infection? 
    • A. 

      Simple phenols/phenolic acids

    • B. 

      Cyanogenic glycosides

    • C. 

      Lactones

    • D. 

      Saponins

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 19. 
    Successful induced plant defense can be associated with: 
    • A. 

      The formation of a lignituber

    • B. 

      the formation of a lignituber and then subsequent intracellular growth of advancing hyphae

    • C. 

      The formation of tyloses

    • D. 

      Slow or minimal deposition of callose

    • E. 

      Both "a" and "c" are correct

  • 20. 
    How many larval stages occur with most plant parasitic nematodes? 
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      5

  • 21. 
    Which description fits the lesion nematode?
    • A. 

      Migratory, endoparasitic

    • B. 

      Sedentary, endoparasitic

    • C. 

      Aerial, endoparasitic

    • D. 

      Migratory, ectoparasitic

    • E. 

      Sedentary, ectoparasitic

  • 22. 
    Facultative parasite =
    • A. 

      Parasitic flowering plant that contains chlorophyll when mature and obtains water and mineral nutrients by connecting to the host plant's xylem by a haustorium.

    • B. 

      Organism that is normally saprophytic but is capable of being parasitic.

    • C. 

      Parasitic flowering plant that lacks chlorophyll and must rely totally on the contents of the xylem and phloem of the host plant.

    • D. 

      Organism that can grow only as a parasite in association with its host plant and cannot be grown in artificial culture media.

    • E. 

      An organism that synthesizes its nutritive substances from inorganic molecules.

  • 23. 
    Obligate parasite =
    • A. 

      Parasitic flowering plant that contains chlorophyll when mature and obtains water and mineral nutrients by connecting to the host plant's xylem by a haustorium.

    • B. 

      Organism that is normally saprophytic but is capable of being parasitic.

    • C. 

      Parasitic flowering plant that lacks chlorophyll and must rely totally on the contents of the xylem and phloem of the host plant.

    • D. 

      Organism that can grow only as a parasite in association with its host plant and cannot be grown in artificial culture media.

    • E. 

      An organism that synthesizes its nutritive substances from inorganic molecules.

  • 24. 
    Hemiparasite =
    • A. 

      Parasitic flowering plant that contains chlorophyll when mature and obtains water and mineral nutrients by connecting to the host plant's xylem by a haustorium.

    • B. 

      Organism that is normally saprophytic but is capable of being parasitic.

    • C. 

      Parasitic flowering plant that lacks chlorophyll and must rely totally on the contents of the xylem and phloem of the host plant.

    • D. 

      Organism that can grow only as a parasite in association with its host plant and cannot be grown in artificial culture media.

    • E. 

      An organism that synthesizes its nutritive substances from inorganic molecules.

  • 25. 
    Holoparasite =
    • A. 

      Parasitic flowering plant that contains chlorophyll when mature and obtains water and mineral nutrients by connecting to the host plant's xylem by a haustorium.

    • B. 

      Organism that is normally saprophytic but is capable of being parasitic.

    • C. 

      Parasitic flowering plant that lacks chlorophyll and must rely totally on the contents of the xylem and phloem of the host plant.

    • D. 

      Organism that can grow only as a parasite in association with its host plant and cannot be grown in artificial culture media.

    • E. 

      An organism that synthesizes its nutritive substances from inorganic molecules.

  • 26. 
    Which of the following abiotic conditions results in damage to plant cell membranes? 
    • A. 

      High temperatures

    • B. 

      Low temperatures

    • C. 

      Water deficit/dessication stress

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 27. 
    Which of the following is NOT an example of disease symptoms caused by pathogen-produced growth regulators? 
    • A. 

      Crown gall

    • B. 

      "green islands"

    • C. 

      Giant cells

    • D. 

      Tomato wilt

    • E. 

      Fusiform swellings

  • 28. 
    Endoparasitic nematodes =
    • A. 

      Do not have a stylet

    • B. 

      Live outside the host

    • C. 

      Live inside the host

    • D. 

      Include "root knot nematodes"

    • E. 

      Both (c) and (d) are correct

  • 29. 
    How does the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) survive in the soil? 
    • A. 

      Juveniles

    • B. 

      Cysts (females containing numerous eggs)

    • C. 

      Males

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 30. 
    Place the following aspects of the dodder life cycle in the proper relative order (from first to last):
    • A. 

      1. Twining stems that coil from germinating seeds; 2. Orange stems - soil connection withers; 3. Dense mat of dodder stems and vines; 4. Seed production.

    • B. 

      1. Twining stems that coil from germinating seeds; 2. Dense mat of dodder stems and vines; 3. Orange stems - soil connection withers; 4. Seed production.

    • C. 

      1. Orange stems - soil connection withers; 2. Seed production; 3. Twining stems that coil from germinating seeds; 4. Dense mat of dodder stems and vines.

    • D. 

      1. Seed production; 2. Dense mat of dodder stems and vines; 3. Orange stems - soil connection withers; 4. Twining stems that coil from germinating seeds.

    • E. 

      None of the above are in the correct order.

  • 31. 
    A benzoic acid =
    • A. 
    • B. 
    • C. 
    • D. 
    • E. 
  • 32. 
    A cinnamic acid = 
    • A. 
    • B. 
    • C. 
    • D. 
    • E. 
  • 33. 
    A cyanogenic glycoside =
    • A. 
    • B. 
    • C. 
    • D. 
    • E. 
  • 34. 
    An unsaturated gamma lactone =
    • A. 
    • B. 
    • C. 
    • D. 
    • E. 
  • 35. 
    A saponin =
    • A. 
    • B. 
    • C. 
    • D. 
    • E. 
  • 36. 
    Which of the following makes up the "transpiration stream" (in order from first to last):
    • A. 

      1. movement of water through xylem; 2. soil water; 3. movement of soil water into root apoplast; 4. loss of water through plant stomata in leaves

    • B. 

      1. loss of water through plant stomata in leaves; 2. soil water; 3. movement of soil water into root apoplasts; 4. movement of water through xylem

    • C. 

      1. soil water; 2. movement of soil water into root apoplasts; 3. movement of water through xylem; 4. loss of water through plant stomata in leaves

    • D. 

      1. movement of soil water into root apoplasts; 2. soil water; 3. loss of water through plant stomata in leaves; 4. movement of water through xylem

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct.

  • 37. 
    What is the MOST important reason that a pathogen infects a plant?
    • A. 

      Avoid exposure to UV light

    • B. 

      Avoid desiccation

    • C. 

      Avoid exposure to extreme temperatures

    • D. 

      Acquire nutrients

    • E. 

      Avoid predation

  • 38. 
    Gums are composed of:
    • A. 

      Arabinoxylans

    • B. 

      Galactans

    • C. 

      Mannans

    • D. 

      Lignin and chitin

    • E. 

      All except "d" are correct.

  • 39. 
    Gums are composed of: 
    • A. 

      Arabinoxylans

    • B. 

      Galactans

    • C. 

      Mannans

    • D. 

      Lignin and chitin

    • E. 

      All except "d" are correct.

  • 40. 
    Ectoparasitic nematodes: 
    • A. 

      Do not have a stylet

    • B. 

      Live outside the host

    • C. 

      Live inside the host

    • D. 

      Include "dagger nematodes"

    • E. 

      Both (b) and (d) are correct

  • 41. 
    Which of the following hosts would be appropriate for rotation with soybean, in order to reduce soybean cyst nematode populations in a given field? 
    • A. 

      Wheat

    • B. 

      Sorghum

    • C. 

      Corn

    • D. 

      Another legume

    • E. 

      A, b, and c are correct answers

  • 42. 
    Dodder (Cuscuta spp.) =
    • A. 

      Damage: Destructive timber disease (100,000 homes worth of timber lost/year)

    • B. 

      Damage: Not severely destructive to crop plants.

    • C. 

      Damage: Very destructive to corn, sorghum, and soybean.

  • 43. 
    Which of the following conditions worsen salt toxicity damage? 
    • A. 

      Prolonged water deficit stress

    • B. 

      Low relative humidity

    • C. 

      High temperatures

    • D. 

      High (alkaline) soil pH

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 44. 
    Non-specific toxin produced by fungal plant pathogens: 
    • A. 

      Kill cells of any host

    • B. 

      Plants do not have a defense response to them

    • C. 

      Defines host (or cultivar) range

    • D. 

      Determines susceptiblity to the disease

    • E. 

      "a" and "b" are correct

  • 45. 
    Nematodes are simple animals that LACK which of the following anatomical systems: 
    • A. 

      Circulatory/vascular system

    • B. 

      Digestive system

    • C. 

      Reproductive system

    • D. 

      Nervous system

    • E. 

      Musculature (for movement)

  • 46. 
    Sedentary, endoparasitic nematodes include: 
    • A. 

      Soybean cyst nematode

    • B. 

      Dagger nematodes

    • C. 

      Lesion nematodes

    • D. 

      Root knot nematodes

    • E. 

      Both (a) and (d) are correct

  • 47. 
    What is a haustorium?
    • A. 

      The body of parasitic seed plants

    • B. 

      Feeding structure

    • C. 

      Penetration apparatus

    • D. 

      Symptom seen on plants infected with parasitic seed plants

    • E. 

      Junction between plant cells

  • 48. 
    Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) =
    • A. 

      Damage: Destructive timber disease (100,000 homes worth of timber lost/year)

    • B. 

      Damage: Not severely destructive to crop plants.

    • C. 

      Damage: Very destructive to corn, sorghum, and soybean.

  • 49. 
    Place the following water potentials in correct relative order from highest to lowest: 
    • A. 

      Ψsoil > Ψroot > Ψshoot > Ψleaves >> Ψair

    • B. 

      Ψair > Ψleaves > Ψshoot > Ψroot >> Ψsoil

    • C. 

      Ψroot > Ψsoil > Ψshoot > Ψleaves >> Ψair

    • D. 

      Ψshoot > Ψair > Ψleaves > Ψroot >> Ψsoil

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct.

  • 50. 
    Stomata, root tips, wounded branches, and insect feeding sites are all examples of: 
    • A. 

      Barriers to infection

    • B. 

      Dessication zones

    • C. 

      Infection courts

    • D. 

      Induced plant defenses

    • E. 

      Preformed plant defenses

  • 51. 
    What portions of the disease cycle are relevant when studying pathogen entry into plants? 
    • A. 

      Dissemination

    • B. 

      Inoculation

    • C. 

      Pre-penetration

    • D. 

      Penetration

    • E. 

      "b", "c", and "d" are correct