Development

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Development

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Bruner's theory of congitive development introduced the idea of:
    • A. 

      Stages in cognitive development

    • B. 

      Linking language development to the development of cognition

    • C. 

      Development of cognitive maps to aid problem solving

    • D. 

      Morality as a cognitive function that includes sequential skill acquisition

  • 2. 
    Theorists Bowlby and Ainsowrth were leaders in exploring:
    • A. 

      Temperament and learning styles

    • B. 

      Linking language development to the development and cognition

    • C. 

      Development of cognitive maps to aid problem solving

    • D. 

      Infant-pattern attachment as a feature in emotional development

  • 3. 
    Bower proposed that the process of memory consists of these three steps:
    • A. 

      Immediate, short term, or working and long term

    • B. 

      Sensory, immediate and recall

    • C. 

      Short term, semantic, logistic

    • D. 

      Immediate, long term, perceptual

  • 4. 
    According to the text, the psychometric measurement of intelligence in the form of an IQ is:
    • A. 

      Support by very convincing evidence that IQ accurately predicts many aspects of child and adult function

    • B. 

      Is outdated and of little use in predicting functional outcomes

    • C. 

      Is most useful in understanding the congitively impaired

    • D. 

      None

  • 5. 
    A child's success in the early primary school yeras correlates highly with:
    • A. 

      Nutritional status

    • B. 

      High school graduation

    • C. 

      Sports participation

    • D. 

      Gender role identity

  • 6. 
    The Education of the Handicapped Acts of 1986 mandates:
    • A. 

      Interdisciplinary assessment of all preschool children prior to entering school

    • B. 

      School exemptions that allow handicapped children to remain at home with education services, rather than attending public school

    • C. 

      Access to free school lunches and bus service for all children

    • D. 

      Special education and related to services with disabilities, from ages 3 to 5

  • 7. 
    Boundaries, in family systems theory, are:
    • A. 

      A description of emotional bodning within members of the subsystem

    • B. 

      The differentiation of individuals who are inside or outside the family subsystem

    • C. 

      Limits of acceptable behavior

    • D. 

      Non

  • 8. 
    Chronic sorrow is:
    • A. 

      A perceptual part of parenting a child with enduring impairments

    • B. 

      Experienced by the child as he or she reaches the age of maturity without functioning independently in society

    • C. 

      Causd by inclusion in classroom environments with typically developing children

    • D. 

      None

  • 9. 
    To develop social competence in the preschool and primary school child with developmental delays, the therapist should:
    • A. 

      Actively involve the parents as helpers in all therapy sessions

    • B. 

      Assign tasks for the child to perform independently without adult supervision

    • C. 

      Require the children to perform tasks by themselves while closely supervised

    • D. 

      Encourage stress management techniques in therapy and classroom settings

  • 10. 
    According to class materials, the predominate health issues in the school aged child are:
    • A. 

      Joint and musculoskeletal injuries

    • B. 

      Stress and obesity

    • C. 

      Cardiovascular problems

    • D. 

      All

  • 11. 
    Typical social development of 10-12 year old children includes:
    • A. 

      The teacher is often a significant role model

    • B. 

      The child may begin to challenge parental authority

    • C. 

      The child still relies on family for security and emotional support

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 12. 
    The age groups of children at greatest risk for distress and anxiety while hospitalized is:
    • A. 

      0-1

    • B. 

      2-4

    • C. 

      5-8

    • D. 

      Age does not predict rosk

  • 13. 
    In the discussion of current assumptions about pain in hospital care, all of the following are true EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Children can remember and describe painful events

    • B. 

      Pain medication is bad/sedation is harmful to children

    • C. 

      Pain and anxiety are different and should be treated differently

    • D. 

      There are effective strategies to manage pain and anxiety

  • 14. 
    Common consequences of hospitalization in childhood are:
    • A. 

      Developmental acceleration and enhanced energy level for several days

    • B. 

      Sleeping for long periods upon return from their hospital

    • C. 

      Anxiety, nightmares and developmental regression for up to 2 weeks after hospitalization

    • D. 

      Increased motivation and independence toward recovery for up to a month after hospitalization

  • 15. 
    Children with congenital neuromuscular impairments are at greatest risk for depression during which period:
    • A. 

      0-1

    • B. 

      3-4

    • C. 

      6-7

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 16. 
    The ability to make postural adjustments in anticipation of the tasks is called:
    • A. 

      Co-incidence anticipation

    • B. 

      Static equilibrium

    • C. 

      Anticipatory postural control

    • D. 

      Somatosensory dominance

  • 17. 
    When a child on your caseload has troubles behavior they should be referred to support. Troubled behavior is defined as:
    • A. 

      Problem behavior in response to extraordinary

    • B. 

      Unusual behavior in response to distress in the home

    • C. 

      Occasional unusual or destructive actions

    • D. 

      Persistent challenging behaviors the interfere with therapy

  • 18. 
    During middle childhood, the aceeptance of the world beyond the family relies on normal emotional attachement. Insecure attachement may result in:
    • A. 

      Positive self-esteem and excellent communication skills

    • B. 

      Sleep disorders, depression, and cognitive impairments

    • C. 

      Anger at parents and rebellion against authority

    • D. 

      Over-achievement and perfectionism

  • 19. 
    To establish a sound working relationship with an adolescent, the therapist should:
    • A. 

      Establish a rigid program with careful record-keeping

    • B. 

      Work primarily through the parents

    • C. 

      Involve the youth in goals and treatment planning

    • D. 

      All

  • 20. 
    The therpist should be aware that the adolescent might be particularly sensitive to:
    • A. 

      Having to dis-robe

    • B. 

      Anything that makes them "different"

    • C. 

      Criticism

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 21. 
    From both adolescent and child abuse lectures, you should conclude that the best way to prevent violence is:
    • A. 

      School programs emphasixing positive behavior

    • B. 

      Avoid modeling violence, esp. in the home

    • C. 

      Strong and swift punishment for violent behaviors

    • D. 

      After-school programs to keep kids off the streets

  • 22. 
    In the reading, regular performance of IADLs in adolescence contributes to their:
    • A. 

      Financial independence

    • B. 

      Success in school

    • C. 

      Self-definition

    • D. 

      Interest in extra-curricular activities

  • 23. 
    The theory of violence in adolescence that relates to the desire for power and prestige is:
    • A. 

      Non-integration theory

    • B. 

      Limited opportunities

    • C. 

      Reputation theory

    • D. 

      Labeling theory

  • 24. 
    The model of optimal development for adolescents includes which of the following outcomes:
    • A. 

      Adolescents will be alive, healthy, physically mature, and engage in health enhancing behaviors

    • B. 

      Adolescents will possess the social skills and maturity to engage in positive interaction with others

    • C. 

      They will be aware of their skills and have developed employment potential

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 25. 
    Which of the following is not a common indicator of child abuse:
    • A. 

      Unexplained bruises or injuries

    • B. 

      Clear emotional differentiation between familiar and unfamiliar adults

    • C. 

      Children are over active and non compliant

    • D. 

      Children have a flat or guarded affect

  • 26. 
    Occupational and physical therapists are:
    • A. 

      Obligated by mandatory reporting

    • B. 

      Obligated to collect evidence about child abuse if suspected

    • C. 

      Obligated to counsel the family

    • D. 

      Obligated to remove the child from the house

  • 27. 
    The policy which tends to drive the Child Protective System since the 1980s is:
    • A. 

      Safety first

    • B. 

      Get the child out

    • C. 

      Family reunification

    • D. 

      Promote adoption

  • 28. 
    The shaken baby syndrome:
    • A. 

      Is due to white matter shearing

    • B. 

      Occurs when the head is moved repetitively between flexion and extension

    • C. 

      Can result in CNS damage or death

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 29. 
    A mother is reported because she is not providing adequate food and clothing for her children. When follow-up is done, there is substantiation that she has inadequate financial resources. The resolution is:
    • A. 

      Children removed from home due to neglect

    • B. 

      Children removed from home due to abuse

    • C. 

      Social services agencies become involved for assistance

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 30. 
    Which of the following injuries on a child might be a reason to suspect abuse?
    • A. 

      Repeated fractures, especially under the age of 2

    • B. 

      Burns on the torso of an 18-month old

    • C. 

      Burns on the back and feet of an 18 month old

    • D. 

      A and C

  • 31. 
    Which of the following domains of development is least affected by cultural practice?
    • A. 

      Attachment and relationships

    • B. 

      Temperament and communication style

    • C. 

      Motor development

    • D. 

      Socialization

  • 32. 
    A 28 week gestation baby is now 3 months old. That baby is:
    • A. 

      3 months adjusted

    • B. 

      Newborn adjusted age

    • C. 

      Newborn chronologic age

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 33. 
    Bruner's theory of congitive development introduced the idea of:
    • A. 

      Stages in cognitive development

    • B. 

      Linking language development to the development of cognition

    • C. 

      Development of cognitive maps to aid problem solving

    • D. 

      Morality as a cognitive function that includes sequential skill acquisition

  • 34. 
    What are the rules for conversations and talking known as?
    • A. 

      Syntax

    • B. 

      Semantics

    • C. 

      Pragmatics

    • D. 

      Morphology

  • 35. 
    Metalinguistic awareness is wen the child can engage in introsepctive tasks that reflect one's knowledge of language.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    What is morphology of language the study of?
    • A. 

      Word structure

    • B. 

      The implied meaning

    • C. 

      Non-verbal communication

  • 37. 
    What is augmentive/alternative communication?
    • A. 

      The acquisition of a 2nd language early in communication.

    • B. 

      A means to proveide communication in another form of expressive output.

    • C. 

      Using a voice box.

  • 38. 
    There is a unified theory that explains language acquisition.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 39. 
    At what time period does the emergence of the 1st true words occur?
    • A. 

      6 mos

    • B. 

      8-10 mos

    • C. 

      12-18 mos

    • D. 

      2 years

  • 40. 
    What did Ainsworth and Bowlby study?
    • A. 

      Cognitive maps

    • B. 

      Language acquisition

    • C. 

      Temperament

    • D. 

      Early social attachment

  • 41. 
    Having a child with a developmental disability is an example of:
    • A. 

      A developmental crisis

    • B. 

      A situational crisis

    • C. 

      A personality disorder

  • 42. 
    Boundaries, in family systems theories, are:
    • A. 

      Lines of acceptable behavior

    • B. 

      Lines of demarcation between individuals who are inside or outside of the subsystem

    • C. 

      Emotional bonding

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 43. 
    The growing awareness of other children and their abilites, as seen in middle childhood, is called:
    • A. 

      Peer referencing

    • B. 

      Associative learning

    • C. 

      Goodness of fit

    • D. 

      Metacognition

  • 44. 
    Chronic sorrow is:
    • A. 

      Occurs when parents encounter limitations from their child's enduring impairments

    • B. 

      Experienced by the child within society

    • C. 

      Seen when children are separated in the classroom

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 45. 
    All of the following, except one, are predictors in the child responds to hospitalization:
    • A. 

      Child's age

    • B. 

      Parent's age

    • C. 

      Previous hospitalization

    • D. 

      Length of stay

  • 46. 
    Bullying and teasing occurs in middle childhood and the focus is often on:
    • A. 

      Children of the same gender, associated with gender role learning

    • B. 

      Child with few friends and little social support

    • C. 

      Younger, poorly supervised children

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 47. 
    Children need to have rules and limits set for them because:
    • A. 

      They do not care whether they have reached adult expectations

    • B. 

      Metacognitive skills have not yet well developed

    • C. 

      They are incapable of following rules

    • D. 

      Perform best when they realize they have little power

  • 48. 
    Child abuse may ofter occur in situations of:
    • A. 

      Environmental risk

    • B. 

      Biologic risk

    • C. 

      Both A&B

    • D. 

      Neither AorB

  • 49. 
    Physical growth in the preschool years is typically:
    • A. 

      Slow, with a gain of 1-2 lbs a year

    • B. 

      Rapid, gaining 5-7 lbs a year

    • C. 

      Not important

  • 50. 
    When is cooing typical?
    • A. 

      1 month

    • B. 

      2 months

    • C. 

      6 months

    • D. 

      8 months

  • 51. 
    When is body concept well developed?
    • A. 

      2 years

    • B. 

      3 years

    • C. 

      4 years

  • 52. 
    Playfulness is a characteristic of human behavior that is:
    • A. 

      Extrinsically motivated and goal directed

    • B. 

      Socially motivated and based on reality for the practice of social acceptable rules

    • C. 

      Intrinsically motivated and involves the idea to suspend reality

    • D. 

      Follows a typical developmental sequence and decreases into adulthood

  • 53. 
    Children with asynchronous development are at risk for:
    • A. 

      Developing learned helplessness

    • B. 

      Developing a sensory integration disorder

    • C. 

      Developmental disability

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 54. 
    All of the following are examples of emotional development in the 4-5 year old, except:
    • A. 

      Their emotions are short-lived and extreme, with mood swings being common

    • B. 

      They may have imaginary friends

    • C. 

      They need to fell important and worthwhile

    • D. 

      They are learning to take turns and share

  • 55. 
    The basic concept of sensory integration theory is that:
    • A. 

      Mental functions depend upon adequate organization of sensory info

    • B. 

      Sensory influences patterns of movement, but not patterns of thought

    • C. 

      Info must be received through multiple systems for learning to occur

  • 56. 
    How many words does the child have by 2-3 years?
    • A. 

      200-400

    • B. 

      50-330

    • C. 

      100-200

    • D. 

      500

  • 57. 
    The set of values, beliefs, attitudes, and customs shared by a group of people is:
    • A. 

      Culture

    • B. 

      Cohort

    • C. 

      Personality

  • 58. 
    Culture is:
    • A. 

      Innate

    • B. 

      Biologically inherited

    • C. 

      Learned patterns of behavior

  • 59. 
    Cultural schemas consist of the following, except one, and attempt to predict social interaction?
    • A. 

      Role

    • B. 

      Person,

    • C. 

      Categorical

    • D. 

      Event

    • E. 

      Self

  • 60. 
    Which of the following is not a use of a cultural schema:
    • A. 

      Supports families during stressful time

    • B. 

      Recognizes unique strengths of family and coping

    • C. 

      Helps to reunify a family after child abuse allegations

  • 61. 
    Studies of culture and socioeconomic status can be separated.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 62. 
    Temperament and personality is:
    • A. 

      Global mental function

    • B. 

      Specific mental function

  • 63. 
    If the event occurred more than 5 minutes ago, it is considered:
    • A. 

      Immediate memory

    • B. 

      Short-term memory

    • C. 

      Long-term memory

  • 64. 
    At what age do children begin to separate motor actions from emotional responses?
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      5

    • D. 

      6

  • 65. 
    Typically, the child had internalize morality and the ideas of conscience by what age?
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      10

    • D. 

      12

  • 66. 
    Which of the following stages does a child not pass through in learning to acquire a new skill?
    • A. 

      Exploratory activity

    • B. 

      Purposeful play

    • C. 

      Perceptual learning

    • D. 

      Skill Achievement

  • 67. 
    Humans have the capacity to change. This is termed:
    • A. 

      Resiliency

    • B. 

      Plasticity

    • C. 

      Metacognition

    • D. 

      Shapeability

  • 68. 
    Attaining positive developmental outcomes despite a poor caregiving environment is:
    • A. 

      Resiliency

    • B. 

      Plasticity

    • C. 

      Vulnerability

    • D. 

      Understanding

  • 69. 
    When does fantasy play develop?
    • A. 

      At 1

    • B. 

      Between 2 and 3

    • C. 

      At age 4

    • D. 

      In middle childhood

  • 70. 
    What three things are necessary for mastery motivation?
    • A. 

      A stimulus, repetition to objects, opportunities for success

    • B. 

      The freedom to initiate activities, access and repetition to objects, opportunities for success

    • C. 

      Ability to act, perceive, and initiate

  • 71. 
    The sense that one can influence the people and events within one's environment is called:
    • A. 

      Self esteem

    • B. 

      Self efficacy

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • D. 

      Plasticity

  • 72. 
    What is the most common cause of pain in kids?
    • A. 

      Injury

    • B. 

      Stress

    • C. 

      Anxiety

    • D. 

      Headache

  • 73. 
    At what age is the highest risk for preoperative anxiety?
    • A. 

      1-5

    • B. 

      5-6

    • C. 

      7-8

    • D. 

      10+

  • 74. 
    By what age are postural responses similar to those of adults?
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      6

    • C. 

      7

    • D. 

      8

  • 75. 
    What does figure group perception allow?
    • A. 

      Memory

    • B. 

      Isolation of a specific stimulus from background

    • C. 

      To look at the whole picture

  • 76. 
    • A. 

      Thrust out of home into peer group

    • B. 

      Thrust into academic achievement

    • C. 

      Physical thrust into games and work

    • D. 

      Mental thrusts into adult concepts, etc.

  • 77. 
    What is the most serious illness in middle childhood?
    • A. 

      Asthma

    • B. 

      Common Cold

    • C. 

      Flu

    • D. 

      Depression

  • 78. 
    • A. 

      Lisp

    • B. 

      Stuttering

  • 79. 
    The ability to take into account multiple aspects of a situation is known as:
    • A. 

      Centralizing

    • B. 

      Embedding

    • C. 

      Decentering

    • D. 

      Plasticity

  • 80. 
    Which of the following is not one of the four basic steps in memory?
    • A. 

      Perception

    • B. 

      Encoding

    • C. 

      Embedding

    • D. 

      Storage

    • E. 

      Retrieval

  • 81. 
    All of the following are true of bilingualism except:
    • A. 

      It can lead to greater cognitive flexibility.

    • B. 

      It can lead to greater metalinguistic awareness.

    • C. 

      It is the use of more than one language.

    • D. 

      It may improve scores on IQ tests

    • E. 

      French is the 2nd most common language in the US.

  • 82. 
    Which of the following is most associate with adult success?
    • A. 

      High levels of childhood industry

    • B. 

      Intelligence

    • C. 

      Family background

    • D. 

      Congitive domain

  • 83. 
    In Kohlberg's stages, what stage are children in middle childhood located?
    • A. 

      Conventional Morality

    • B. 

      Postconventional Morality

    • C. 

      Preconventional morality

    • D. 

      Stages 1 & 2

    • E. 

      C & D

  • 84. 
    What is border work?
    • A. 

      When the sexes interact

    • B. 

      When people don't fit in on the inside

    • C. 

      Being part of the cool group

  • 85. 
    Which of the following is not included in Weiner's theory of attributions?
    • A. 

      Internal vs. external

    • B. 

      Stable vs. unstable

    • C. 

      Easy vs. hard

    • D. 

      Controllable vs. uncontrollable

  • 86. 
    All of the following are true of 12 years old, except:
    • A. 

      It is the age when we are aware of conscience.

    • B. 

      It is the age where kids start thinking about careers realistically.

    • C. 

      It is the age when we become interested in opposite sex.

    • D. 

      It is the age when we can be blamed for our decisions accurately.

    • E. 

      It is when we can begin to carry out household chores.

  • 87. 
    Which of the following is not represented in the legal definition of child abuse?
    • A. 

      Physical injury

    • B. 

      Sexual abuse

    • C. 

      Neglect primarily due to lack of financial means

    • D. 

      Neglect not due to lack of financial means

  • 88. 
    Which of the following is not true of cognitive maps?
    • A. 

      They aid in memory

    • B. 

      They are a part of metacognition

    • C. 

      They are mental images about spatial relationships

    • D. 

      Integrate linear reasoning with spatial perception

  • 89. 
    At 24 months, a child:
    • A. 

      Has a 150-300 word vocabulary and is understood 50% of the time

    • B. 

      Has a 150-300 word vocabulary and is understood 75% of the time

    • C. 

      Has 100-200 words made up largely of nominals

    • D. 

      Has a 400-600 word vocabulary

  • 90. 
    Which of the following is true of childhood behavior?
    • A. 

      Most children behave in ususual or undesirable ways

    • B. 

      Most require little discipline and structure

    • C. 

      Most perform best when an adult directs and controls the activity