Digestive & Urinary Systems Test C

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Digestive & Urinary Systems Test C - Quiz

Anatomy & Physiology
Unit 8 - Digestive & Urinary Systems


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Gallbladder

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the liver. The liver is a large, reddish-brown organ located in the upper right side of the abdomen. It plays a vital role in the body's metabolism, detoxification, and production of various substances such as bile, which is stored in the gallbladder. The gallbladder, on the other hand, is a small organ located beneath the liver and is responsible for storing and releasing bile. Therefore, based on the image and the information provided, the correct answer is the liver.

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  • 2. 

    Which is an example of chemical digestion?

    • A.

      Chewing food

    • B.

      Food tumbling around in the stomach

    • C.

      Acid in the stomach breaking down proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Acid in the stomach breaking down proteins
    Explanation
    Acid in the stomach breaking down proteins is an example of chemical digestion. Chemical digestion refers to the process in which complex molecules, such as proteins, are broken down into smaller, simpler molecules by the action of enzymes or acids. In the stomach, gastric acid, also known as hydrochloric acid, is secreted to create an acidic environment. This acid helps to denature proteins, making them more accessible to digestive enzymes and facilitating their breakdown into smaller peptides and amino acids. Therefore, the action of acid in the stomach breaking down proteins exemplifies chemical digestion.

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  • 3. 

    This organ is mainly involved in:

    • A.

      Ingestion

    • B.

      Elimination

    • C.

      Digestion

    Correct Answer
    C. Digestion
    Explanation
    The organ mainly involved in digestion is the stomach. It is responsible for breaking down food into smaller particles through the process of mechanical and chemical digestion. The stomach secretes gastric juices, including enzymes and acids, that help in the breakdown of proteins and other nutrients. It also mixes and churns the food to aid in digestion. After digestion, the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream for distribution to the body's cells, while waste products are eliminated through the process of elimination.

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  • 4. 

    Absorption is best described as:

    • A.

      When food is brought into the body through the mouth

    • B.

      When food is broken down into smaller pieces

    • C.

      When nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream

    Correct Answer
    C. When nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream
    Explanation
    Absorption refers to the process by which nutrients from food are taken up and transported into the bloodstream. This occurs after the food has been broken down into smaller pieces and undergone digestion. The nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, are then absorbed by the cells lining the small intestine and enter the bloodstream. From there, they are transported to various tissues and organs in the body to provide energy and support various biological processes.

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  • 5. 

    What do the parietal cells in the stomach make?

    • A.

      Hydrochloric acid

    • B.

      Pepsinogen

    • C.

      Mucus

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrochloric acid
    Explanation
    Parietal cells in the stomach produce hydrochloric acid. This acid plays a crucial role in the digestion process by helping to break down food and kill bacteria that may be present in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid also activates pepsinogen, an inactive enzyme that is secreted by the stomach's chief cells, and converts it into pepsin. Pepsin is responsible for the breakdown of proteins into smaller molecules called peptides. Mucus, on the other hand, is produced by goblet cells in the stomach and serves to protect the stomach lining from the corrosive effects of the hydrochloric acid.

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  • 6. 

    What organ secretes the chemicals that help us digest fats, like this butter?

    • A.

      Stomach

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Salivary glands

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver secretes the chemicals that help us digest fats, like butter. It produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine to break down fats into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body. The stomach primarily helps with the digestion of proteins, while the salivary glands produce saliva to initiate the digestion process in the mouth.

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  • 7. 

    What would happen if the mucus cells in the stomach were not working properly?

    • A.

      The amylase would break down carbohydrates faster

    • B.

      Bile would back up into the liver

    • C.

      The hydrochloric acid would eat away at the stomach lining

    Correct Answer
    C. The hydrochloric acid would eat away at the stomach lining
    Explanation
    If the mucus cells in the stomach were not working properly, the protective layer of mucus that coats the stomach lining would not be produced adequately. This mucus layer acts as a barrier between the stomach lining and the hydrochloric acid present in the stomach. Without this protective layer, the hydrochloric acid would come into direct contact with the stomach lining, leading to the erosion and damage of the stomach lining over time.

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  • 8. 

    If a person could not secrete amylase, what would probably happen?

    • A.

      The stomach lining would be destroyed

    • B.

      Proteins would not be physically digested

    • C.

      The person would not chemically digest carbohydrates

    Correct Answer
    C. The person would not chemically digest carbohydrates
    Explanation
    If a person is unable to secrete amylase, they would not be able to chemically digest carbohydrates. Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars. Without amylase, the person would not be able to break down carbohydrates into a form that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. This could lead to difficulties in obtaining energy from carbohydrates and may result in digestive issues such as bloating or discomfort.

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  • 9. 

    The small projections on the lining of the small intestine are called:

    • A.

      Villi

    • B.

      Chyme

    • C.

      Ileum

    Correct Answer
    A. Villi
    Explanation
    Villi are small projections on the lining of the small intestine that increase the surface area available for nutrient absorption. They have a finger-like shape and are covered with microvilli, further increasing the surface area. This structure allows for efficient absorption of nutrients from digested food into the bloodstream. Chyme refers to the partially digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine, while the ileum is the final section of the small intestine.

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  • 10. 

    The part of the small intestine shown here is the:

    • A.

      Jejunum

    • B.

      Ileum

    • C.

      Duodenum

    Correct Answer
    C. Duodenum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is duodenum. The image shows a section of the small intestine, and based on its location and characteristics, it can be identified as the duodenum. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, located immediately after the stomach. It receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues the process of digestion by mixing it with digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver.

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  • 11. 

    Too much water being absorbed in the large intestine can cause this problem:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Too much water being absorbed in the large intestine does not cause any problem. In fact, the large intestine is responsible for absorbing water from the remaining indigestible food matter and forming solid waste. If too little water is absorbed, it can lead to constipation, but too much water absorption does not cause any specific problem. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 12. 

    Willie is missing many of the villi in his small intestine. This means that:

    • A.

      He will absorb less nutrients from his food

    • B.

      He will be constipated

    • C.

      He will have stomach aches

    Correct Answer
    A. He will absorb less nutrients from his food
    Explanation
    When Willie is missing many of the villi in his small intestine, it means that the surface area available for nutrient absorption is reduced. Villi are finger-like projections in the small intestine that increase the surface area and allow for better absorption of nutrients. Without enough villi, Willie will have a decreased ability to absorb nutrients from his food, leading to the conclusion that he will absorb fewer nutrients from his food.

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  • 13. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Kidney

    • B.

      Ureter

    • C.

      Bladder

    Correct Answer
    C. Bladder
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ located in the lower abdomen that stores urine before it is eliminated from the body. It is a muscular organ that expands as it fills with urine and contracts when it is time to release the urine through the urethra.

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  • 14. 

    If this organ fails, what will happen?

    • A.

      Waste will build up in the blood

    • B.

      A person will urinate more frequently

    • C.

      A person will have lower blood sugar

    Correct Answer
    A. Waste will build up in the blood
    Explanation
    If this organ fails, waste will build up in the blood. This is because the organ mentioned in the question is responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and excreting them from the body. If it fails to perform this function, the waste will accumulate in the bloodstream, leading to various health issues and potentially causing organ damage or failure.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following would be the WORST for the kidneys?

    • A.

      Using drugs and alcohol

    • B.

      Eating lots of spicy food

    • C.

      A stroke

    Correct Answer
    A. Using drugs and alcohol
    Explanation
    Using drugs and alcohol can have a detrimental effect on the kidneys. These substances can cause dehydration, increase blood pressure, and damage the delicate structures of the kidneys. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholic liver disease, which can further impact kidney function. Additionally, certain drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and some antibiotics, can cause kidney damage or worsen existing kidney conditions. Therefore, using drugs and alcohol can be the worst for the kidneys compared to eating spicy food or experiencing a stroke.

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  • 16. 

    Urine is filtered out of waste from the large intestine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Urine is not filtered out of waste from the large intestine. The large intestine is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from the remaining waste material after the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. The waste material that passes through the large intestine forms stool, which is then eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus. Urine, on the other hand, is produced by the kidneys through the filtration of blood, and it contains waste products, excess water, and electrolytes.

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  • 17. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Ureter

    • B.

      Urethra

    • C.

      Kidney

    Correct Answer
    A. Ureter
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the ureter. The ureter is a tube-like structure that connects the kidneys to the urinary bladder. It carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body.

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  • 18. 

    Constipation happens when:

    • A.

      Not enough water is being absorbed in the large intestine

    • B.

      Too much water is being absorbed in the large intestine

    • C.

      Not enough nutrients are being absorbed in the large intestine

    Correct Answer
    B. Too much water is being absorbed in the large intestine
    Explanation
    Constipation occurs when too much water is being absorbed in the large intestine. This causes the stool to become hard and difficult to pass. When excess water is absorbed, the stool becomes dry and compacted, leading to difficulty in bowel movements. Increasing water intake and fiber-rich foods can help prevent constipation by adding bulk to the stool and promoting regular bowel movements.

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  • 19. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Esophagus

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Large intestine

    Correct Answer
    A. Esophagus
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the esophagus. This is evident from its location and structure. The esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach, allowing food and liquids to pass through. It is located behind the trachea and in front of the spine. The image provided appears to show a tubular structure in this location, which is consistent with the anatomy of the esophagus.

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  • 20. 

    This cracker is chemically digested by ____________ in the ______________.

    • A.

      Amylase; mouth

    • B.

      Lipase; small intestine

    • C.

      Mucus; stomach

    Correct Answer
    A. Amylase; mouth
    Explanation
    Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates into smaller molecules. It is found in saliva and is secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth. When we chew and mix food with saliva, amylase begins the process of breaking down starches and other complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars. Therefore, the cracker is chemically digested by amylase in the mouth.

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  • 21. 

    Dialysis helps kidney patients by:

    • A.

      Filtering out waste from the blood

    • B.

      Reducing blood sugar levels

    • C.

      Strengthening bladder control

    Correct Answer
    A. Filtering out waste from the blood
    Explanation
    Dialysis helps kidney patients by filtering out waste from the blood. This is because when the kidneys are not functioning properly, they are unable to effectively remove waste products from the body. Dialysis acts as an artificial kidney, using a machine to filter the blood and remove excess waste and fluid. By doing so, it helps to maintain the balance of electrolytes and fluid levels in the body, which is essential for overall health and well-being.

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  • 22. 

    What would be an appropriate treatment for someone with irritable bowel syndrom (IBS)?

    • A.

      Antibiotics

    • B.

      A high fiber diet

    • C.

      Antacids

    Correct Answer
    B. A high fiber diet
    Explanation
    A high fiber diet would be an appropriate treatment for someone with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This is because increasing fiber intake can help regulate bowel movements and relieve symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea. Fiber adds bulk to the stool, making it easier to pass through the digestive system. It also helps to normalize bowel function and promote overall digestive health. However, it is important to note that treatment for IBS may vary depending on the individual, and it is best to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice.

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  • 23. 

    A patient complains of pain and discomfort in his upper chest.  He describes the pain as burning and says it gets worse at night when he goes to sleep. Diagnose this patient:

    • A.

      Peptic ulcers

    • B.

      Heartburn

    • C.

      IBS

    Correct Answer
    B. Heartburn
    Explanation
    The patient's description of the pain as burning and worsening at night when lying down is consistent with heartburn. Heartburn occurs when stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing a burning sensation in the chest. This symptom is often worse when lying down due to the position allowing acid to flow back more easily. Peptic ulcers and IBS may also cause abdominal pain, but their symptoms do not specifically match the patient's description. Therefore, heartburn is the most likely diagnosis.

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  • 24. 

    A patient has been vomiting and feeling dizzy and weak. It turns outt that this man has a problem with alcohol. You take a urine sample and his urine looks foamy. You tell him...

    • A.

      His kidneys are failing. He needs dialysis.

    • B.

      He has a serious urinary tract infection and he needs antibiotics.

    • C.

      He is having a stroke and he needs surgery.

    Correct Answer
    A. His kidneys are failing. He needs dialysis.
    Explanation
    Based on the symptoms described (vomiting, dizziness, weakness) and the foamy appearance of the urine, it suggests that the patient may have a condition called nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that can cause excessive protein loss in the urine, leading to foamy urine. This condition can be a result of kidney failure. Dialysis is a treatment option for kidney failure, as it helps to filter and remove waste products and excess fluids from the body when the kidneys are unable to do so effectively. Therefore, the correct answer is that the patient's kidneys are failing and he needs dialysis.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 02, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Rlabov
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