Earth Science Test 3.2b - Earth's Layers

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PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU HAVE YOUR ESRT (Earth Science Reference Table) BEFORE YOUR BEGIN! Page 10 will be invaluable!
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• 1.

Identify the CRUST on the diagram below.

• A.

Layer A

• B.

Layer B

• C.

Layer C

• D.

Layer D

A. Layer A
Explanation
Layer A is the crust because it is the outermost layer of the diagram. The crust is the Earth's thin, solid outermost layer, composed mostly of rock. It is the layer that we live on and is divided into two types: continental crust and oceanic crust. Continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust. In the diagram, Layer A appears to be the thinnest layer, suggesting that it represents the crust.

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• 2.

Identify the MANTLE on the diagram below.

• A.

Layer A

• B.

Layer B

• C.

Layer C

• D.

Layer D

B. Layer B
Explanation
The mantle is the layer between the Earth's crust and core. In the given diagram, Layer B is identified as the mantle.

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• 3.

Identify the INNER CORE on the diagram below.

• A.

Layer A

• B.

Layer B

• C.

Layer C

• D.

Layer D

D. Layer D
Explanation
The inner core can be identified as Layer D on the diagram.

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• 4.

On which layer do we live?

• A.

Crust

• B.

Mantle

• C.

Inner Core

• D.

Outer Core

A. Crust
Explanation
The correct answer is Crust. The Earth is composed of several layers, and the layer we live on is called the crust. The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth and is made up of solid rocks and soil. It is the thinnest layer compared to the other layers, such as the mantle, inner core, and outer core. The crust is where all the landforms, such as mountains, valleys, and plains, are found, and it is also where all living organisms reside.

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• 5.

Which layer contains the highest mountains and the deepest oceans?

• A.

Crust

• B.

Mantle

• C.

Inner Core

• D.

Outer Core

A. Crust
Explanation
The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth's surface. It is composed of solid rock and is divided into continental crust and oceanic crust. The highest mountains, such as the Himalayas and the Andes, are found in the continental crust. The deepest oceans, such as the Mariana Trench, are also located in the oceanic crust. Therefore, the crust is the layer that contains both the highest mountains and the deepest oceans.

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• 6.

Which layer can be worn down by erosion and weathering (weathering is when weather like rain and wind blow against rocks and break them up)?

• A.

Crust

• B.

Mantle

• C.

Inner Core

• D.

Outer Core

A. Crust
Explanation
The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth's surface and is composed of solid rock. It is the layer that is directly exposed to the elements and can be affected by erosion and weathering. Erosion is the process by which rocks and soil are gradually worn away by natural forces such as wind and water, while weathering is the breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces due to exposure to weather conditions. Therefore, the crust is the layer that can be worn down by erosion and weathering.

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• 7.

Which layer is the coolest (in temperature)?

• A.

Crust

• B.

Mantle

• C.

Inner Core

• D.

Outer Core

A. Crust
Explanation
The crust is the coolest layer in temperature compared to the other options. The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth and is composed of solid rock. It is the thinnest layer and is located above the mantle, inner core, and outer core. The temperature of the crust decreases as you move away from the Earth's core, making it the coolest layer.

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• 8.

Who came up with the theory of continental drift?

• A.

Albert Lovera

• B.

Albert Einstein

• C.

Alfred Wegener

• D.

Mrs. Marquart

C. Alfred Wegener
Explanation
Alfred Wegener came up with the theory of continental drift. This theory proposed that the continents were once joined together in a single supercontinent called Pangaea and have since drifted apart over millions of years. Wegener supported his theory with evidence such as the fit of the continents, similarities in rock formations and fossils across continents, and the existence of ancient climate belts. Despite facing initial skepticism, his theory laid the foundation for the modern understanding of plate tectonics.

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• 9.

Pangaea was/is

• A.

A large pancake

• B.

The landmasses of today

• C.

The super-continent of the past

• D.

The super-ocean of the past

C. The super-continent of the past
Explanation
Pangaea refers to the super-continent that existed millions of years ago. It was a landmass that included all of today's continents fused together. This super-continent eventually broke apart, leading to the formation of the continents we know today.

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• 10.

What happened to Pangaea

• A.

It broke apart over millions of years

• B.

It broke apart in a couple of years

• C.

It was destroyed by an asteroid

• D.

It sunk into the ocean

A. It broke apart over millions of years
Explanation
Pangaea, the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago, broke apart over a long period of time. The movement of tectonic plates caused the continents to gradually separate and drift away from each other. This process, known as continental drift, occurred over millions of years and resulted in the formation of the continents as we know them today.

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• 11.

When Wegener placed the landmasses together, mountain ranges on ______________ and _______________ lined up.

• A.

South America and Asia

• B.

South America and North America

• C.

South America and Africa

• D.

Europe and Australia

C. South America and Africa
Explanation
When Wegener placed the landmasses together, mountain ranges on South America and Africa lined up. This suggests that these two continents were once joined together and have since drifted apart. The alignment of the mountain ranges provides evidence for the theory of continental drift, which states that the Earth's continents were once part of a single supercontinent and have since moved to their current positions.

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• 12.

A plant called _____________________ was found on widely separated landmasses

• A.

Obsenterius

• B.

Glossopteris

• C.

Mesosaurus

• D.

Fernatius

B. Glossopteris
Explanation
Glossopteris is the correct answer because it is a plant that was found on widely separated landmasses. Glossopteris is a genus of plants that existed during the Permian period and its fossil remains have been discovered in South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica. The widespread distribution of glossopteris fossils supports the theory of continental drift, as it suggests that these landmasses were once connected in a supercontinent called Gondwana.

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• 13.

Scratches on rocks made by _________________ in tropical locations helped support the theory of Pangaea.

• A.

Mesosaurus

• B.

Lystrosaurus

• C.

Glaciers

• D.

Meteors

C. Glaciers
Explanation
The presence of scratches on rocks in tropical locations suggests that glaciers once existed in these areas. Glaciers are large masses of ice that move slowly over land, and their movement can leave distinct marks on rocks. The theory of Pangaea suggests that all continents were once connected in a supercontinent, and the presence of glacial scratches in tropical locations supports this theory by indicating that these areas were once covered by ice sheets, which could only occur if the continents were joined together.

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• 14.

Tropical plant fossils found on  ______________________ helped prove the theory of Pangaea.

• A.

Islands in the Bahamas

• B.

Islands in the Arctic ocean

• C.

Hawaii

• D.

Bermuda

B. Islands in the Arctic ocean
Explanation
The presence of tropical plant fossils on islands in the Arctic ocean supports the theory of Pangaea because it suggests that these islands were once part of a larger landmass that was connected to tropical regions. The fossils indicate that the climate in the Arctic was once much warmer and more tropical, which aligns with the idea that all continents were once joined together in a supercontinent called Pangaea. This evidence helps to confirm the theory of Pangaea and the concept of continental drift.

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• 15.

What is the theory of plate tectonics?

• A.

It states that pieces of the Earth's crust are moving very slowly

• B.

It states that pieces of the Earth's crust are moving quickly

• C.

It states that the Earth's crust is solid and unbroken

• D.

It states that pieces of the Earth's crust are shaped like puzzle pieces

A. It states that pieces of the Earth's crust are moving very slowly
Explanation
The theory of plate tectonics explains that the Earth's crust is divided into several large plates that are constantly moving, albeit very slowly. These plates float on the semi-fluid layer beneath them, known as the asthenosphere. The movement of these plates is driven by the convective currents in the Earth's mantle. This theory helps to explain various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges.

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• 16.

Continental crust is _________________ and __________________ than oceanic crust.

• A.

Thicker and heavier

• B.

Thicker and lighter

• C.

Thinner and heavier

• D.

Thinner and lighter

B. Thicker and lighter
Explanation
Continental crust is thicker and lighter than oceanic crust. This is because continental crust is composed of less dense rocks, such as granite, which are lighter in weight compared to the denser basaltic rocks that make up oceanic crust. Additionally, continental crust is thicker due to the accumulation of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks over billions of years, whereas oceanic crust is constantly being created and destroyed at tectonic plate boundaries.

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• 17.

The solid least dense layer of the Earth is the

• A.

Mantle

• B.

Inner core

• C.

Crust

• D.

Outer core

C. Crust
Explanation
The crust is the solid outermost layer of the Earth, composed mainly of rocks and minerals. It is the least dense layer compared to the mantle and the core. The crust is divided into two types: the continental crust, which forms the continents and is thicker but less dense, and the oceanic crust, which forms the ocean floor and is thinner but more dense. The crust is where we find the Earth's surface and where most geological activity occurs, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

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• 18.

What is the only liquid layer of the Earth?

• A.

Crust

• B.

Inner core

• C.

Mantle

• D.

Outer core

D. Outer core
Explanation
The correct answer is the outer core. The outer core is the only liquid layer of the Earth. It is located beneath the mantle and surrounds the inner core. The outer core is composed mainly of molten iron and nickel, and its liquid state allows for the generation of Earth's magnetic field through the process of convection.

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• 19.

What happens to density as you go deeper into the Earth?

• A.

It decreases

• B.

It stay the same

• C.

In increases

• D.

No one knows

C. In increases
Explanation
As you go deeper into the Earth, the density increases. This is because the Earth's interior is composed of different layers with varying compositions and pressures. The outermost layer, the crust, has a relatively lower density compared to the layers beneath it. As you move towards the core, the pressure and temperature increase, causing the materials to become more compressed and denser. Therefore, the density increases as you go deeper into the Earth.

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• 20.

What happens to temperature as you go deeper into the Earth?

• A.

In decreases

• B.

In increases

• C.

It stays the same

• D.

It varies

B. In increases
Explanation
As you go deeper into the Earth, the temperature increases. This is because the Earth's core is extremely hot, with temperatures reaching thousands of degrees Celsius. The heat in the core is generated by the radioactive decay of elements and residual heat from the planet's formation. As you move closer to the core, the temperature gradually rises due to the increasing concentration of heat. Therefore, the correct answer is "it increases."

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• 21.

The dense metallic layer of the Earth is the

• A.

Mantle

• B.

Outer core

• C.

Crust

• D.

Inner core

D. Inner core
Explanation
The correct answer is the inner core. The inner core is a dense metallic layer located at the center of the Earth. It is primarily composed of solid iron and nickel. The immense pressure at the Earth's core causes the inner core to remain solid despite its extremely high temperature.

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• 22.

The idea that continents slowly move over Earth's surface is called

• A.

Pangaea

• B.

Plate tectonics

• C.

Continental drift

• D.

Landmass movement

C. Continental drift
Explanation
The correct answer is "continental drift." Continental drift refers to the theory that suggests that the Earth's continents were once a single landmass called Pangaea and have since moved and drifted apart over time. This theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century and has been supported by various lines of evidence, such as the matching coastlines of different continents and the distribution of fossils and rock formations. The term "plate tectonics" is related to continental drift but specifically refers to the movement of Earth's lithosphere, which is composed of several large and small plates.

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• 23.

The Mesosaurus fossil being found on two sides of an ocean are the result of

• A.

Earthquakes

• B.

A land bridge

• C.

The Mesosaurus swimming across the ocean

• D.

The movement of tectonic plates

D. The movement of tectonic plates
Explanation
The correct answer is the movement of tectonic plates. The Mesosaurus fossil being found on two sides of an ocean suggests that the continents were once connected and have since drifted apart due to the movement of tectonic plates. This phenomenon, known as continental drift, explains how fossils of the same species can be found in different continents that are now separated by vast bodies of water. The movement of tectonic plates over millions of years has resulted in the current distribution of continents and the geological features we observe today.

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• 24.

No one believed Wegener because

• A.

He did not give any evidence

• B.

He did not provide an explanation for the force that moved the continents

• C.

He was not well liked by people

• D.

His ideas were false

B. He did not provide an explanation for the force that moved the continents
Explanation
Wegener's lack of evidence and failure to explain the force behind continental movement led to disbelief in his ideas. Without providing a clear explanation for how the continents moved, his theory lacked credibility and was not accepted by the scientific community.

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• 25.

Tectonic plates consist of

• A.

Continental crust

• B.

Oceanic crust

• C.

Both continental and oceanic crust

• D.

Mesosphere

C. Both continental and oceanic crust
Explanation
Tectonic plates are large, rigid pieces of the Earth's lithosphere that fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. These plates are made up of the Earth's crust, which is divided into two types: continental crust and oceanic crust. Continental crust is thicker and less dense, making it buoyant and able to float on the underlying mantle. Oceanic crust, on the other hand, is thinner and more dense. The correct answer is "both continental and oceanic crust" because tectonic plates consist of both types of crust.

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• 26.

What did Wegener call the single large landmass?

• A.

Eurasia

• B.

Gondwana

• C.

Pangaea

• D.

Laurasia

C. Pangaea
Explanation
Pangaea is the correct answer because it refers to the single large landmass that existed millions of years ago, before the continents drifted apart. This theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener, who suggested that all the continents were once connected as one supercontinent called Pangaea.

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• 27.

What is the Earth made of?

• A.

Serveral layers

• B.

Solid rock

• C.

Hollow space

• D.

One layer

A. Serveral layers
Explanation
The Earth is made up of several layers. These layers include the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. The crust is the outermost layer and is made up of solid rock. Beneath the crust is the mantle, which is composed of hot, semi-solid rock. The outer core is a liquid layer made up of iron and nickel, while the inner core is a solid ball of iron and nickel. These layers work together to form the structure of the Earth.

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• 28.

What is the idea that tectonic plates move around called?

• A.

Convergent theory

• B.

Plate tectonics

• C.

Plate theory

• D.

Tectonic theory

B. Plate tectonics
Explanation
Plate tectonics is the correct answer because it refers to the scientific theory that explains how the Earth's lithosphere is divided into several large and small plates that move and interact with each other. This theory explains various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges. It is widely accepted and supported by substantial evidence from geology, geophysics, and paleontology.

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• 29.

How do tectonic plates fit together?

• A.

Like a layer cake

• B.

Like a jigsaw puzzle

• C.

Like a stack of books

• D.

Like a model car

B. Like a jigsaw puzzle
Explanation
Tectonic plates fit together like a jigsaw puzzle because they have irregular shapes that interlock with one another. Just like the pieces of a puzzle, the edges of the plates have complementary shapes that fit together snugly. This allows the plates to move and interact with each other along their boundaries, causing geological phenomena such as earthquakes and the formation of mountains.

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• 30.

How do deep ocean currents form?

• A.

As warm, dense water sinks and flows beneath cold ocean water.

• B.

As cold, dense water sinks and flows beneath warm ocean water.

• C.

As warm, dense water sinks and flows with other warm ocean water.

B. As cold, dense water sinks and flows beneath warm ocean water.
Explanation
Deep ocean currents form as cold, dense water sinks and flows beneath warm ocean water. This occurs due to differences in temperature and density. Cold water is denser than warm water, so it sinks to lower depths. As it sinks, it displaces the warmer water above it, causing a flow or current. This process helps to circulate and distribute heat throughout the ocean, playing a crucial role in regulating the Earth's climate.

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• 31.

Wind does not affect surface currents.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
This statement is false. Wind does indeed affect surface currents. Wind creates friction on the surface of the water, causing it to move and creating surface currents. The strength and direction of the wind can influence the speed and direction of the surface currents. Therefore, wind plays a significant role in shaping surface currents.

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• 32.

The amount of salt in a given amount of water is:

• A.

Coriolis effect

• B.

Salinity

• C.

Density current

• D.

Surface current

B. Salinity
Explanation
Salinity refers to the amount of salt present in a given amount of water. It is typically measured in parts per thousand (ppt) and is influenced by factors such as evaporation, precipitation, and the mixing of freshwater and saltwater. Salinity affects the density of water, which in turn affects ocean currents and the circulation of heat and nutrients. Therefore, salinity is the correct answer as it directly relates to the amount of salt in water.

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• 33.

Surface currents are caused by

• A.

Wind that blows every now and then

• B.

Wind that blows in regular directions

• C.

The moon's gravitational pull

• D.

Differences in salinity and temperature

B. Wind that blows in regular directions
Explanation
Surface currents are caused by wind that blows in regular directions. This is because the wind exerts a force on the surface of the ocean, causing the water to move in the same direction as the wind. When the wind blows consistently in one direction over a long period of time, it creates a persistent surface current. These regular wind patterns, such as trade winds and westerlies, play a major role in shaping the movement of surface currents in the oceans.

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• 34.

2) How did salt end up in our Oceans?

• A.

A) Salt was always present in Oceans.

• B.

B) Acid rain falls into the Ocean. It contains Salts.

• C.

C) Volcanoes let out salt when they erupt.

• D.

D) Over millions of years, rains, rivers and streams have washed over rocks carrying away salt into the Ocean

D. D) Over millions of years, rains, rivers and streams have washed over rocks carrying away salt into the Ocean
Explanation
Over millions of years, rains, rivers, and streams have washed over rocks carrying away salt into the ocean. This explanation suggests that the salt in our oceans is a result of erosion and weathering processes. As water flows over rocks, it picks up dissolved minerals, including salt, and transports them into the ocean. This gradual accumulation of salt over a long period of time explains why the oceans have a high concentration of salt.

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• 35.

Which of the following lists the layers of the Earth in order of decreasing density?

• A.

Inner core, outer core, crust, mantle

• B.

Outer core, inner core, mantle, crust

• C.

Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core

• D.

Crust, mantle, inner core, outer core

• E.

Each layer has approximately the same density

D. Crust, mantle, inner core, outer core
Explanation
The correct answer is crust, mantle, inner core, outer core. This is because the Earth's crust is the outermost layer and has the lowest density, followed by the mantle which is denser, then the inner core which is even denser, and finally the outer core which has the highest density.

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• 36.

The map here shows the present-day locations of South America and Africa. Remains of Mesosaurus, an extinct freshwater reptile, have been found in similarly aged bedrock formed from lake sediments at locations in green. Which statement represents the most logical conclusion to draw from this evidence?

• A.

The present climates at locations X and Y are similar

• B.

Mesosaurus migrated across the ocean from location X to location Y.

• C.

Mesosaurus came into existence on several widely separated continents at different times.

• D.

The continents of South America and Africa were joined when Mesosaurus lived.

D. The continents of South America and Africa were joined when Mesosaurus lived.
Explanation
The map shows that remains of Mesosaurus have been found in similarly aged bedrock in South America and Africa. This suggests that Mesosaurus existed when these continents were connected, as it is highly unlikely for the reptile to have migrated across the ocean. Therefore, the most logical conclusion to draw from this evidence is that the continents of South America and Africa were joined when Mesosaurus lived.

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• 37.

In which zone of the Earth's interior is the melting point of the rock inferred to be lower than the actual temperature of the rock?

• A.

crust

• B.

mantle

• C.

Inner core

• D.

outer core

D. outer core
Explanation
The melting point of a rock is inferred to be lower than the actual temperature of the rock in the outer core of the Earth's interior. This is because the outer core is composed of molten iron and nickel, which have lower melting points compared to the rocks found in the crust, mantle, and inner core. The intense heat and pressure in the outer core cause the rocks to melt, creating a liquid layer beneath the Earth's surface.

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• 38.

Wegener's hypothesis was

• A.

That the landmasses have always been in the same places

• B.

That the landmasses had been joined together, and have since drifted apart

• C.

That the continents do not move

• D.

That earthquakes have caused the landmasses to move

B. That the landmasses had been joined together, and have since drifted apart
Explanation
Wegener's hypothesis proposed that the landmasses had been joined together in a supercontinent called Pangaea, and over time, they have drifted apart to their current positions. This theory, known as continental drift, suggests that the continents are not fixed in place but rather slowly move over millions of years. Wegener supported his hypothesis with evidence such as matching coastlines, similar rock formations, and the distribution of fossils across continents. This theory laid the foundation for the modern understanding of plate tectonics.

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• 39.

The water that is found on the bottom of ocean has a  _______________ .

• A.

Lower saltinity

• B.

Higher salinity.

• C.

Same amount of salt as water on the surface.

• D.

No salt at all.

B. Higher salinity.
Explanation
The correct answer is "higher salinity." This is because as water evaporates from the ocean surface, it leaves the salt behind, resulting in an increase in salinity. The water at the bottom of the ocean is typically denser and colder, which makes it less likely to mix with the surface water, hence preserving its higher salinity.

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• 40.

Theories about the composition of the Earth's core are supported by meteorites that are composed primarily of _____________ and ______________.

• A.

Oxygen and silicon

• B.

Aluminum and oxygen

• C.

Aluminum and iron

• D.

iron and nickel

D. iron and nickel
Explanation
The composition of the Earth's core is supported by meteorites that are primarily composed of iron and nickel. This is because the Earth's core is believed to be primarily made up of these two elements, based on the similarities between the composition of meteorites and the core. Iron and nickel are both dense metals, which aligns with the density of the Earth's core. Additionally, studies of seismic waves and magnetic fields also support the theory that the core is composed of iron and nickel.

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• 41.

______________ water rises and ________________ water sinks

• A.

Warm, cold

• B.

Cold, warm

• C.

None of the above

• D.

All of the above

A. Warm, cold
Explanation
Warm water rises and cold water sinks due to differences in density. When water is heated, the molecules move faster and spread out, resulting in lower density. This lower density causes the warm water to rise. Conversely, when water is cooled, the molecules slow down and come closer together, increasing the density. This higher density causes the cold water to sink. Therefore, the correct answer is "warm, cold".

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• 42.

Where does the major part of salt in the Oceans come from?

• A.

A) Sea

• B.

B) Land

• C.

C) Water

• D.

D) Acid rain

B. B) Land
Explanation
The major part of salt in the oceans comes from the land. This is because rivers carry dissolved minerals and salts from the land into the oceans. Over time, these salts accumulate in the oceans, resulting in their high salinity. Therefore, option b) Land is the correct answer.

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• 43.

Base your answer to this question on the diagram below and PAGE 10 of your ESRT , which shows a portion of Earth’s interior. Point A is a location on the interface between layers.  The temperature of rock at location A is approximately

• A.

600°C

• B.

1000°C

• C.

2600°C

• D.

3,000°C

C. 2600°C
Explanation
Based on the diagram and information from PAGE 10 of the ESRT, point A is located on the interface between layers in Earth's interior. The temperature at this location is approximately 2600°C.

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• 44.

It is believed that the force driving continental drift is ______________ in the mantle.

• A.

Wind

• B.

Convection currents

• C.

Ocean currents

• D.

Temperature changes

B. Convection currents
Explanation
The correct answer is convection currents. Convection currents are the circular movements of material caused by differences in temperature and density. In the mantle, the heat from the Earth's core causes the material to become less dense and rise, creating convection currents. These currents push and pull the tectonic plates, causing them to move and resulting in continental drift.

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• 45.

Which type of crust is best described as: basalt - thin - high density - young

• A.

Oceanic

• B.

Continental

A. Oceanic
Explanation
Oceanic crust is best described as basalt because it is primarily composed of basaltic rock. It is thin compared to continental crust, with an average thickness of around 5-10 kilometers. It has a high density due to its composition and is relatively young compared to continental crust, with an average age of around 200 million years. Therefore, the characteristics of basalt, thinness, high density, and youth, align with the description of oceanic crust. Continental crust, on the other hand, is primarily composed of granite, is thicker, less dense, and generally older than oceanic crust.

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• 46.

Which statement best supports the theory that all the continents were once a single landmass?

• A.

Rocks of the ocean ridges are older than those of the adjacent sea floor.

• B.

Rock and fossil correlation can be made where the continents appear to fit together.

• C.

Marine fossils can be found at high elevations above sea level on all continents

• D.

Great thicknesses of shallow-water sediments are found at interior locations on some continents

B. Rock and fossil correlation can be made where the continents appear to fit together.
Explanation
The statement that best supports the theory that all the continents were once a single landmass is that rock and fossil correlation can be made where the continents appear to fit together. This suggests that the continents were once connected because the rock and fossil formations on different continents match up when they are rearranged as if they were once part of a single landmass. This evidence supports the theory of continental drift and the existence of a supercontinent called Pangaea.

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• 47.

What is the approximate temperature at the mantle-outer core boundary?  **Use your ESRT p10

• A.

1,500°C

• B.

4,500°C

• C.

5,000ºC

• D.

7,000ºC

C. 5,000ºC
Explanation
The approximate temperature at the mantle-outer core boundary is 5,000ºC. This information can be found in the ESRT (Earth Science Reference Tables) on page 10.

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• 48.

In which part of the Earth is a rock temperature of 2,000ºC most likely to occur? **Use ESRT p10

• A.

Continental crust

• B.

Asthenosphere (plastic mantle)

• C.

Stiffer mantle

• D.

Outer core

B. Asthenosphere (plastic mantle)
Explanation
The correct answer is the asthenosphere (plastic mantle). According to the Earth Science Reference Tables (ESRT) on page 10, the asthenosphere is a layer of the Earth's mantle that is partially molten and has a temperature range of 1,200-1,400°C. Since the given rock temperature is 2,000°C, it is most likely to occur in the asthenosphere where the temperatures are higher than in the other listed parts of the Earth.

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• 49.

At what depth inside the Earth is the temperature 4200ºC?**Use ESRT p10

• A.

1000 km

• B.

2000 km

• C.

5800 km

• D.

6400 km

B. 2000 km
Explanation
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables (ESRT) on page 10, the temperature inside the Earth increases as you go deeper. The temperature at 2000 km depth is 4200°C.

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• 50.

What is the pressure at a depth of 4000km inside the Earth?

• A.

5800 atm

• B.

1800 atm

• C.

2.3 million atm

• D.

43 million atm

C. 2.3 million atm
Explanation
At a depth of 4000km inside the Earth, the pressure is extremely high due to the weight of the overlying layers of rock and material. As you go deeper into the Earth, the pressure increases exponentially. Therefore, the correct answer of 2.3 million atm is plausible as it represents the immense pressure that would be present at such a depth.

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• Mar 14, 2023
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• Jan 14, 2016
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