Exam 1 Psyc Adult Development And Aging

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Exam 1 Psyc Adult Development And Aging - Quiz

Practice questions from previous quizzes in the class covered up to this time


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    According to __________ theory, today's members of our species have biological systems that foster the formation and maintenance of social relationships, and this is manifested in a universal "need to belong."

    • A.

      Evolutionary

    • B.

      Social learning

    • C.

      Internal working model

    • D.

      Intergenerational solidarity

    Correct Answer
    A. Evolutionary
    Explanation
    According to evolutionary theory, today's members of our species have biological systems that foster the formation and maintenance of social relationships, and this is manifested in a universal "need to belong." This theory suggests that our need to form social connections is a result of natural selection, as it enhances our chances of survival and reproduction. It posits that humans have evolved to have a desire for social interaction and belongingness, which is why individuals seek out and value social relationships.

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  • 2. 

    Adults with secure attachment

    • A.

      Welcome lifes challanges

    • B.

      Never feel threatened

    • C.

      Never feel discouraged

    • D.

      Have a healthy skeptisism

    Correct Answer
    A. Welcome lifes challanges
    Explanation
    Adults with secure attachment tend to have a positive and confident attitude towards life's challenges. They are not easily threatened or discouraged by difficult situations, but rather see them as opportunities for growth and learning. They approach challenges with a healthy skepticism, being open to new experiences and perspectives. This secure attachment style allows them to navigate life's challenges with resilience and optimism.

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  • 3. 

    African-American baby boomers give more assistance of all types to their parents compared to their white counterparts because

    • A.

      Of their personal beliefs about parent child obligation

    • B.

      African american parents have more need

    • C.

      African american parents have more disability

    • D.

      They are emotionally close to their parents

    Correct Answer
    A. Of their personal beliefs about parent child obligation
    Explanation
    African-American baby boomers give more assistance of all types to their parents compared to their white counterparts because of their personal beliefs about parent-child obligation. This suggests that African-American individuals may have a stronger sense of responsibility towards their parents and a cultural expectation to provide support and care for them. These personal beliefs about familial obligations may drive African-American baby boomers to offer more assistance to their parents than their white counterparts.

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  • 4. 

    Although Justine considers herself an extravert, now that she is approaching 50, she is no longer interested in attending the girls' night out her friend is planning. She would much rather spend her free time with a smaller group of close friends or members of her family. Justine's preference supports

    • A.

      Socioemotional selectivity theory

    • B.

      Filter theory

    • C.

      Exchange theory

    • D.

      Intergenerational solidarity theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Socioemotional selectivity theory
    Explanation
    Justine's preference for spending time with a smaller group of close friends or family as she approaches 50 aligns with the socioemotional selectivity theory. This theory suggests that as individuals age, they prioritize emotional satisfaction and seek meaningful social interactions rather than seeking out new or diverse social experiences. Justine's desire to spend time with a smaller group indicates a focus on maintaining close relationships and deriving emotional fulfillment from these connections, which is consistent with the socioemotional selectivity theory.

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  • 5. 

    Assuming that Shealeen is similar to other adult children, one would expect that she:

    • A.

      Feels emotionally close to her parents

    • B.

      Does not have much contact with her parents

    • C.

      Has very different opinions from her parents

    • D.

      Has not recieved any financial support from them

    Correct Answer
    A. Feels emotionally close to her parents
    Explanation
    Based on the assumption that Shealeen is similar to other adult children, it is expected that she feels emotionally close to her parents. This is because adult children generally maintain a close emotional bond with their parents, even if they may not have much contact or have different opinions from them. The answer suggests that Shealeen's emotional connection with her parents is strong, indicating a close relationship. It does not mention anything about financial support, so we cannot assume whether she has received any or not.

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  • 6. 

    Based on existing research, which of the following is TRUE of adult children of divorce?

    • A.

      Are as emotionally affected as young children

    • B.

      The majority (90%) reported no change in their relationship with one or both parents.

    • C.

      They are less reluctant to enter marriage than those whose parents did not divorce because they feel they have learned from their parents' mistakes.

    • D.

      They are at less risk of divorce than those whose parents did not divorce.

    Correct Answer
    A. Are as emotionally affected as young children
    Explanation
    Adult children of divorce are as emotionally affected as young children. This suggests that the emotional impact of divorce can have long-lasting effects on individuals, regardless of their age at the time of the divorce. This finding challenges the common belief that young children are more vulnerable to the emotional consequences of divorce compared to adult children. It emphasizes the importance of providing support and understanding to adult children of divorce, as they may also experience emotional distress and struggle with the effects of their parents' divorce.

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  • 7. 

    Dr. Mendez was giving an invited address on the topic of dating among college students. She stated that people begin with a large pool of potential mates and gradually eliminate those who do not fit our specifications. She was clearly describing ________ of mate selection.

    • A.

      The filter theory

    • B.

      Social convoy theory

    • C.

      Exchange theory

    • D.

      Evelotionary theory

    Correct Answer
    A. The filter theory
    Explanation
    Dr. Mendez's explanation of people beginning with a large pool of potential mates and gradually eliminating those who do not fit their specifications aligns with the filter theory of mate selection. The filter theory suggests that individuals use a series of filters, such as demographic characteristics, values, and interests, to narrow down their potential pool of mates. This process allows individuals to gradually filter out those who are not compatible with their preferences and ultimately select a partner who meets their specific criteria.

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  • 8. 

    If I ask you to make a list of all the people who are most important to you, including those you cannot imagine living without and those who are important but not quite that close, this list would describe your _______.

    • A.

      Convoy

    • B.

      Friends

    • C.

      Family 

    • D.

      Cohort

    Correct Answer
    A. Convoy
    Explanation
    The term "convoy" refers to a group of people traveling together or a group of vehicles traveling in a coordinated manner for protection or support. In the given context, if the list includes both people who are very close and those who are important but not as close, it can be seen as a group or collection of individuals who hold significance in one's life, similar to a convoy. Therefore, "convoy" is the correct answer.

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  • 9. 

    In Gottman's research, he asks couples to "tell the story of us." Based on _______, he found that the couple will almost certainly be together four years later.

    • A.

      Whether positive outweighs negative

    • B.

      Whether the couple uses sarcasm rather than being brutally honest

    • C.

      Whether each person talked for an equal amount of time

    • D.

        whether each person explicitly apologized for past transgressions

    Correct Answer
    A. Whether positive outweighs negative
    Explanation
    Gottman's research suggests that if the positive aspects of a couple's relationship outweigh the negative aspects, they are likely to still be together four years later. This means that the overall balance of positive interactions and experiences in the relationship is a strong predictor of its long-term success.

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  • 10. 

    In his relationship with his wife, Clarence is often jealous, anxious about whether she returns his feelings, and generally unsure of himself. Such a pattern is characteristic of individuals with what kind of internal model of attachment?

    • A.

      Preoccupied

    • B.

      Secure

    • C.

      Unstable

    • D.

      Distressed

    Correct Answer
    A. Preoccupied
    Explanation
    Clarence's behavior of being jealous, anxious, and unsure in his relationship with his wife indicates that he has a preoccupied internal model of attachment. This means that he is overly concerned with his partner's feelings and constantly seeks reassurance about their love and affection. This attachment style is characterized by a fear of abandonment and a strong need for validation and attention from their partner.

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  • 11. 

    In what period of life do siblings become more significant

    • A.

      Late

    • B.

      Early

    • C.

      Middle

    • D.

      There is no change

    Correct Answer
    A. Late
    Explanation
    In late life, siblings tend to become more significant due to various factors. As individuals grow older, they may experience life events such as retirement, loss of a spouse, or declining health, which can lead to increased reliance on siblings for emotional support, companionship, and assistance with daily activities. Siblings may also become more important in late life as they navigate decisions related to inheritance, estate planning, and caregiving for aging parents. Thus, the significance of siblings tends to increase in late life as individuals seek and provide support during this stage of their lives.

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  • 12. 

    Nona, a college student, was asked to rank her grandparents according to the time she spent with them and the closeness she felt to them. Based on research, we would expect Nona to rank ________ the highest.

    • A.

      Her mothers mother

    • B.

      Her mothers father

    • C.

      Her fathers mother

    • D.

      Her fathers mother

    Correct Answer
    A. Her mothers mother
    Explanation
    Based on research, we would expect Nona to rank her mother's mother the highest because studies have shown that individuals tend to have a closer bond and spend more time with their maternal grandparents compared to their paternal grandparents. This could be due to factors such as maternal grandparents being more involved in childcare or living closer to the family.

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  • 13. 

    One study showed that compared to their heterosexual siblings, gay and lesbian adults reported:

    • A.

      Experiencing more violence over their lifetimes

    • B.

      Higher earnings and higher prestige jobs over their lifetimes.

    • C.

      Happier in romantic relationships

    • D.

      Greater overall life satisfaction

    Correct Answer
    A. Experiencing more violence over their lifetimes
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that gay and lesbian adults experience more violence over their lifetimes compared to their heterosexual siblings. This implies that they are more likely to be subjected to violence due to their sexual orientation. This finding highlights the challenges and discrimination faced by the LGBTQ+ community, which can have a significant impact on their overall well-being and safety.

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  • 14. 

    Research on cohabitation has shown that:

    • A.

      One factor in the success of cohabiting couples is how well it is accepted in one's culture.

    • B.

      People in the U.S. who cohabit before marriage have an increased likelihood of separation than those who do not cohabit, but this pattern has not been found in other countries.

    • C.

      Regardless of whether they are engaged before cohabiting, they are more likely to separate than those who do not cohabit.

    • D.

      People in traditional cultures who cohabit before marriage have an increased likelihood of separation than those who do not cohabit, but this pattern has not been found in the U.S.

    Correct Answer
    A. One factor in the success of cohabiting couples is how well it is accepted in one's culture.
    Explanation
    The answer suggests that the success of cohabiting couples is influenced by how well cohabitation is accepted in their culture. This implies that cultural norms and attitudes towards cohabitation play a significant role in determining the outcome of cohabiting relationships. The answer also implies that this factor may vary across different countries, as the pattern of increased likelihood of separation for cohabiting couples is specific to the United States and not found in other countries.

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  • 15. 

    Researchers showed participants a photo of their loved one and asked them to think about a pleasurable event that had occurred when they were together. As a control, they were shown a photo of a neutral person and asked to think about pleasurable events with that person. When viewing the loved one and thinking about pleasant interactions with them, regions of the brain that are rich in _______ were activated.

    • A.

      Dopamine receptors

    • B.

      AcH receptors

    • C.

      Gabba receptors

    • D.

      GAMA receptors

    Correct Answer
    A. Dopamine receptors
    Explanation
    When participants were shown a photo of their loved one and asked to think about pleasant interactions with them, regions of the brain that are rich in dopamine receptors were activated. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure, reward, and motivation. Activation of dopamine receptors in these regions suggests that thinking about pleasurable events with a loved one can trigger feelings of pleasure and reward in the brain.

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  • 16. 

    The grandmother effect can be explained best by _______.

    • A.

      Evolutionary psychology

    • B.

      Exchange theory

    • C.

      Social learning theory

    • D.

        psychoanalystic theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Evolutionary psychology
    Explanation
    The grandmother effect refers to the evolutionary advantage of having grandmothers who can assist in the care of grandchildren, thus increasing their survival and reproductive success. This concept can be best explained by evolutionary psychology, which focuses on how behavior and mental processes have evolved over time to adapt to our environment and increase our chances of survival and reproduction. This theory recognizes the importance of kinship and the role of grandmothers in enhancing the survival and well-being of their grandchildren, ultimately contributing to the passing on of genes to future generations.

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  • 17. 

    Wayne is a married 71-year-old grandfather. Based on existing research, we can conclude that:

    • A.

      He has more interaction with his grandchildren than his widowed brother has with his grandchildren.

    • B.

      Wayne spends more time with his grandchildren now that they are teenagers than when they were younger.

    • C.

      He discusses more personal concerns with his grandchildren in middle school than he does with his grandchildren who have graduated from high school.

    • D.

      Being a playmate and advice giver benefits grandchildren's mental health, but does not have a significant effect on his own mental health.

    Correct Answer
    A. He has more interaction with his grandchildren than his widowed brother has with his grandchildren.
    Explanation
    Based on existing research, we can conclude that Wayne has more interaction with his grandchildren than his widowed brother has with his grandchildren. This conclusion is based on the information provided in the question, which states that Wayne is a married 71-year-old grandfather. Being married suggests that Wayne may have a spouse who can also be involved in interacting with the grandchildren, whereas the widowed brother may not have a partner to share this responsibility. Additionally, the question does not provide any information about the widowed brother's level of interaction with his grandchildren, whereas it implies that Wayne has some level of interaction.

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  • 18. 

    A researcher finds in a longitudinal study that her subjects are significantly more open to new experiences at age 50 than they were at 30. This change most likely reflects _______.

    • A.

      A developmental change

    • B.

      A cohort difference

    • C.

      The classic nature nurture dichotomy

    • D.

      Attrition

    Correct Answer
    A. A developmental change
    Explanation
    The significant increase in openness to new experiences between the ages of 30 and 50 suggests a developmental change. This implies that as individuals grow older, they tend to become more open and receptive to new experiences. This change is likely influenced by various factors such as personal growth, life experiences, and maturity. It is important to note that this change is observed within the same group of subjects over time, indicating a developmental pattern rather than a cohort difference or nature-nurture dichotomy.

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  • 19. 

    Biologically influenced changes in adulthood occur _______.

    • A.

      At varied ages but in a similar sequence

    • B.

      At the same age in all adults

    • C.

      At varied ages and in varied sequences

    • D.

      At the same age and in the same sequence

    Correct Answer
    A. At varied ages but in a similar sequence
    Explanation
    Biologically influenced changes in adulthood occur at varied ages but in a similar sequence. This means that while individuals may experience these changes at different ages, the order in which these changes occur tends to be consistent across adults. In other words, the sequence of biological changes is similar for most adults, even though the timing may vary.

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  • 20. 

    Experiences linked to age and occurring with most adults are called _______.

    • A.

      Normative age-graded influences

    • B.

      Tribalizations

    • C.

      Age periods

    • D.

      Cohorts

    Correct Answer
    A. Normative age-graded influences
    Explanation
    Normative age-graded influences refer to experiences that are commonly associated with a specific age group and are considered typical or expected for most adults. These influences can include milestones such as starting school, getting a job, or retiring, as well as biological changes like puberty or menopause. They are called "normative" because they are considered normal or standard for a particular age, and "age-graded" because they are linked to specific age periods.

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  • 21. 

    A researcher selects a sample of 65-year-olds and interviews and tests them every two years for 14 years. Over these years, some of the subjects die or drop out of the study. This phenomenon is referred to as _______.

    • A.

      Attrition

    • B.

      Terminal drop

    • C.

      Selective bias

    • D.

      Longitunial loss

    Correct Answer
    A. Attrition
    Explanation
    Attrition refers to the loss of participants in a study over time. In this scenario, as the researcher interviews and tests the sample of 65-year-olds every two years for 14 years, some of the subjects may die or drop out of the study. This loss of participants is considered attrition.

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  • 22. 

    According to the theory about the impact of the social clock of adult life events, which of the following individual patterns is associated with the most upheaval or disruption or personal difficulty—at least for current cohorts?

    • A.

      Having your parents both die when your in your 20s

    • B.

      Having a first child at age 30

    • C.

      Receiving your last work promotion at age 40

    • D.

      Retiring at age 65

    Correct Answer
    A. Having your parents both die when your in your 20s
    Explanation
    The theory of the social clock suggests that there are certain societal expectations or norms regarding the timing of major life events. Losing both parents in your 20s goes against the expected order of events and can cause significant emotional and personal upheaval. This event can disrupt the individual's sense of stability and support, leading to a higher level of personal difficulty compared to the other options.

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  • 23. 

    In U.S. culture, adults in their early 20s are expected to marry, start families, establish themselves in their jobs or careers, and settle into separate households; 45-year-olds are expected to be launching their children into independence, to be reaching the peak of their careers, and to be caring for their own aging parents. Such expectations illustrate which concept?

    • A.

      Shared expirences

    • B.

      Cohorts

    • C.

      Generations

    • D.

      Cross-sectional compairisions

    Correct Answer
    A. Shared expirences
    Explanation
    The concept illustrated by the given expectations is "shared experiences." This is because the expectations mentioned in the question highlight the common experiences that individuals in different age groups are expected to go through in U.S. culture. The early 20s are associated with starting families and establishing careers, while 45-year-olds are expected to be launching their children into independence and caring for aging parents. These shared experiences shape the cultural norms and expectations for different age groups in society.

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  • 24. 

    What is the term used to describe large social environments where development takes place?

    • A.

      Cultures

    • B.

      Cohorts

    • C.

      Generations

    • D.

      Age periods

    Correct Answer
    A. Cultures
    Explanation
    The term used to describe large social environments where development takes place is "cultures". Cultures refer to the shared beliefs, values, customs, and behaviors of a particular group or society. These cultural environments greatly influence the development and socialization of individuals within them, shaping their attitudes, behaviors, and worldview.

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  • 25. 

    In explaining adult development, psychologists must ______.

    • A.

      Explain both changes with age and continuities

    • B.

      Focus primarily on explaining changes with age

    • C.

      Focus primarily on explaining continuities with age

    • D.

      Deal most centrally with individual differences in responses to life problems

    Correct Answer
    A. Explain both changes with age and continuities
    Explanation
    In explaining adult development, psychologists must consider both changes with age and continuities. This means that they need to examine how individuals change as they grow older, as well as identify the aspects of their behavior or characteristics that remain consistent over time. By understanding both changes and continuities, psychologists can gain a comprehensive understanding of how adults develop and how different factors may influence their development. Focusing solely on either changes or continuities would provide an incomplete picture of adult development.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following groups would be described as a "cohort"?

    • A.

      All adults born between 1970 and 1975

    • B.

      All adults presently with middle-class jobs

    • C.

      All unemployeed adults

    • D.

      All adults who excersize regularly

    Correct Answer
    A. All adults born between 1970 and 1975
    Explanation
    A cohort refers to a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or experience during a specific time period. In this case, the correct answer is "all adults born between 1970 and 1975" because they share the characteristic of being born within a specific time frame. This group can be considered a cohort because they would have experienced similar historical events, cultural influences, and societal changes during their formative years.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is a major argument AGAINST the use of cross-sectional research designs in studying adult development?

    • A.

      They confound age and cohort

    • B.

      They do not allow comparisons of sub-groups, such as middle-class and working-class, or black and white.

    • C.

      They typically involve non-representative samples

    • D.

      They require too much time to collect data

    Correct Answer
    A. They confound age and cohort
    Explanation
    Cross-sectional research designs involve studying different age groups at a single point in time. This makes it difficult to separate the effects of age and cohort (birth year) on the variables being studied. Age and cohort effects can be intertwined, meaning that any differences observed between age groups may be due to the specific historical and social context in which each cohort grew up, rather than solely due to the aging process. Therefore, cross-sectional designs may not accurately capture the true effects of age on development.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is an example of a potential shared, "age-graded" change in adulthood?

    • A.

      A loss of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) beginning in the 30s and 40s and continuing into old age

    • B.

      A decrease in the frequency of contact with siblings between middle age and old age

    • C.

      A lower average number of years of education among current 25-year-olds than among current 65-year-olds

    • D.

      A lesser susceptibility to disease among current 65-year-olds than among current 30-year-olds

    Correct Answer
    A. A loss of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) beginning in the 30s and 40s and continuing into old age
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a loss of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) beginning in the 30s and 40s and continuing into old age. This is an example of a potential shared, "age-graded" change in adulthood because it refers to a decline in physical fitness that typically occurs as individuals age. It is a common experience that many people face as they get older, and it is influenced by biological factors and lifestyle choices. This decline in aerobic capacity is a gradual process that often starts in the 30s and 40s and continues throughout old age.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following timing/experience combinations would be likely to create the LEAST stress and disruption, according to the shared experiential/social clock model?

    • A.

      The death of your father when you are 60 years old

    • B.

      Retirement because of ill health at age 50

    • C.

      Being fired from your job when you are 40 years old

    • D.

      Becoming a parent for the first time when you are 16 years old

    Correct Answer
    A. The death of your father when you are 60 years old
    Explanation
    According to the shared experiential/social clock model, the death of your father when you are 60 years old would likely create the least stress and disruption. This is because it aligns with the expected timing of parental death, as parents are typically expected to pass away before their children. Retirement because of ill health at age 50, being fired from your job when you are 40 years old, and becoming a parent for the first time when you are 16 years old would likely deviate from the expected timing, causing more stress and disruption.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is a common characteristic of U.S. adults who were young children during the Great Depression of the 1930's, according to Elder's research?

    • A.

      Negative effects in adulthood

    • B.

      A large number of children

    • C.

      Stable careers

    • D.

      Late marriage

    Correct Answer
    A. Negative effects in adulthood
    Explanation
    According to Elder's research, a common characteristic of U.S. adults who were young children during the Great Depression of the 1930's is experiencing negative effects in adulthood. This suggests that the economic hardships and challenges faced during their childhood had lasting impacts on their lives, potentially affecting their mental, physical, and financial well-being in adulthood.

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  • 31. 

    A sequential research design _______.

    • A.

      Includes two or more longitudinal comparisons taken at different times

    • B.

      Is more commonly used than cross-sectional designs because they take less time

    • C.

      Is carried out at one point in time

    • D.

      Includes one cohort studied over time

    Correct Answer
    A. Includes two or more longitudinal comparisons taken at different times
    Explanation
    A sequential research design includes two or more longitudinal comparisons taken at different times. This means that the study involves collecting data from the same group of participants at multiple points in time to track changes and trends over time. This design allows researchers to examine how variables may change or develop over time and can provide valuable insights into the long-term effects or outcomes of certain factors or interventions.

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  • 32. 

    If a researcher begins a study of a group of 20-year-olds and then a few years later continues the study on the same group, this would be an example of what type of research design?

    • A.

      Longitudinal

    • B.

      Cross-sectional

    • C.

      Time-sequential

    • D.

      Cohort-sequential

    Correct Answer
    A. Longitudinal
    Explanation
    A longitudinal research design involves studying the same group of individuals over an extended period of time. In this scenario, the researcher starts studying a group of 20-year-olds and continues to follow them for a few years. This aligns with a longitudinal design as it allows the researcher to observe changes and developments within the same group over time.

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  • 33. 

    Although Alex's biological mother used crack cocaine during her pregnancy, Alex was adopted at birth into a loving home with parents who did the best that they could to give her every opportunity possible. She ended up graduating from high school and is now beginning a culinary program at a local community college. Alex's scenario best exemplifies:

    • A.

      Plasticity

    • B.

      Contextualism

    • C.

      Normative history-graded influences

    • D.

      The multidisciplinary nature of development

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasticity
    Explanation
    Alex's scenario best exemplifies plasticity because despite the adverse effects of her biological mother's drug use during pregnancy, she was able to overcome these challenges and thrive in a loving and supportive environment. Plasticity refers to the ability of individuals to adapt and change in response to their environment and experiences. In this case, Alex's positive outcomes demonstrate the potential for resilience and growth, even in the face of early adversity.

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  • 34. 

    Whitney is excited to finally celebrate her 21st birthday with her friends. They go out to dinner, and she orders a glass of wine. This situation is an example of ______________ age

    • A.

      Chronological

    • B.

      Biological

    • C.

      Social

    • D.

      Psychological

    Correct Answer
    A. Chronological
    Explanation
    The situation presented in the question is an example of chronological age. Chronological age refers to a person's age in terms of the number of years they have been alive. In this case, Whitney is celebrating her 21st birthday, which indicates that she has reached the legal drinking age and can order a glass of wine. This demonstrates her chronological age, as it is based on the number of years she has lived.

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  • 35. 

    Frank, a 38-year-old man, lives at home with his mother because he cannot keep a job longer than a month or two. Frank’s _________ age is lower than many of his peers who live independently with their spouses and children.

    • A.

      Psychological

    • B.

      Functional

    • C.

      Chronological

    • D.

      Social

    Correct Answer
    A. Psychological
    Explanation
    Frank's psychological age is lower than many of his peers who live independently with their spouses and children. This means that Frank's level of emotional and mental maturity is not as advanced as others in his age group. This could explain why he struggles to maintain employment and live independently, as he may have difficulty managing stress, making decisions, and adapting to new situations.

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  • 36. 

    John’s development has been, on some level, influenced by the economy and political system since those affect which resources are available to him. These are examples of which one of Bronfenbrenner’s systems?

    • A.

      Macrosystem

    • B.

      Mesosystem

    • C.

      Microsystem

    • D.

      Exosystem

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrosystem
    Explanation
    John's development being influenced by the economy and political system suggests that it is influenced by the broader cultural context in which he lives. This aligns with Bronfenbrenner's concept of the macrosystem, which refers to the larger social and cultural influences that shape an individual's development. The macrosystem encompasses factors such as the economy, political system, societal norms, and cultural values, all of which can have a significant impact on an individual's development.

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  • 37. 

    A normal chemical process in the body, resulting from exposure to sunlight, X-rays, and food, creates molecules or atoms that possess an unpaired electron. These atoms and molecules are called _______.

    • A.

      Free radicals

    • B.

      DNA breakages

    • C.

      Antioxidants

    • D.

      Cross linkages

    Correct Answer
    A. Free radicals
    Explanation
    Exposure to sunlight, X-rays, and food can lead to a normal chemical process in the body that creates atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons. These reactive species are known as free radicals.

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  • 38. 

    According to research on normal adult men, which of the following is NOT a major change in the reproductive system with age?

    • A.

      A major decline in testosterone levels

    • B.

      A diminished production of sperm  

    • C.

      A longer time to acheive and erection

    • D.

      Shrinkage of the testies

    Correct Answer
    A. A major decline in testosterone levels
    Explanation
    As men age, there are several major changes that occur in the reproductive system. These include a diminished production of sperm, a longer time to achieve an erection, and shrinkage of the testes. However, a major decline in testosterone levels is not a change that typically occurs with age in normal adult men. Testosterone levels may decrease slightly over time, but it is not considered a major change.

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  • 39. 

    At about what age does a significant loss of visual acuity begin to be measurable for most adults?

    • A.

      45

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      60

    • D.

      70

    Correct Answer
    A. 45
    Explanation
    As adults age, it is common for them to experience a gradual decline in visual acuity. This means that their ability to see clearly and sharply diminishes over time. The correct answer, 45, suggests that most adults begin to notice a significant loss of visual acuity around this age. It is important to note that this is a generalization and individual experiences may vary. Regular eye exams and proper eye care can help to detect and manage any changes in visual acuity.

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  • 40. 

    Cells of different species, when observed in nutrient solutions, are seen to divide varying numbers of times, with cells of the most long-lived species dividing more times than the cells of short-lived species. The total number of divisions for any given species is sometimes referred to as _______.

    • A.

      The Hayflick limit

    • B.

      The dividing limit

    • C.

      The Shock limit

    • D.

      Species replicability

    Correct Answer
    A. The Hayflick limit
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the Hayflick limit". This term refers to the total number of times a cell can divide before it reaches a state of senescence or cell death. It was discovered by Leonard Hayflick and is a characteristic of normal human cells. The Hayflick limit varies between different species, with cells of long-lived species being able to divide more times than cells of short-lived species.

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  • 41. 

    More women than men in the United States are diagnosed with _______.

    • A.

      Hip fractures

    • B.

      Cardiovascular problems

    • C.

      Glacoma

    • D.

      Hearing loss

    Correct Answer
    A. Hip fractures
    Explanation
    Hip fractures are more commonly diagnosed in women than in men in the United States. This is due to several factors, including the higher prevalence of osteoporosis in women, which weakens the bones and increases the risk of fractures. Additionally, hormonal changes during menopause can further contribute to bone loss in women. These factors combined make women more susceptible to hip fractures compared to men.

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  • 42. 

    One major shortcoming of most of the research on sexual activity is that it

    • A.

      It focuses on the frequency counts of sexual activity

    • B.

      Focuses only on males

    • C.

      Focuses primarily on quality of sexual relations at different ages.

    • D.

      Focuses primarily on many types of sexual expression besides intercourse

    Correct Answer
    A. It focuses on the frequency counts of sexual activity
    Explanation
    Most of the research on sexual activity is criticized for focusing solely on the frequency counts of sexual activity. This means that researchers tend to prioritize the quantity of sexual encounters rather than considering other important aspects such as the quality of sexual relations or different types of sexual expression. By solely focusing on frequency counts, researchers may overlook the complexity and diversity of human sexual experiences, potentially leading to an incomplete understanding of sexuality.

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  • 43. 

    The aging process has been a matter of interest and a subject of research for centuries. This research has established a(n) _______.

    • A.

      Diversity of current propositions about the aging process, most supported by some empirical evidence

    • B.

      Diversity of empirical evidence, all pointing to 4 primary theories of aging

    • C.

      Empirically documented single theory of aging

    • D.

      Unified theory of aging at the cellular level

    Correct Answer
    A. Diversity of current propositions about the aging process, most supported by some empirical evidence
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that the research on the aging process has established a diversity of current propositions about the aging process, most supported by some empirical evidence. This means that there are multiple theories and ideas about how aging occurs, and many of them have some evidence to support them. It suggests that there is no one single theory that explains the aging process, but rather a range of ideas that are backed up by some level of empirical data.

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  • 44. 

    The gradual loss of hearing resulting from wear and tear on the auditory nerves and inner ear structures is called _______.

    • A.

      Sensorineural hearing loss

    • B.

      Presbyopia

    • C.

      Loud-soft discrimination deficits

    • D.

      Tone deafness

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensorineural hearing loss
    Explanation
    Sensorineural hearing loss is the correct answer because it refers to the gradual loss of hearing caused by damage to the auditory nerves or inner ear structures. This type of hearing loss is commonly associated with aging and wear and tear on the sensory cells in the inner ear. Presbyopia is a condition that affects near vision and is unrelated to hearing loss. Loud-soft discrimination deficits and tone deafness are not accurate terms for describing the gradual loss of hearing.

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  • 45. 

    When some body change is linked to age but appears to be the product of environmental influences or health habits, it is an example of _______.

    • A.

      Secondary aging

    • B.

      Primary aging

    • C.

      Maturation

    • D.

      The impact of free radicals

    Correct Answer
    A. Secondary aging
    Explanation
    Secondary aging refers to changes in the body that are influenced by external factors such as lifestyle choices, environmental factors, and health habits, rather than being solely attributed to the natural aging process (primary aging). In this scenario, when a change in the body is linked to age but is actually caused by environmental influences or health habits, it is an example of secondary aging. This suggests that external factors can have a significant impact on the aging process and can accelerate or decelerate certain changes typically associated with aging.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is NOT a change in sleep patterns with increasing age in adulthood?

    • A.

      Fewer daily naps because of less physical activity

    • B.

      A reduction in the number of hours of  sleep

    • C.

      An increase in breathing disturbances

    • D.

      Waking earlier in the morning

    Correct Answer
    A. Fewer daily naps because of less physical activity
    Explanation
    As individuals age, it is common for their sleep patterns to change. They tend to experience a reduction in the number of hours of sleep, waking earlier in the morning, and an increase in breathing disturbances. However, one change that is not typically associated with increasing age is fewer daily naps because of less physical activity. While physical activity may decrease with age, it does not necessarily lead to a decrease in daily naps.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following is the CLEAREST example of primary aging?

    • A.

      The decline in neuronal speed with age

    • B.

      The loss of muscle tissue with age as a result of a sedentary life style

    • C.

      The increase in the rate of heart disease with age

    • D.

      The increase in the rate of cancer with age

    Correct Answer
    A. The decline in neuronal speed with age
    Explanation
    The decline in neuronal speed with age is the clearest example of primary aging because it directly relates to the natural process of aging in the brain. As individuals get older, their neurons tend to slow down, leading to cognitive changes such as slower reaction times and decreased processing speed. This decline in neuronal speed is considered a primary aging process because it is a normal and inevitable part of aging, rather than being caused by external factors or lifestyle choices.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is the best statement about individual differences in the rate or pattern of physiological aging?

    • A.

      There are significant underlying maturational sequences, but there are very wide individual variations in rate and pattern.

    • B.

      There are no shared underlying maturational sequences

    • C.

      There are significant maturational sequences, although there is room for individual variation within relatively narrow limits

    • D.

      The maturational sequences are very powerful; virtually all adults follow the same sequences at the same rates

    Correct Answer
    A. There are significant underlying maturational sequences, but there are very wide individual variations in rate and pattern.
  • 49. 

    On a day-to-day basis, how does the heart of an older person compare to one of a younger person?

    • A.

      They both work just about the same

    • B.

      The heart of the older person works slower than the younger person

    • C.

      The heart of the older person works faster than the younger person

    • D.

      The heart of the older person has more plaque than the younger person

    Correct Answer
    A. They both work just about the same
    Explanation
    As people age, the heart may experience some changes, such as a decrease in maximum heart rate and a slight thickening of the heart walls. However, overall, the heart of an older person still functions relatively similarly to that of a younger person. While there may be some age-related changes, the heart is still able to pump blood effectively and supply oxygen to the body. Therefore, the statement that "they both work just about the same" is a correct explanation.

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  • 50. 

    What is an example of a food desert?

    • A.

      A low-income neighborhood with many convenience stores

    • B.

      A low-income neighborhood with many people on government aid

    • C.

      A high-income neighborhood with expensive health food stores

    • D.

      A middle-class neighborhood with one grocery store

    Correct Answer
    A. A low-income neighborhood with many convenience stores
    Explanation
    An example of a food desert is a low-income neighborhood with many convenience stores. Convenience stores typically do not offer a wide variety of fresh and healthy food options, making it difficult for residents to access nutritious meals. This lack of access to affordable and nutritious food can contribute to health issues and food insecurity within the community.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jan 30, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 07, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Tracym101
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