Ethics Quiz For Personal Use

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| By Charter15
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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 6,679
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Ethics Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz is for my personal use, compiled (verbatim) from questions from tests in my philosophy class. Y'all are free to take it, but be warned, my teacher makes mistakes.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Ethic is best defined as

    • A.

      The idea of how people ought to behave.

    • B.

      The discipline dealing with duty and moral obligation.

    • C.

      A set of moral principles and values.

    • D.

      The principles of conduct governing an individual or groip.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above." This is because ethic encompasses all the given definitions. It refers to the idea of how people should behave, the discipline that deals with duty and moral obligation, a set of moral principles and values, as well as the principles of conduct that govern individuals or groups. Therefore, all of these options accurately describe the concept of ethic.

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  • 2. 

    Ethical theories are

    • A.

      Prescriptive models of how one generally ought to act.

    • B.

      Decision-making models that prescribe a course of "right" action.

    • C.

      Sepcific rules enforceable by reward or punishment.

    • D.

      Both A and B

    • E.

      Both B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and B
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Both A and B." Ethical theories are prescriptive models that provide guidelines on how one generally ought to act. They also serve as decision-making models that prescribe a course of "right" action. Therefore, both options A and B are correct as they encompass the different aspects of ethical theories. Option C, which suggests specific rules enforceable by reward or punishment, is not an accurate description of ethical theories.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following best defines Utilitarianism?

    • A.

      Something is right if it fulfills itts true purposes, wrong if it goes against these purposes.

    • B.

      Universal laws exist which determine the rightness and wrongness of actions.

    • C.

      The right thing to do is the action that provides the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people.

    • D.

      Highest good in life is a life of virtue which could be reached through prudence, justice, and temperance.

    Correct Answer
    C. The right thing to do is the action that provides the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people.
    Explanation
    Utilitarianism is a moral theory that states that the right action is the one that maximizes overall happiness or well-being for the greatest number of people. This means that an action is considered morally right if it produces the greatest amount of happiness and minimizes suffering for the largest number of individuals. Utilitarianism focuses on the consequences of actions rather than the intentions behind them, and it aims to achieve the greatest overall happiness or utility for society as a whole.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following best describes John Stuart Mill's term Utility?

    • A.

      The foundation of morals.

    • B.

      The act of truth telling.

    • C.

      The deprivation of the senses.

    • D.

      The greatest happiness principle.

    Correct Answer
    D. The greatest happiness principle.
    Explanation
    John Stuart Mill's term Utility refers to the greatest happiness principle. This principle suggests that actions should be judged based on their ability to promote happiness and minimize suffering for the greatest number of people. Mill believed that the ultimate goal of morality and ethics should be to maximize overall happiness and well-being. Therefore, the correct answer is the greatest happiness principle, as it accurately describes Mill's concept of Utility.

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  • 5. 

    In what does John Stuart Mill ground his theory of morality?

    • A.

      Pleasure.

    • B.

      The absence of pain.

    • C.

      Utility.

    • D.

      Both A and B

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    John Stuart Mill grounds his theory of morality in all of the above options: pleasure, the absence of pain, and utility. Mill argues that actions are morally right if they promote happiness or pleasure and minimize pain or unhappiness. He believes that the ultimate goal of morality is to maximize overall happiness and well-being for the greatest number of people, which can be achieved through the pursuit of pleasure, the absence of pain, and the principle of utility. Therefore, all of these factors are essential in Mill's theory of morality.

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  • 6. 

    Where do utilitarian writers believe a human can experience a greater and more permanent pleasure?

    • A.

      In the pleasures of the senses.

    • B.

      In the pleasures of the intellect.

    • C.

      Mental pleasures.

    • D.

      Both A and B

    • E.

      Both B and C

    Correct Answer
    E. Both B and C
    Explanation
    Utilitarian writers believe that a human can experience a greater and more permanent pleasure in the pleasures of the intellect and mental pleasures. This means that they prioritize intellectual and mental stimulation over physical pleasures. They argue that engaging in activities that stimulate the mind and provide intellectual satisfaction can lead to long-lasting and more fulfilling pleasure compared to the temporary gratification of physical pleasures. Therefore, both the pleasures of the intellect and mental pleasures are considered to offer a greater and more permanent pleasure according to utilitarian writers.

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  • 7. 

    What can prevent a man from attaining higher pleasures?

    • A.

      The influence of temptation.

    • B.

      Infirmity of character.

    • C.

      Indolence and selfishness.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the factors mentioned in the options can prevent a man from attaining higher pleasures. The influence of temptation can lead individuals astray and distract them from pursuing higher pleasures. Infirmity of character refers to a lack of moral strength or integrity, which can hinder one's ability to seek and achieve higher pleasures. Indolence and selfishness can also prevent individuals from engaging in activities that bring them higher pleasures, as they may prioritize their own comfort and immediate desires over long-term fulfillment. Therefore, all of the above factors can act as barriers to attaining higher pleasures.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following contributes to men losing their high aspirations for intellectual tastes?

    • A.

      Lack of time and opportunity.

    • B.

      Position in life and society.

    • C.

      Parents and peers.

    • D.

      Youthful enthusiasm.

    Correct Answer
    A. Lack of time and opportunity.
    Explanation
    Men may lose their high aspirations for intellectual tastes due to a lack of time and opportunity. This could be because they are occupied with other responsibilities such as work or family, leaving them with little time to pursue intellectual interests. Additionally, they may not have access to resources or environments that foster intellectual growth, limiting their opportunities to engage in intellectual pursuits. As a result, their aspirations may diminish over time, leading to a decline in their intellectual tastes.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is NOT a belief held by Immanuel Kant?

    • A.

      He believed "good will" consisted of actions without ulterior motives.

    • B.

      He believed that only a select group of people had the duty to perform acts of goodness.

    • C.

      He believed that an action must be valuable in itself.

    • D.

      He believed that humans should never treat other humans as a means to an end.

    Correct Answer
    B. He believed that only a select group of people had the duty to perform acts of goodness.
    Explanation
    Immanuel Kant believed in the concept of "good will" consisting of actions without ulterior motives. He also believed that an action must be valuable in itself and that humans should never treat other humans as a means to an end. However, he did not believe that only a select group of people had the duty to perform acts of goodness. Kant believed that all individuals, regardless of their status or position, had a moral duty to perform acts of goodness.

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  • 10. 

    Why are act-oriented ethics sometimes easier to understand and apply than result-oriented ethics?

    • A.

      It only considers principles and actions.

    • B.

      It only considers the universal behaviors of human beings.

    • C.

      It only considers long-term results.

    • D.

      It only considers the happiness of all people.

    Correct Answer
    A. It only considers principles and actions.
    Explanation
    Act-oriented ethics focus on the principles and actions involved in a moral decision, rather than the specific outcomes or results. This makes it easier to understand and apply because it simplifies the decision-making process. By considering the principles and actions alone, individuals can determine whether an action is morally right or wrong based on established ethical principles. In contrast, result-oriented ethics consider the long-term results and consequences of an action, which can be more complex and subjective. Act-oriented ethics provide a clear framework for making moral decisions, making them easier to understand and apply in various situations.

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  • 11. 

    According to Kant, which of the following is an "indispensable condition even of being worthy of happiness"?

    • A.

      Intelligence.

    • B.

      Courage.

    • C.

      Good will.

    • D.

      Perseverance.

    Correct Answer
    C. Good will.
    Explanation
    According to Kant, good will is considered an indispensable condition even of being worthy of happiness. Kant believed that good will is the only thing that is intrinsically good and that it should be the guiding principle behind all actions. He argued that intelligence, courage, and perseverance can all be used for evil purposes if not guided by a good will. Therefore, having a good will is essential for leading a morally upright life and ultimately achieving true happiness.

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  • 12. 

    Where does an action done from duty derive its moral worth?

    • A.

      From the realization of the object of the action.

    • B.

      From the maxim by which it is determined.

    • C.

      From material principles.

    • D.

      From honesty.

    Correct Answer
    B. From the maxim by which it is determined.
    Explanation
    An action done from duty derives its moral worth from the maxim by which it is determined. This means that the moral worth of an action is based on the principle or rule that guides the action. If the maxim or principle is morally good, then the action derived from it is also morally good. In other words, the intention behind the action and the moral rule that governs it are what determine its moral worth, rather than the specific outcome or the object of the action.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following does Kant believe should govern the behavior of human beings?

    • A.

      Universal laws.

    • B.

      Absolute good.

    • C.

      The laws of mankind.

    • D.

      Maxims.

    Correct Answer
    A. Universal laws.
    Explanation
    Kant believes that the behavior of human beings should be governed by universal laws. According to Kant's moral philosophy, known as deontology, individuals should act in a way that can be universally applied as a moral law. This means that actions should be guided by principles that can be rationally justified and universally accepted. Kant argues that moral actions are those that are performed out of a sense of duty and in accordance with these universal laws, rather than being motivated by personal desires or consequences. Therefore, the correct answer is universal laws.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following BEST describes authoritarian ethics?

    • A.

      Decisions about right and wrong are a function of society.

    • B.

      Decision about right and wrong are immutable and final.

    • C.

      Decision about right and wrong arise from within the individual.

    • D.

      Decision about right and wrong must be based on individual situations.

    Correct Answer
    B. Decision about right and wrong are immutable and final.
    Explanation
    Authoritarian ethics refers to a moral framework where decisions about right and wrong are considered to be unchangeable and absolute. In this perspective, there is a belief that moral principles are fixed and should be followed without question or deviation. This approach does not consider individual situations or societal influences in determining what is right or wrong. Instead, it emphasizes the importance of adhering to a set of predetermined moral rules that are considered to be immutable and final.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following BEST describes autonomous ethics?

    • A.

      Decisions about right and wrong are a function of society.

    • B.

      Decision about right and wrong are immutable and final.

    • C.

      Decision about right and wrong arise from within the individual.

    • D.

      Decision about right and wrong must be based on individual situations.

    Correct Answer
    C. Decision about right and wrong arise from within the individual.
    Explanation
    Autonomous ethics refers to the belief that decisions about right and wrong arise from within the individual. This means that individuals have the ability to determine their own moral values and make ethical choices based on their own internal principles and beliefs, rather than relying on external sources or societal norms. It emphasizes the importance of personal autonomy and individual responsibility in ethical decision-making.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is a belief held by the formalist?

    • A.

      Ethical decisions are based on universal laws which apply to all men.

    • B.

      Ethical decisions are on the notions of right and wrong held by a particular society.

    • C.

      Ethical decisions are judged individually; each situation is unique.

    • D.

      The fundamental ethical guideline of an authentic concern for the well being of others.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ethical decisions are based on universal laws which apply to all men.
    Explanation
    The formalist belief is that ethical decisions are based on universal laws which apply to all men. This means that there are objective moral principles that should guide ethical decision-making, regardless of personal or cultural beliefs. The formalist perspective rejects the idea that ethical decisions are subjective or relative to a particular society or individual situation. Instead, it emphasizes the importance of following universal laws and principles in order to make ethical choices.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is a belief held by the relativist?

    • A.

      Ethical decisions are based on universal laws which apply to all men.

    • B.

      Ethical decisions are based on the notions of right and wrong held by a particular society.

    • C.

      Ethical decisions are judged individually; each situation is unique.

    • D.

      The fundamental ethical guideline of an authentic concern for the well being of others.

    Correct Answer
    B. Ethical decisions are based on the notions of right and wrong held by a particular society.
    Explanation
    The belief held by the relativist is that ethical decisions are based on the notions of right and wrong held by a particular society. This means that what is considered ethical may vary from one society to another, and there are no universal laws or guidelines that apply to all men. Instead, ethical decisions are determined by the cultural and societal norms of a specific group or community.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a belief held by the contextualist?

    • A.

      Ethical decisions are based on universal laws which apply to all men.

    • B.

      Ethical decisions are based on the notions of right and wrong held by a particular society.

    • C.

      Ethical decisions are judged individually; each situation is unique.

    • D.

      The fundamental ethical guideline of an authentic concern for the well being of others.

    Correct Answer
    C. Ethical decisions are judged individually; each situation is unique.
    Explanation
    The contextualist believes that ethical decisions should be judged individually and that each situation is unique. This means that there are no universal laws or fixed notions of right and wrong that can be applied to all men or societies. Instead, the contextualist considers the specific circumstances and context of each ethical decision in order to determine what is morally right or wrong. This perspective recognizes the importance of considering the complexities and nuances of different situations when making ethical judgments.

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  • 19. 

    According to Epicurus, which of the following leads to happiness?

    • A.

      A mind that is free from fear and a body that is satisfied.

    • B.

      Continuous over indulgence.

    • C.

      Moderation.

    • D.

      Both A and B

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    E. Both A and C
    Explanation
    According to Epicurus, both a mind that is free from fear and a body that is satisfied, as well as moderation, lead to happiness. This means that in order to be happy, one must have a calm and fearless mind, along with a contented body. Additionally, moderation in all aspects of life is also necessary for achieving happiness.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is NOT a dynamic pleasure?

    • A.

      Sexual love.

    • B.

      Friendship.

    • C.

      Marriage.

    • D.

      Gluttony.

    Correct Answer
    B. Friendship.
    Explanation
    Friendship is not considered a dynamic pleasure because it is not primarily based on physical or sensory gratification. Dynamic pleasures typically involve intense physical sensations or indulgence in sensory experiences. Sexual love, marriage, and gluttony all involve physical pleasure or gratification in some form, whereas friendship is based on emotional connection, mutual trust, and support rather than physical pleasure.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is NOT a belief held by Epicurus?

    • A.

      Live moderately but pleasurably.

    • B.

      Happiness of the mind is better than pleasure of the body.

    • C.

      Anxiety over the future is the greatest destroyer of happiness.

    • D.

      Extravagant living, on occassion, is beneficial.

    Correct Answer
    D. Extravagant living, on occassion, is beneficial.
    Explanation
    Epicurus believed in living moderately but pleasurably, emphasizing the importance of finding happiness in the mind rather than seeking physical pleasure. He also believed that anxiety over the future is the greatest destroyer of happiness. However, he did not believe that extravagant living, on occasion, is beneficial. Instead, he advocated for a simple and frugal lifestyle, suggesting that excessive indulgence could lead to dissatisfaction and unhappiness.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is another name applied to utilitarian theory?

    • A.

      Contextualist theory.

    • B.

      Conceptualist theory.

    • C.

      Consequentialist theory.

    • D.

      Hedonistic theory.

    Correct Answer
    C. Consequentialist theory.
    Explanation
    Utilitarian theory is a moral theory that focuses on maximizing overall happiness or well-being. It suggests that the right action is the one that produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Consequentialist theory is another name for utilitarian theory because it emphasizes the consequences or outcomes of actions in determining their moral value. It considers the overall consequences and seeks to maximize the overall good, rather than focusing on individual intentions or moral duties.

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  • 23. 

    How many questions are asked in the systematic approach to ethical decision making?

    • A.

      2.

    • B.

      3.

    • C.

      4.

    • D.

      5.

    • E.

      Unlimited.

    Correct Answer
    B. 3.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 3 because the question asks about the number of questions asked in the systematic approach to ethical decision making. This implies that there is a specific set of questions that need to be answered in this approach, and the number of questions is 3.

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  • 24. 

    According to Immanuel Kant, where do universal moral laws exist?

    • A.

      Within the structure of the ideal government.

    • B.

      Within the structure of the human mind.

    • C.

      Within the structure of religious organizations.

    • D.

      Within the structure of individual circumstances.

    Correct Answer
    B. Within the structure of the human mind.
    Explanation
    According to Immanuel Kant, universal moral laws exist within the structure of the human mind. Kant believed that moral principles are not derived from external sources such as governments, religious organizations, or individual circumstances, but rather they are inherent in the rationality and autonomy of human beings. He argued that individuals possess a moral conscience that allows them to discern and act upon these universal moral laws, which are based on reason and the categorical imperative. Thus, Kant emphasized the importance of individuals using their own rationality to determine what is morally right or wrong.

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  • 25. 

    According to Kant, what is "reason" unable to do?

    • A.

      It cannot determine the outcome of actions.

    • B.

      It cannot determine your will.

    • C.

      It cannot determine what is right or wrong.

    • D.

      It cannot determine freedome and happiness.

    Correct Answer
    A. It cannot determine the outcome of actions.
    Explanation
    According to Kant, reason is unable to determine the outcome of actions. Kant believed that reason could guide our actions and help us determine what is morally right or wrong, but it cannot predict or control the actual outcomes of those actions. He argued that our moral duty is to act in accordance with reason and moral principles, regardless of the consequences that may result. Therefore, reason is limited in its ability to determine the specific outcomes or consequences of our actions.

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  • 26. 

    Natural law ethics believes

    • A.

      Something is right if it fulfills its true purposes, wrong if it goes against these purposes.

    • B.

      Individual happiness is more important than group happiness.

    • C.

      Environment plays a part in the outcome of human behavior.

    • D.

      Human actions are determined by a series of antecedent causes.

    Correct Answer
    A. Something is right if it fulfills its true purposes, wrong if it goes against these purposes.
    Explanation
    Natural law ethics believes that the moral goodness or badness of an action is determined by whether it fulfills its true purposes or goes against them. This means that an action is considered right if it aligns with its intended goals or objectives, and wrong if it deviates from them. This ethical perspective emphasizes the importance of understanding the inherent purposes or telos of things in order to determine their moral value. It suggests that actions should be evaluated based on their conformity to these inherent purposes rather than subjective preferences or consequences.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is not one of Epicurus' categories of desire?

    • A.

      Emotional desires.

    • B.

      Natural and necessary desires.

    • C.

      Natural and unnecessary desires.

    • D.

      Vain desires.

    Correct Answer
    A. Emotional desires.
    Explanation
    Epicurus categorized desires into three categories: natural and necessary desires, natural and unnecessary desires, and vain desires. Emotional desires are not included in his categorization.

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  • 28. 

    According to Aristotle, what is virtue?

    • A.

      The concept of understanding the final cause.

    • B.

      Happiness and common sense.

    • C.

      A state of character concerned with choice.

    • D.

      Living a life of excess.

    Correct Answer
    C. A state of character concerned with choice.
    Explanation
    According to Aristotle, virtue is a state of character concerned with choice. This means that virtue is not simply a set of actions or behaviors, but rather a disposition or habit of making good choices. It involves finding the mean between extremes and acting in accordance with reason and moral principles. Virtue is not about living a life of excess, but rather about developing a balanced and virtuous character. It is also not solely about happiness or common sense, although these may be outcomes of virtuous behavior.

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  • 29. 

    When it comes to ethics, which of the following best describes how Aristotle differs from Plato?

    • A.

      Aristotle is a rationalist while Plato is not.

    • B.

      Plato used common sense when studying ethics.

    • C.

      Plato believes happiness can be different for different individuals.

    • D.

      Aristotle believes happiness is not absolute.

    Correct Answer
    D. Aristotle believes happiness is not absolute.
    Explanation
    Aristotle believes happiness is not absolute because he argues that it is not a fixed or universal concept, but rather a subjective experience that can vary from person to person. He believes that happiness is achieved through the pursuit of virtue and the fulfillment of one's potential, which can differ for each individual based on their unique circumstances and abilities. In contrast, Plato believes in the existence of an absolute form of happiness that can be discovered through reason and philosophical contemplation.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is NOT true of Stoicism?

    • A.

      Behavior is rigidly determined by natural law.

    • B.

      Virtue can be attained through prudence, justice, and temperance.

    • C.

      Destiny must be faced with courage and dignity.

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    Stoicism believes that behavior is not rigidly determined by natural law, but rather by individual choice and the use of reason. It also teaches that virtue can be attained through prudence, justice, and temperance. Additionally, Stoicism emphasizes the importance of facing destiny with courage and dignity. Therefore, the statement "None of the above" is the correct answer as it accurately reflects the principles of Stoicism.

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  • 31. 

    John Stuart Mill's approach to ethics is deontological or act oriented.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    John Stuart Mill's approach to ethics is not deontological or act-oriented. Instead, Mill's approach is consequentialist or utilitarian. He believed that the morality of an action should be determined by its consequences and that the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people should be the ultimate goal. This stands in contrast to deontological ethics, which focuses on the inherent rightness or wrongness of actions regardless of their outcomes.

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  • 32. 

    According to Mill, all desirable things in life are either inherently pleasureable or as a means to the promotion of pleasure and the prevention of pain.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mill believed that all desirable things in life are either inherently pleasurable or serve as a means to promote pleasure and prevent pain. This means that anything that is considered desirable ultimately brings pleasure or helps to avoid pain. Therefore, the statement is true according to Mill's philosophy.

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  • 33. 

    According to Mill, human beings and beasts possess like conceptions of happiness.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Mill does not believe that human beings and beasts possess like conceptions of happiness. He argues that human beings have higher faculties and desires that animals do not possess, and therefore their conceptions of happiness are different. Mill believes that human happiness involves the development and exercise of these higher faculties, such as reason and moral sentiments, while animals are only capable of experiencing simple pleasures and avoiding pain. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 34. 

    Utilitarian writers hold that the estimation of pleasures depends on quantity alone.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Utilitarian writers do not solely believe that the estimation of pleasures depends on quantity alone. They also consider the quality of pleasures when determining their value. This means that not all pleasures are equal and some may hold more value than others, regardless of their quantity. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 35. 

    According to Mill, human beings would never change places with either animals or fools to experience the most complete satisfaction of all desires which they have in common.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mill believed that human beings would never willingly trade places with animals or fools because they would not find complete satisfaction in doing so. This implies that humans have desires and experiences that are unique to them and cannot be fully understood or appreciated by animals or fools. Therefore, the statement is true according to Mill's perspective.

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  • 36. 

    According to Mill, a human being's "capacity for nobler feelings" is easily killed.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      Fa;se

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mill believed that a human being's "capacity for nobler feelings" can be easily extinguished or suppressed. This suggests that our ability to experience and express higher emotions such as compassion, empathy, and love can be easily diminished or destroyed by various factors such as societal pressure, negative experiences, or the influence of others. Therefore, the statement "a human being's 'capacity for nobler feelings' is easily killed" aligns with Mill's perspective on human nature.

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  • 37. 

    Utilitarianism can only attain its end by the general cultivation of nobleness of character.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement suggests that in order for utilitarianism to achieve its goal, which is maximizing overall happiness and well-being, it is necessary for individuals to develop and possess virtuous and noble character traits. This implies that the success of utilitarianism relies not only on external actions and consequences, but also on the internal qualities and moral values of individuals.

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  • 38. 

    Kant's act-oriented theory of ethics says that actions do not have moral character apart from their consequences.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Kant's act-oriented theory of ethics actually states that actions do have moral character apart from their consequences. Kant believed that moral actions are determined by the intention behind the action, rather than the outcome. According to Kant, an action is morally right if it is done out of a sense of duty and based on a universal moral principle, regardless of the consequences. Therefore, the given answer is false.

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  • 39. 

    According to Kant, the moral worth of an action lies in the effect expected from it.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Kant believed that the moral worth of an action lies in the intention behind it, rather than the effect expected from it. He argued that an action can only be considered morally good if it is done out of a sense of duty and adherence to moral principles, regardless of the outcome or consequences. Therefore, the statement that the moral worth of an action lies in the effect expected from it is incorrect according to Kant's philosophy.

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  • 40. 

    According to kant, acting from pure respect for the practical law is what constitutes duty.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Kant, acting from pure respect for the practical law is what constitutes duty. This means that individuals should act based on moral principles and their sense of duty, rather than being motivated by personal desires or consequences. Kant believed that true moral actions are performed out of a sense of duty and respect for the moral law, rather than for any personal gain or benefit. Therefore, the statement that acting from pure respect for the practical law constitutes duty is true according to Kant's philosophy.

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  • 41. 

    Kant believed that individuals must be willing to have their principles of action become universal laws.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Kant believed that individuals must be willing to have their principles of action become universal laws. This means that individuals should only act in a way that they would be comfortable if everyone else acted in the same way. In other words, our actions should be based on principles that can be universally applied without contradiction. This is because Kant believed in the importance of moral duty and the idea that our actions should be guided by rationality and a sense of duty rather than personal desires or consequences. Therefore, the statement is true according to Kant's ethical framework.

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  • 42. 

    Epicurus believed in ideal living through "ataraxia" or tranquility of the soul.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Epicurus, the ancient Greek philosopher, advocated for a life of tranquility and peace, which he referred to as "ataraxia." He believed that true happiness and fulfillment could be achieved by cultivating a calm and tranquil state of mind and freeing oneself from unnecessary desires and fears. This state of tranquility would allow individuals to fully enjoy and appreciate life. Therefore, the statement that Epicurus believed in ideal living through "ataraxia" or tranquility of the soul is true.

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  • 43. 

    Epicurus advocated a life of hedonism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Epicurus did not advocate a life of hedonism. Instead, he believed in the pursuit of pleasure through the absence of pain and the cultivation of simple pleasures. He emphasized the importance of moderation and the avoidance of excessive desires. Epicurus believed that true happiness came from living a tranquil and virtuous life, rather than constantly seeking out pleasure. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 44. 

    Epicurus' belief system is based on what is known as practical philosophy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Epicurus' belief system is indeed based on practical philosophy. He emphasized the pursuit of happiness and the avoidance of pain as the ultimate goals in life. According to Epicurus, one should focus on the present moment and seek pleasure in simple things, rather than pursuing material wealth or societal status. This practical approach to philosophy aimed to provide individuals with practical guidance on how to live a happy and fulfilling life.

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  • 45. 

    A principle encourages or discourages a general course of action, while a rule sanctions a specific course of action as acceptable or unaccpetable.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because principles are broad guidelines that guide behavior and decision-making, while rules are specific instructions that dictate what is allowed or not allowed. Principles provide a framework for making ethical choices and promote consistency, while rules provide clear boundaries and consequences for actions. Therefore, principles encourage or discourage a general course of action, while rules sanction a specific course of action as acceptable or unacceptable.

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  • 46. 

    According to a cultural relativist, there is no universal "right" or "wrong".

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to cultural relativism, moral values and ethical standards vary across different cultures, and there is no objective or universal standard of right or wrong. This perspective believes that what is considered morally acceptable or unacceptable is determined by the cultural context in which it occurs. Therefore, the statement that there is no universal "right" or "wrong" aligns with the cultural relativist viewpoint.

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  • 47. 

    Aristotle notes that hppiness is the common factor that ties together people who live a life of common sense.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Aristotle believed that happiness is the common factor that unites individuals who live a life guided by common sense. According to him, common sense involves making rational decisions and finding balance in life, ultimately leading to a state of happiness. This aligns with Aristotle's philosophy of eudaimonia, which emphasizes the pursuit of a fulfilling and flourishing life. Therefore, it can be concluded that the statement is true.

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  • 48. 

    Every action and every passion admits of a mean.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is a reflection of Aristotle's doctrine of the mean, which suggests that every virtue lies between two extremes, one of excess and one of deficiency. However, it is not true that every action and every passion admits of a mean. Some actions and passions may not have a middle ground or a balanced state. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 49. 

    Stoicism seeks to find happiness through wisdom.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Stoicism is a philosophical school that teaches individuals to find happiness and fulfillment by cultivating wisdom. According to Stoic principles, true happiness can only be achieved by understanding and accepting the nature of the world and focusing on what is within our control. By practicing self-discipline, virtue, and rationality, Stoics believe that one can attain a state of tranquility and inner peace. Therefore, the statement that Stoicism seeks to find happiness through wisdom is correct.

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  • 50. 

    Followers of Stoicism believe it is not possible to control fear.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Stoicism teaches that it is possible to control fear. Stoics believe that fear is a product of our own judgments and perceptions, and by practicing rationality and acceptance, one can overcome fear and maintain inner peace. Stoics emphasize the importance of distinguishing between what is within our control and what is not, and fear falls under the category of things that can be controlled through the use of reason and logic. Therefore, the statement that followers of Stoicism believe it is not possible to control fear is false.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 24, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Charter15
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