Epidemiology Final

10 Questions | Total Attempts: 1009

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Epidemiology Final

My quiz will help me to be able to define what types of epidemiological measures are involved in my upcoming final.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • Describe the uses of analytic studies
    • A. 

      They help lead to the prevention of disease, create quantitative evaluations of intervention programs as well as determine safe and effective new drugs, and other procedures.

    • B. 

      This is something that describes the negative because you cannot always take the findings from group data and apply it to individuals.

    • C. 

      the units of analysis are groups. This can be referred to as an Ecological Comparison Study.

  • 2. 
    • Contrast the 2 categories of analytic studies 
    • A. 

      For an observational designed study, the observer does not have control over the exposure factor. Mostly, cannot assign subjects by random to certain study conditions. For an experimentally designed study the observer can control who is exposed to certain factors and is able to assign subjects by random to certain study groups.

    • B. 

      This test can be used to test between two medical tests themselves. Such as HIV blood test vs the HIV swab test. Which one is most efficient and yields the best results.

    • C. 

      This is the association between two variables, the exposure and the outcome, and are measured at the group level.

  • 3. 
    • Explain the ecologic study
    • A. 

      They help lead to the prevention of disease, create quantitative evaluations of intervention programs as well as determine safe and effective new drugs, and other procedures.

    • B. 

      the units of analysis are groups. This can be referred to as an Ecological Comparison Study.

    • C. 

      This is beneficial because an association can be found between exposure rates and disease rates during the same time period.

  • 4. 
    • Describe the benefits of the ecologic study
    • A. 

      The measurement of exposure may be inaccurate. Representativeness of cases and controls may be unknown and may provide indirect estimates of risk. The temporal relationship between exposure factor and outcome cannot always be determined.

    • B. 

      This is beneficial because an association can be found between exposure rates and disease rates during the same time period.

    • C. 

      The predictive value is the proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + value.

  • 5. 
    • Describe the drawbacks of the ecologic study
    • A. 

      Are used very commonly in environmental epidemiologic research. An example may be possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    • B. 

      Mass screening is defined as the standards of care, anyone that could at risks should be screened for exposure.

    • C. 

      The ecologic fallacy and imprecise measurement of exposure.

  • 6. 
    • Explain the ecologic fallacy
    • A. 

      This is something that describes the negative because you cannot always take the findings from group data and apply it to individuals.

    • B. 

      Conduct the program several times in a variety of settings with a variety of participants.

    • C. 

      This refers to the adoption of policies, laws, and programs that are supported by empirical data. One of the most reliable forms of evidence will come from randomized controlled trials.

  • 7. 
    • Describe the ecologic correlation
    • A. 

      It is the best because if the sensitivity test correctly identifies all potential cases as either negative or positive.

    • B. 

      A clinical trial refers to a research activity that involves the administration of a test regimen to humans to evaluate its efficacy and safety.

    • C. 

      This is the association between two variables, the exposure and the outcome, and are measured at the group level.

  • 8. 
    •  Describe the advantages of the case control study
    • A. 

      The ecologic fallacy and imprecise measurement of exposure.

    • B. 

      it can be used to study conditions of low prevalence. The procedure is mostly quick and easy to complete, and is inexpensive. Lastly, the number subjects needed are smaller.

    • C. 

      Refers to the difference between the incidence rate of a disease in the exposed group and the incidence rate in the non-exposed group. Attributable risk is the difference between two incidence rates.

  • 9. 
    • Describe the disadvantages of the case control study
    • A. 

      A cohort is different because an entire cohort of exposed individuals is examined. A case study makes use of limited number of cases and controls who usually do not represent an entire cohort of exposed individuals.

    • B. 

      The measurement of exposure may be inaccurate. Representativeness of cases and controls may be unknown and may provide indirect estimates of risk. The temporal relationship between exposure factor and outcome cannot always be determined.

    • C. 

      For an observational designed study, the observer does not have control over the exposure factor. Mostly, cannot assign subjects by random to certain study conditions. For an experimentally designed study the observer can control who is exposed to certain factors and is able to assign subjects by random to certain study groups.

  • 10. 
    • Identify an example of a case control study
    • A. 

      Are used very commonly in environmental epidemiologic research. An example may be possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    • B. 

      Allowance of the direct observation of risk. The exposure factor is well defined and can study exposures that are uncommon in the population. The temporal relationship between factor and outcome is known.

    • C. 

      the units of analysis are groups. This can be referred to as an Ecological Comparison Study.