# Eas Practice For Final

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Quizzes Created: 7 | Total Attempts: 7,216
Questions: 60 | Attempts: 130

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• 1.

### Assume that in the future two people are born at exactly the same Earth time.  Person A lives their entire life on a spacecraft orbiting earh at a speed of 0.01 times the speed of light, Person B lives their life on earth.  Who will reach their 50th birthday last in earth time?

• A.

Person A

• B.

Person B

• C.

Both will reach it at the same time

• D.

A. Person A
Explanation
Person A will reach their 50th birthday last in Earth time because time dilation occurs when an object is moving at high speeds relative to another object. As Person A is traveling at a significant fraction of the speed of light, time will pass slower for them compared to Person B who is stationary on Earth. This means that Person A's clock will tick slower, causing them to experience time at a slower rate. Therefore, Person A will age slower than Person B and reach their 50th birthday last in Earth time.

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• 2.

### Under the Galilean concept of Space-Time which of the following are considered invariant?

• A.

Time, speed of light, mass

• B.

Distance, time, velocity

• C.

Distance, time, mass

• D.

Speed of light, time, distance

C. Distance, time, mass
Explanation
According to the Galilean concept of Space-Time, distance, time, and mass are considered invariant. This means that they do not change regardless of the observer's frame of reference. In other words, these quantities remain constant and independent of the relative motion between different observers. The speed of light, on the other hand, is not considered invariant under the Galilean concept of Space-Time, as it depends on the observer's frame of reference.

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• 3.

### Under Einstein's Theory of General Relativity which of the following are considered invariant?

• A.

Distance

• B.

Time

• C.

Mass

• D.

Velocity

• E.

Speed of light

E. Speed of light
Explanation
According to Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, the speed of light is considered invariant. This means that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant and does not depend on the motion of the source or the observer. This principle is fundamental to the theory and has been experimentally confirmed. In contrast, distance, time, mass, and velocity are not considered invariant under General Relativity as they can be affected by gravitational fields and relative motion.

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• 4.

### If the cosmological density parameter is < 1, what is the likely ultimate fate of the universe?

• A.

Big crunch

• B.

Expansion continues but decelerates until it reaches the ultimate size

• C.

It is unknown, an open universe

C. It is unknown, an open universe
Explanation
If the cosmological density parameter is less than 1, it suggests that the universe's density is not sufficient to halt its expansion. In this scenario, the likely ultimate fate of the universe is an open universe, where the expansion continues indefinitely without deceleration. However, the answer also states that it is unknown, indicating that there is still uncertainty and ongoing research in this area.

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• 5.

### If the cosmological density parameter is > 1, what is the likely ultimate fate of the universe?

• A.

Big crunch

• B.

Expansion continues but decelerates until it reaches the ultimate size

• C.

It is unknown, an open universe

A. Big crunch
Explanation
If the cosmological density parameter is greater than 1, it indicates that the density of matter and energy in the universe is high enough to cause the gravitational force to eventually overcome the expansion of the universe. This leads to a scenario known as the "big crunch," where the universe will eventually collapse in on itself. Therefore, the likely ultimate fate of the universe in this case is a big crunch.

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• 6.

### Assume han solo travels from alderon to tatooine in the millenium falcon in hyperspace(faster than the speed of light). according to the general theory of relativity, to which of the following points can both the residents of alderon and tatooine agree?

• A.

That han solo left alderon before he arrived at tatooin

• B.

That han solo arrived at tatooine after he left alderon

• C.

Both a and b above

• D.

Neither a or b above

D. Neither a or b above
Explanation
According to the general theory of relativity, time can be affected by gravity and the speed of an object. In this case, since Han Solo is traveling in hyperspace, which is faster than the speed of light, time dilation occurs. This means that time passes differently for Han Solo compared to the residents of Alderon and Tatooine. Therefore, neither the residents of Alderon nor Tatooine can agree on whether Han Solo left Alderon before he arrived at Tatooine or vice versa.

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• 7.

### As the frequency of radiation increases, the wavelength will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

B. Decrease
Explanation
As the frequency of radiation increases, the wavelength decreases. This is because frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional to each other. When the frequency increases, it means that more waves are passing through a given point in a given time period. Since the speed of the waves remains constant, the distance between consecutive wave crests (wavelength) must decrease to accommodate the increased frequency. Therefore, the correct answer is decrease.

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• 8.

### NASA launches a probe which leaves earth at a rate of 1 x 10^6 m/s. the spacecraft sends radio signals back to earth. the wavelength of the transmissions recieved on earth will

• A.

Be shorter than the wavelength transmitted by the spacecraft

• B.

Be longer than the wavelength transmitted by the spacecraft

• C.

Be the same as that observed on earth

• D.

It is not possible to determine this relationship

B. Be longer than the wavelength transmitted by the spacecraft
Explanation
The spacecraft is moving away from Earth at a high velocity, which causes a phenomenon known as the Doppler effect. The Doppler effect causes a shift in the frequency (and therefore wavelength) of waves when the source of the waves is moving relative to the observer. In this case, since the spacecraft is moving away from Earth, the wavelength of the radio signals received on Earth will be longer than the wavelength transmitted by the spacecraft. This is because the motion of the spacecraft stretches out the waves, causing them to have a longer wavelength.

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• 9.

### As the period of "pulsing" of a cepheid star decreases, its luminosity will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

B. Decrease
Explanation
As the period of "pulsing" of a cepheid star decreases, its luminosity will decrease. Cepheid stars are variable stars that undergo pulsations, which cause their brightness to vary over time. The period of pulsation is directly related to the star's luminosity, with longer periods corresponding to higher luminosities. Therefore, as the period of pulsation decreases, the star's luminosity decreases as well. This relationship between period and luminosity is known as the period-luminosity relationship and is used to measure distances to faraway galaxies.

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• 10.

### As the age of the universe increases the hubble constant will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

B. Decrease
Explanation
As the age of the universe increases, the Hubble constant will decrease. The Hubble constant represents the rate at which the universe is expanding. As time goes on, the expansion of the universe slows down due to the gravitational pull of matter. Therefore, the Hubble constant decreases as the universe ages.

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• 11.

### As the luminosity of a distant star increases its brightness as observed from earth will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

A. Increase
Explanation
As the luminosity of a distant star increases, its brightness as observed from Earth will also increase. This is because luminosity refers to the total amount of energy emitted by a star per unit time, while brightness refers to the amount of that energy that reaches our eyes. Therefore, if a star becomes more luminous, it will emit more energy, resulting in an increase in its brightness as observed from Earth.

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• 12.

### As the distance from eath increases the recession velocity of distant stars will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

A. Increase
Explanation
As the distance from Earth increases, the recession velocity of distant stars will increase. This is because of the expansion of the universe, which causes galaxies and stars to move away from each other. The farther a star is from Earth, the more space there is between them, and therefore the faster it appears to be moving away. This phenomenon is known as the Hubble's law, which states that the recessional velocity of a galaxy is directly proportional to its distance from us.

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• 13.

### According to the special theory of relativity as the speed of an object decreases its mass will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

B. Decrease
Explanation
According to the special theory of relativity, as the speed of an object decreases, its mass will decrease. This is known as relativistic mass. As an object approaches the speed of light, its mass increases, but as it slows down, its mass decreases. This phenomenon is due to time dilation and the energy-mass equivalence principle. As the object's kinetic energy decreases, its mass decreases as well. Therefore, the correct answer is decrease.

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• 14.

### As the distance of a star from earth decreases, its parallax angle will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Remains the same

A. Increase
Explanation
As the distance of a star from Earth decreases, its parallax angle will increase. Parallax is the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from different perspectives. The closer an object is to the observer, the larger the parallax angle will be. Therefore, as the distance between Earth and the star decreases, the parallax angle will increase, indicating that the star is getting closer to Earth.

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• 15.

### Who would say this: all knowledge of the universe can be determined by rational thought and reasoning

• A.

Copernicus

• B.

Newton

• C.

Kepler

• D.

Galileo

• E.

Aristotle

E. Aristotle
Explanation
Aristotle would say that all knowledge of the universe can be determined by rational thought and reasoning. He believed that through observation and logical thinking, one could understand the natural world and its phenomena. Aristotle's philosophy emphasized the importance of using reason and logic to uncover truths about the universe, making him a proponent of rationalism.

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• 16.

### Who would say this: mass and distance can vary, only the speed of light is invariant

• A.

Copernicus

• B.

Newton

• C.

Einstein

• D.

Galileo

• E.

Aristotle

C. Einstein
Explanation
Einstein would say that mass and distance can vary, but the speed of light is always constant. This is based on his theory of relativity, which states that the laws of physics are the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion. In his theory, Einstein introduced the concept of the speed of light being a universal constant, meaning it does not change regardless of the observer's motion. This revolutionary idea challenged the traditional understanding of space and time and had significant implications for our understanding of the universe.

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• 17.

### Who would say this: we can best understand the nature of the universe by taking careful measurements and developing theories to predict the observed behaviors

• A.

Copernicus

• B.

Newton

• C.

Einstein

• D.

Galileo

• E.

Aristotle

D. Galileo
Explanation
Galileo would say that we can best understand the nature of the universe by taking careful measurements and developing theories to predict the observed behaviors. This is because Galileo was a key figure in the Scientific Revolution and made significant contributions to the field of observational astronomy. He advocated for the use of empirical evidence and experimentation to understand the natural world, which aligns with the idea of taking careful measurements and developing theories.

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• 18.

### A star that will become a black hole is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Center

• D.

Upper right

• E.

Lower right

B. Upper left
Explanation
In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, stars are plotted based on their luminosity and temperature. The upper left section of the diagram represents stars that are very hot and extremely bright, often referred to as supergiants. These stars have a high mass and are at the end of their life cycle. When a star in this section exhausts its nuclear fuel, it undergoes a supernova explosion and collapses under its own gravity, forming a black hole. Therefore, the correct answer is upper left.

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• 19.

### A red dwarf is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Center

• D.

Upper right

• E.

Lower right

E. Lower right
Explanation
A red dwarf is found in the lower right section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This diagram plots the luminosity (brightness) of stars against their surface temperature. Red dwarfs are small and cool stars, with low luminosity and low surface temperature. Therefore, they are located in the lower right corner of the diagram, away from the higher luminosity and higher temperature stars found in the upper left section.

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• 20.

### A red giant is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Center

• D.

Upper right

• E.

Lower right

D. Upper right
Explanation
A red giant is found in the upper right section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram. This diagram plots the luminosity (brightness) of stars against their temperature. Red giants are large, cool stars that have exhausted their core hydrogen and expanded in size. They are located in the upper right section of the diagram because they have high luminosity but relatively low temperatures.

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• 21.

### A white dwarf is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Center

• D.

Upper right

• E.

Lower right

A. Lower left
Explanation
A white dwarf is found in the lower left section of the Hertzprung-Russell diagram. This is because white dwarfs are small and hot stars that have exhausted their nuclear fuel. They are located in the lower left section, known as the "white dwarf region," because they have low luminosity and high surface temperatures. This is in contrast to other types of stars that are located in different sections of the diagram based on their size, temperature, and luminosity.

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• 22.

### A star with a high concentration of iron is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Center

• D.

Upper right

• E.

Lower right

B. Upper left
Explanation
Stars with a high concentration of iron are found in the upper left section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This section represents stars that are cool and bright, known as red giants. These stars have exhausted their hydrogen fuel and are in the later stages of their evolution. The high concentration of iron indicates that these stars have gone through nuclear fusion processes and have heavier elements in their cores.

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• 23.

### A star with a high concentration of iron is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Center

• D.

Upper right

• E.

Lower right

B. Upper left
Explanation
Stars with a high concentration of iron are found in the upper left section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram. This section represents stars that are cool and bright, known as red giants. These stars have exhausted their hydrogen fuel and are now fusing helium into heavier elements like iron. The high concentration of iron indicates that these stars have undergone advanced stages of stellar evolution.

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• 24.

### A very hot star that has undergone gravitational collapse is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Center

• D.

Upper right

• E.

Lower right

A. Lower left
Explanation
A very hot star that has undergone gravitational collapse is found in the lower left section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This is because as a star collapses under its own gravity, it becomes hotter and denser, causing it to move towards the lower left region of the diagram, where the temperature is high and the luminosity is also high.

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• 25.

### A small and cold star is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Center

• D.

Upper right

• E.

Lower right

E. Lower right
Explanation
A small and cold star is found in the lower right section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This section is known as the "lower right" or "main sequence" region, where stars with lower temperatures and smaller sizes are located. These stars are typically red dwarfs or brown dwarfs, which have lower luminosity and are less massive compared to other stars.

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• 26.

### A star similar to our sun is found in which section of the Herzprung-Russell diagram?

• A.

Lower left

• B.

Upper right

• C.

Center

• D.

Lower right

• E.

Upper left

C. Center
Explanation
A star similar to our sun is found in the center of the Herzprung-Russell diagram. The Herzprung-Russell diagram is a plot of stars' luminosity (brightness) versus their temperature. Stars similar to our sun, known as main sequence stars, fall in the middle of the diagram. They have a moderate luminosity and temperature compared to other types of stars. The center of the diagram represents stars that are in a stable phase of their evolution, where they are burning hydrogen in their cores.

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• 27.

### The stars with the shortest lifespans tend to be

• A.

Medium temperature stars

• B.

The coolest stars

• C.

The hottest stars

• D.

Life span and temperature have no correlation

C. The hottest stars
Explanation
The hottest stars have the shortest lifespans because they burn through their fuel at a much faster rate compared to cooler stars. The high temperature in these stars causes them to undergo nuclear fusion at a rapid pace, leading to a shorter lifespan.

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• 28.

### The 5 stages of our sun in order are:

• A.

Planetary nebula/protosun/main sequence star/red giant/white dwarf

• B.

Protosun/main sequence star/red giant/planetary nebula/white dwarf

• C.

Protosun/main sequence star/planetary nebula/red giant/white dwarf

• D.

Planetary nebula/protosun/red giant/main sequence star/white dwarf

B. Protosun/main sequence star/red giant/planetary nebula/white dwarf
Explanation
The correct answer is protosun/main sequence star/red giant/planetary nebula/white dwarf. This sequence accurately describes the stages that our sun will go through during its lifetime. The protosun stage refers to the early stage when the sun was forming from a molecular cloud. The main sequence star stage is the longest and most stable stage, during which the sun fuses hydrogen into helium in its core. The red giant stage occurs when the sun exhausts its hydrogen fuel and expands, becoming larger and cooler. The planetary nebula stage is the result of the red giant shedding its outer layers, forming a glowing cloud of gas and dust. Finally, the white dwarf stage is the end stage when the sun has exhausted all its nuclear fuel and collapses to become a small, dense, and hot remnant.

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• 29.

### Bode's law is an example of:

• A.

A complete scientific law

• B.

Empirical analysis

• C.

A scientific theory

• D.

A scientific hypothesis

• E.

B and c above

B. Empirical analysis
Explanation
Bode's law is an example of empirical analysis because it is based on observation and data rather than a complete scientific law or a scientific theory. It is a mathematical formula that predicts the distances of the planets from the Sun based on patterns observed in the solar system. However, it is not considered a complete scientific law or a scientific theory because it does not have a solid theoretical foundation or explanation. Therefore, the correct answer is empirical analysis.

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• 30.

### The majority of the uranium found on the earth

• A.

Was produced by the s-process

• B.

Was produced by the r-process

• C.

Was not present at the formation of our solar system

• D.

A and c above

B. Was produced by the r-process
Explanation
The correct answer is "was produced by the r-process". The r-process refers to rapid neutron capture, a nuclear reaction that occurs in supernovae explosions. This process is responsible for the production of heavy elements, including uranium, in the universe. Therefore, the majority of the uranium found on Earth is believed to have been produced through the r-process.

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• 31.

### The fusion production of elements in stars essentially stops at Fe(56) because

• A.

Fusion reactions above Fe(56) are exothermic(release energy)

• B.

Fusion reactions above Fe(56) are endothermic(require energy input)

• C.

Nuclides above Fe(56) are unstable

• D.

Iron is a heavy, hard metal

• E.

None of the above

B. Fusion reactions above Fe(56) are endothermic(require energy input)
Explanation
Fusion reactions involve the combining of lighter elements to form heavier elements, releasing energy in the process. However, once iron (Fe) is formed, further fusion reactions require an input of energy to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged nuclei. This makes fusion reactions above Fe(56) endothermic, meaning they require an input of energy rather than releasing energy.

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• 32.

### Which of the following statements about our solar system are correct?

• A.

The superior planets are called this because they have more mass than earth

• B.

The superior planets are called this because they are more likely to support life than earth

• C.

The superior planets are called this because they are closer to the sun than earth

• D.

The superior planets are called this because they are farther from the sun than earth

D. The superior planets are called this because they are farther from the sun than earth
Explanation
The correct answer is that the superior planets are called this because they are farther from the sun than earth. This is because the term "superior planets" refers to the planets that are located beyond Earth's orbit, which means they are farther away from the sun than Earth.

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• 33.

### Which of these statements is true?

• A.

The oceanic crust is less dense than the continental crust

• B.

The contents of the oceanic crust more closely resemble the content of the mantle than do the contents of the continental crust

• C.

The continental crust is younger than the oceanic crust

• D.

The oceanic crust if primarily mafic

B. The contents of the oceanic crust more closely resemble the content of the mantle than do the contents of the continental crust
Explanation
The answer is correct because the oceanic crust is primarily composed of mafic rocks, which have a higher iron and magnesium content and closely resemble the composition of the mantle. In contrast, the continental crust is primarily composed of felsic rocks, which have a higher silicon and aluminum content and do not closely resemble the mantle composition.

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• 34.

### Which of these  is the primary, underlying reason that mars is too cold to support life?

• A.

The martian atmosphere has too low a percentage of greenhouse gases

• B.

Mars is depleted in hydrogen

• C.

• D.

Mars is too far from the sun

• E.

None of the above

Explanation
The primary, underlying reason that Mars is too cold to support life is that Mars is tectonically dead. Tectonic activity, such as plate movements and volcanic activity, helps regulate the temperature of a planet by releasing heat from the interior. Without tectonic activity, Mars lacks the mechanisms to generate and distribute heat, resulting in its cold temperatures. The other options, such as the percentage of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, hydrogen depletion, and distance from the sun, may also contribute to Mars' cold conditions but are not the primary reason.

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• 35.

### Our sun has been increasing in luminosity since it began fusion of H into He nearly 4.6 billion years ago. what is the primary cause of this increase in luminosity?

• A.

An increase in the radius of the sun

• B.

An increase in the rate of H fusion

• C.

An increase in the amount of carbon

• D.

An increase in the temperature of the sun

• E.

None of the above

B. An increase in the rate of H fusion
Explanation
The correct answer is an increase in the rate of H fusion. As the sun fuses hydrogen into helium, it releases energy in the form of light and heat. Over time, the rate of fusion increases, leading to a higher luminosity. This is because as the sun's core gradually runs out of hydrogen fuel, it compensates by burning hydrogen at a faster rate, producing more energy and increasing its brightness. The other options, such as an increase in radius, amount of carbon, or temperature, do not directly affect the rate of fusion and therefore do not explain the increase in luminosity.

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• 36.

### A NASA probe to another earth-like planet returns information that the youngest sea floor is older than 500 million years old. which of the following is the best assumption we can make about the planet?

• A.

There is no sedimentary rock on the planet

• B.

The polarity of the magnetic field on the planet does not vary like that on earth

• C.

The planet is tectonically active

• D.

There is no igneous rock on the planet

• E.

E. The planet is tectonically dead
Explanation
The best assumption we can make about the planet is that it is tectonically dead. This is because the information from the NASA probe indicates that the youngest sea floor is older than 500 million years old, suggesting that there has been no recent tectonic activity on the planet. Tectonic activity is responsible for the creation of new sea floor through processes such as seafloor spreading, so the absence of young sea floor suggests that the planet is not currently experiencing tectonic activity.

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• 37.

### A NASA probe to another earth-like planet returns information that the oldest sea floor is younger than 10million years old. which of the following is the best assumption we can make about the planet?

• A.

There is no sedimentary rock on the planet

• B.

The polarity of the magnetic field on the planet does not vary like that on earth

• C.

The planet is tectonically active

• D.

There is no igneous rock on the planet

• E.

C. The planet is tectonically active
Explanation
The best assumption we can make about the planet is that it is tectonically active. This is because the information from the NASA probe indicates that the oldest sea floor is younger than 10 million years old. Tectonic activity, such as plate tectonics, is responsible for the creation of new sea floor through processes like seafloor spreading. Therefore, if the oldest sea floor is relatively young, it suggests that the planet is still experiencing tectonic activity.

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• 38.

### What is the primary cause that venus is too hot to support life

• A.

Without a tropopause, there is no way to trap water in the atmosphere

• B.

Venus is a volcanic planet that releases too much CO2 into its atmosphere

• C.

There is not enough CO2 in the venusian atmosphere

• D.

Venus is too close to the sun

• E.

None of the above

A. Without a tropopause, there is no way to trap water in the atmospHere
Explanation
Venus is too hot to support life primarily because without a tropopause, there is no way to trap water in the atmosphere. The absence of a tropopause prevents the formation of clouds and the greenhouse effect, causing the planet to experience extreme temperatures.

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• 39.

### You are given a sample of igneous rock that is mafic (high iron or magnesium content) where is the most probable place this rock came from?

• A.

The andes

• B.

The big island of hawaii

• C.

The slopes of the himalayas

• D.

The north georgia mountains

B. The big island of hawaii
Explanation
The most probable place this rock came from is the big island of Hawaii because it is known for its volcanic activity and has a high concentration of mafic igneous rocks due to the presence of active shield volcanoes like Mauna Loa and Kilauea. These volcanoes erupt basaltic lava, which is mafic in composition and contains high amounts of iron and magnesium. Therefore, it is likely that the sample of igneous rock with high iron or magnesium content originated from the big island of Hawaii.

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• 40.

### As the distance from the coastline decreases the age of the sea floor will tend to

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

A. Increase
Explanation
As the distance from the coastline decreases, the age of the sea floor will tend to increase. This is because the sea floor near the coastline is constantly being renewed through processes like subduction, where older crust is pushed beneath younger crust. Therefore, the sea floor farther away from the coastline will have had more time to accumulate and will be older compared to the sea floor near the coastline.

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• 41.

### As the distance from the sun increases the likelihood that a planet will have moons tends to

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

A. Increase
Explanation
As the distance from the sun increases, the gravitational pull from the sun decreases. This decrease in gravitational pull allows for the formation and stability of moons around a planet. Therefore, as the distance from the sun increases, the likelihood of a planet having moons increases.

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• 42.

### As the size of meteors increase, the frequency with which they will impact the earth tends to

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

B. Decrease
Explanation
As the size of meteors increases, the frequency with which they will impact the earth tends to decrease. This is because larger meteors are less common than smaller ones, and their trajectories are more likely to be deflected or burn up in the Earth's atmosphere before reaching the surface. Therefore, the larger the meteor, the less likely it is to impact the Earth, resulting in a decrease in frequency.

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• 43.

### The most convincing evidence to support the currently accepted theory of the formation of the moon is

• A.

The depletion of volatiles in the moon

• B.

The similarity of mass fractionation of oxygen isotopes on the earth and the moon

• C.

The low density of the moon

• D.

Tidal locking between the earth and moon

• E.

None of the above

B. The similarity of mass fractionation of oxygen isotopes on the earth and the moon
Explanation
The similarity of mass fractionation of oxygen isotopes on the earth and the moon is the most convincing evidence to support the currently accepted theory of the formation of the moon. This suggests that the moon was formed from material that originated from the earth, potentially as a result of a giant impact event. The oxygen isotopes provide a strong link between the two bodies, indicating a common origin. The other options - depletion of volatiles, low density of the moon, and tidal locking - do not provide as strong of evidence for the formation of the moon.

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• 44.

### As the age of the earth increases, the length of a sidereal month will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Remain the same

A. Increase
Explanation
As the age of the earth increases, the length of a sidereal month will increase. This is because the moon's orbit around the earth is gradually slowing down due to tidal forces. Over time, the moon moves farther away from the earth, causing the length of a sidereal month to increase.

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• 45.

### Which of these is not a reason for tidal coupliong between the earth and moon

• A.

Frictional deceleration of the moons orbital speed

• B.

Conservation of angular momentum

• C.

Gravitational pulling by the moon on the earths tidal bulge

• D.

The gravitational effect of the earth tidal bulge effects the angular velocity of the moon

• E.

None of the above

A. Frictional deceleration of the moons orbital speed
Explanation
The correct answer is "frictional deceleration of the moon's orbital speed." Tidal coupling between the Earth and Moon is primarily caused by the gravitational pulling of the Moon on the Earth's tidal bulge, which causes a transfer of angular momentum between the two bodies. This transfer is due to the conservation of angular momentum. Additionally, the gravitational effect of the Earth's tidal bulge does affect the angular velocity of the Moon. Therefore, the only option that is not a reason for tidal coupling is the frictional deceleration of the Moon's orbital speed.

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• 46.

### As the concentration of greenhouse gases increases, the earth's effective temperature will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

C. Stay the same
Explanation
The concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere traps heat and contributes to the greenhouse effect. This leads to an increase in the average temperature of the Earth's surface, known as global warming. However, the question asks about the Earth's effective temperature, which takes into account the balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing thermal radiation. As greenhouse gases increase, they can also trap more outgoing thermal radiation, which counteracts the warming effect. Therefore, the Earth's effective temperature may stay the same despite the increase in greenhouse gases.

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• 47.

### As rate of movement of the tectonic plates decreases, the concentration of atmospheric CO2 will

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

B. Decrease
Explanation
As the rate of movement of the tectonic plates decreases, it would lead to a decrease in volcanic activity. Volcanic activity releases large amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. Therefore, with a decrease in volcanic activity, the concentration of atmospheric CO2 would decrease.

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• 48.

### Which of these is not a rock

• A.

A piece of ivory

• B.

A diamond

• C.

A piece of slate

• D.

A cube of ice

A. A piece of ivory
Explanation
Ivory is not a rock because it is a hard, white material that comes from the tusks of animals, particularly elephants. It is composed mainly of dentin, which is a type of tissue found in teeth. On the other hand, diamonds, slates, and cubes of ice are all considered rocks. Diamonds are formed deep within the Earth's mantle under high pressure and temperature, while slates are metamorphic rocks that are formed from the compression of clay or shale. Cubes of ice, although not a traditional rock, are composed of frozen water, which is a naturally occurring substance.

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• 49.

### Which of these is not a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere

• A.

Rain

• B.

Metamorphosis of calcium carbonate (limestone)

• C.

Rotting logs

• D.

Weathering of rocks

• E.

Growing trees

C. Rotting logs
Explanation
Rotting logs are not a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere because during the decomposition process, the carbon stored in the logs is released back into the atmosphere as CO2. This is in contrast to the other options listed, such as the metamorphosis of calcium carbonate, weathering of rocks, and growing trees, which all involve processes that remove or store CO2 from the atmosphere. Rain is not a sink of CO2 as it is a form of precipitation and does not directly impact the carbon cycle.

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• 50.

### As the size of a star increases, its expected life span

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Remain the same

B. Decrease
Explanation
As the size of a star increases, its expected life span decreases. This is because larger stars have more mass, which leads to higher internal pressures and temperatures. These conditions cause the star to burn through its fuel at a faster rate, shortening its overall life span. Additionally, larger stars undergo more intense nuclear reactions, leading to a quicker depletion of their fuel source and a shorter life span compared to smaller stars.

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• Current Version
• Mar 22, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Dec 07, 2011
Quiz Created by
Rmerklen3

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