Digestive & Urinary Systems Test B

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Digestive & Urinary Systems Test B - Quiz

Anatomy & Physiology
Unit 8 - Digestive & Urinary Systems


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Small intestine

    • B.

      Large intestine

    • C.

      Anus

    • D.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    A. Small intestine
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the small intestine. This can be identified by its long and coiled structure, which is characteristic of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption in the digestive system. It is located between the stomach and the large intestine and plays a crucial role in breaking down food and absorbing nutrients into the bloodstream.

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  • 2. 

    Which is an example of mechanical digestion?

    • A.

      Teeth ripping apart food in the mouth

    • B.

      Stomach acid breaking up proteins

    • C.

      Chemicals in the saliva breaking down a cookie

    • D.

      Secretions from the liver breaking down fat

    Correct Answer
    A. Teeth ripping apart food in the mouth
    Explanation
    Mechanical digestion refers to the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces. In this case, the answer "teeth ripping apart food in the mouth" is an example of mechanical digestion because the teeth physically grind and tear the food into smaller fragments, making it easier to swallow and further digest.

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  • 3. 

    This organ is primarily involved in:

    • A.

      Ingestion

    • B.

      Elimination

    • C.

      Absorption

    • D.

      Digestion

    Correct Answer
    D. Digestion
    Explanation
    The organ primarily involved in digestion is the stomach. It is responsible for breaking down food into smaller particles through mechanical and chemical processes. This allows for the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. Ingestion refers to the process of taking in food, elimination is the removal of waste products, and absorption is the uptake of nutrients by the body. However, digestion encompasses all of these processes, making it the correct answer.

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  • 4. 

    Absorption is best described as:

    • A.

      When food is brought into the body through the mouth

    • B.

      When food is broken down into smaller pieces

    • C.

      When nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream

    • D.

      When waste leaves the body through the anus

    Correct Answer
    C. When nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream
    Explanation
    Absorption refers to the process by which nutrients from food are taken up by the body and enter the bloodstream. This occurs primarily in the small intestine, where the nutrients are broken down into smaller molecules and then absorbed through the intestinal lining into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, these nutrients can be transported to various cells and tissues in the body to provide energy and support various bodily functions.

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  • 5. 

    Elimination is best described as:

    • A.

      When food is brought into the body through the mouth

    • B.

      When waste leaves the body through the anus

    • C.

      When nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream

    • D.

      When food is broken down into smaller pieces

    Correct Answer
    B. When waste leaves the body through the anus
    Explanation
    Elimination refers to the process of removing waste materials from the body through the anus. After the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the body, the remaining waste products, such as undigested food and metabolic byproducts, are formed into feces. These feces are then eliminated through the rectum and anus in a process called elimination.

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  • 6. 

    What organ secretes the chemicals that help us digest fats, like this butter?

    • A.

      Stomach

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Salivary glands

    • D.

      Lungs

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver secretes the chemicals that help us digest fats. It produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine when we consume fatty foods. Bile helps to break down fats into smaller molecules that can be easily absorbed by the body. The liver also plays a crucial role in metabolizing and detoxifying various substances in our body.

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  • 7. 

    The DNA found within chicken meat is digested by which of the following?

    • A.

      Nuclease

    • B.

      Lipase

    • C.

      Bile

    • D.

      Amylase

    Correct Answer
    A. Nuclease
    Explanation
    Nuclease is the correct answer because it is an enzyme that breaks down DNA molecules into smaller components. When chicken meat is consumed, the nuclease present in the digestive system helps to digest the DNA present in the meat. Lipase is an enzyme that breaks down fats, bile helps in the emulsification of fats, and amylase is responsible for breaking down carbohydrates, none of which are directly involved in digesting DNA.

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  • 8. 

    This cracker is chemically digested by ____________ in the ______________.

    • A.

      Amylase; mouth

    • B.

      Lipase; small intestine

    • C.

      Mucus; stomach

    • D.

      Nuclease; pancreas

    Correct Answer
    A. Amylase; mouth
    Explanation
    Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates into smaller molecules such as sugars. It is produced in the mouth by salivary glands and is responsible for the initial digestion of starches. Therefore, the correct answer is amylase; mouth.

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  • 9. 

    If chief cells in the stomach were not working properly, what would likely happen?

    • A.

      Proteins would not be digested properly

    • B.

      There would be more hydrochloric acid

    • C.

      There would be less bile

    • D.

      Carbohydrates would not be digested properly

    Correct Answer
    A. Proteins would not be digested properly
    Explanation
    If the chief cells in the stomach were not working properly, it would likely result in proteins not being digested properly. Chief cells are responsible for producing pepsinogen, which is converted into pepsin by the presence of hydrochloric acid. Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. Therefore, if the chief cells are not functioning properly, the production of pepsinogen would be affected, leading to inadequate digestion of proteins.

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  • 10. 

    If a person was unable to secrete amylase, what would probably happen?

    • A.

      The stomach lining would be destroyed

    • B.

      Proteins would not be physically digested

    • C.

      Proteins would not be chemically digested

    • D.

      Carbohydrates would not be chemically digested

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbohydrates would not be chemically digested
    Explanation
    If a person is unable to secrete amylase, which is an enzyme responsible for breaking down carbohydrates, it would result in carbohydrates not being chemically digested. Amylase is produced in the salivary glands and pancreas and plays a crucial role in breaking down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars. Without amylase, the body would struggle to break down carbohydrates into a form that can be absorbed and used for energy. This could lead to digestive issues, such as bloating or diarrhea, and a decrease in the body's ability to obtain energy from carbohydrates.

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  • 11. 

    The part of the large intestine shown here is the:

    • A.

      Ascending colon

    • B.

      Transverse colon

    • C.

      Rectum

    • D.

      Descending colon

    Correct Answer
    B. Transverse colon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is transverse colon because it is the part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen. It connects the ascending colon to the descending colon and is responsible for the final stages of digestion and absorption of nutrients.

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  • 12. 

    The part of the small intestine where most of the absorption happens is the:

    • A.

      Duodenum

    • B.

      Jejunum

    • C.

      Transverse colon

    • D.

      Ascending colon

    Correct Answer
    B. Jejunum
    Explanation
    The jejunum is the correct answer because it is the part of the small intestine where most of the absorption takes place. This is because the jejunum has a large surface area due to its long length and numerous folds, which allows for efficient absorption of nutrients from digested food. Additionally, the jejunum has a rich blood supply and contains specialized cells called enterocytes that are responsible for absorbing nutrients into the bloodstream.

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  • 13. 

    Too much water being absorbed in the large intestine can cause this problem:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Too much water being absorbed in the large intestine does not cause any problem. In fact, the large intestine is responsible for absorbing water from the undigested food residue and forming solid waste. If too little water is absorbed, it can lead to diarrhea, whereas if too much water is absorbed, it can lead to constipation. Therefore, the statement that too much water being absorbed in the large intestine can cause a problem is false.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following does NOT happen in the small intestine?

    • A.

      Movement

    • B.

      Absorption

    • C.

      Digestion

    • D.

      Elimination

    Correct Answer
    D. Elimination
    Explanation
    The small intestine is responsible for the absorption of nutrients from digested food, as well as the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. However, elimination, which refers to the process of excreting waste materials from the body, does not occur in the small intestine. Instead, elimination primarily takes place in the large intestine, where water is absorbed and waste products are formed into feces before being eliminated through the rectum and anus.

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  • 15. 

    Willie is missing many of the villi in his small intestine. This means that:

    • A.

      He will absorb less nutrients from his food

    • B.

      He will be constipated

    • C.

      He will have stomach aches

    • D.

      He will be tired

    Correct Answer
    A. He will absorb less nutrients from his food
    Explanation
    When Willie is missing many of the villi in his small intestine, it means that the surface area available for nutrient absorption is reduced. Villi are finger-like projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine, allowing for more efficient absorption of nutrients from food. With fewer villi, Willie's ability to absorb nutrients will be compromised, leading to the conclusion that he will absorb less nutrients from his food.

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  • 16. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Ureter

    • B.

      Urethra

    • C.

      Kidney

    • D.

      Bladder

    Correct Answer
    A. Ureter
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the ureter. The ureter is a tube-like structure that connects the kidneys to the bladder, allowing urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder for elimination. It is responsible for transporting urine by peristaltic contractions, which help propel the urine forward.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following would be the WORST for the kidneys?

    • A.

      Using drugs and alcohol

    • B.

      Eating lots of spicy food

    • C.

      A stroke

    • D.

      Constipation

    Correct Answer
    A. Using drugs and alcohol
    Explanation
    Using drugs and alcohol can be detrimental to the kidneys because they can cause damage and impair their function. These substances can lead to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the formation of kidney stones. Additionally, excessive alcohol consumption can lead to dehydration, which puts additional strain on the kidneys. Long-term drug and alcohol abuse can also increase the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Therefore, using drugs and alcohol is the worst choice for kidney health among the given options.

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  • 18. 

    If a person had trouble controlling the muscle leading to the urethra, what would happen? 

    • A.

      Kidney failure

    • B.

      They would urinate on themselves

    • C.

      They would have a urinary tract infection

    • D.

      They would have more toxins in their blood

    Correct Answer
    B. They would urinate on themselves
    Explanation
    If a person had trouble controlling the muscle leading to the urethra, they would urinate on themselves. This is because the muscle leading to the urethra, called the external urethral sphincter, helps to control the flow of urine from the bladder. If this muscle is not functioning properly, the person would not be able to hold in their urine and would involuntarily release it, resulting in urination on themselves.

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  • 19. 

    The tubes that connect the kidneys to  the bladder are the:

    • A.

      Urethras

    • B.

      Ureters

    • C.

      Renal veins

    • D.

      Renal arteries

    Correct Answer
    B. Ureters
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ureters. The ureters are the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder. They transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder, allowing for the excretion of waste products from the body. The urethras are the tubes that connect the bladder to the external opening of the body, allowing urine to be expelled. Renal veins and renal arteries are blood vessels that supply and drain blood to and from the kidneys.

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  • 20. 

    The renal arteries carry:

    • A.

      Blood with high levels of waste to the kidneys

    • B.

      Blood with high levels of waste away from the kidneys

    • C.

      Blood with low levels of waste away from the kidneys

    Correct Answer
    A. Blood with high levels of waste to the kidneys
    Explanation
    The renal arteries carry blood with high levels of waste to the kidneys. The kidneys are responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. The renal arteries supply the kidneys with blood that needs to be filtered, which contains high levels of waste products such as urea and creatinine. This blood is then processed by the kidneys to remove these waste products and maintain the body's overall balance.

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