1.
Two main measures for the efficiency of an algorithm are
Correct Answer
C. Time and space
Explanation
The efficiency of an algorithm is typically measured by two main factors: time and space. Time refers to the amount of time it takes for the algorithm to run and complete its task, while space refers to the amount of memory or storage space required by the algorithm. By considering both time and space, we can assess how effectively an algorithm utilizes resources and performs its operations. Therefore, time and space are the correct measures for evaluating algorithm efficiency.
2.
The time factor when determining the efficiency of algorithm is measured by
Correct Answer
B. Counting the number of key operations
Explanation
The time factor when determining the efficiency of an algorithm is measured by counting the number of key operations. This means that the efficiency is evaluated based on the number of essential operations or steps that the algorithm performs. Counting microseconds, the number of statements, or the kilobytes of the algorithm are not accurate measures of efficiency as they do not directly reflect the number of key operations performed.
3.
The space factor when determining the efficiency of algorithm is measured by
Correct Answer
A. Counting the maximum memory needed by the algorithm
Explanation
The space factor when determining the efficiency of an algorithm is measured by counting the maximum memory needed by the algorithm. This means that the efficiency of an algorithm is evaluated based on the maximum amount of memory it requires to execute. By considering the maximum memory usage, we can assess the algorithm's efficiency in terms of space utilization and make informed decisions about its performance.
4.
Which of the following case does not exist in complexity theory?
Correct Answer
D. Null case
Explanation
The null case does not exist in complexity theory. In complexity theory, we analyze the performance of algorithms based on different scenarios such as best case, worst case, and average case. The null case refers to a scenario where there is no input or the input has no effect on the algorithm's performance. Since this scenario is not considered in complexity theory, the null case does not exist.
5.
The Worst-case occur in linear search algorithm when
Correct Answer
D. Item is the last element in the array or is not there at all
Explanation
The worst-case scenario in a linear search algorithm occurs when the item being searched for is the last element in the array or when it is not present in the array at all. In both of these cases, the algorithm would have to iterate through the entire array before determining that the item is indeed the last element or not present. This results in the maximum number of comparisons being made, making it the worst-case scenario for the linear search algorithm.
6.
The Average case occurs in the linear search algorithm.
Correct Answer
A. When Item is somewhere in the middle of the array
Explanation
The average case occurs in the linear search algorithm when the item being searched for is somewhere in the middle of the array. In this case, the algorithm will have to iterate through approximately half of the array before finding the item. This is considered the average case because it represents a typical scenario where the item is not at the beginning or end of the array, but rather in a random position within the array.
7.
The complexity of the average case of an algorithm is
Correct Answer
A. Much more complicated to analyze than that of worst case
Explanation
The complexity of the average case of an algorithm is much more complicated to analyze than that of the worst case because the average case considers all possible inputs and their probabilities, whereas the worst case only considers the input that leads to the maximum runtime. Analyzing the average case requires considering a wide range of input scenarios and their likelihoods, making it more complex than analyzing the worst case.
8.
The complexity of linear search algorithm is
Correct Answer
A. O(n)
Explanation
The complexity of the linear search algorithm is O(n) because it has to iterate through each element in the worst case scenario. This means that the time it takes to complete the search increases linearly with the size of the input.
9.
The complexity of Binary search algorithm is
Correct Answer
B. O(log )
Explanation
The correct answer is O(log ). The complexity of the Binary search algorithm is logarithmic because it halves the search space in each iteration, resulting in a time complexity of O(log n), where n is the number of elements in the sorted array. This means that the algorithm can efficiently search for an element in a large array by repeatedly dividing the search space in half.
10.
The complexity of Bubble sort algorithm is
Correct Answer
C. O(n2)
Explanation
The complexity of Bubble sort algorithm is O(n2) because it compares each element in the list with every other element and swaps them if they are in the wrong order. This process is repeated for each element in the list, resulting in a time complexity of n*n, which simplifies to O(n2).
11.
The complexity of merge sort algorithm is
Correct Answer
D. O(n log n)
Explanation
Merge sort is a divide-and-conquer algorithm that works by repeatedly dividing the input array into smaller subarrays, sorting them, and then merging them back together. The time complexity of merge sort is O(n log n) because it divides the array into two halves at each level of recursion, resulting in a total of log n levels. At each level, the merging step takes linear time, resulting in a total time complexity of n log n. Therefore, the correct answer is O(n log n).
12.
The indirect change of the values of a variable in one module by another module is called
Correct Answer
C. Side effect
Explanation
Side effect refers to the indirect change of the values of a variable in one module by another module. When one module modifies the state of a variable that is shared with another module, it can have unintended consequences and affect the behavior of the other module. This can lead to bugs and make the code harder to understand and maintain. Therefore, side effects should be minimized in software development to improve code quality and avoid unexpected behavior.
13.
Which of the following data structure is not a linear data structure?
Correct Answer
D. None of above
Explanation
The correct answer is "None of above". This means that both arrays and linked lists are linear data structures. A linear data structure is a data structure in which the elements are arranged in a linear sequence, such as a list or an array. Arrays and linked lists both fit this definition, as they store elements in a linear order. Therefore, the correct answer is that none of the given options are not a linear data structure.
14.
Which of the following data structure is a linear data structure?
Correct Answer
C. Arrays
Explanation
Arrays are a linear data structure because they store elements in a sequential manner. Each element in the array is assigned a unique index, starting from 0, which allows for easy access and retrieval of elements. Additionally, arrays have a fixed size and can only store elements of the same data type. This linearity and fixed size make arrays a suitable choice for situations where elements need to be accessed and manipulated in a specific order.
15.
The operation of processing each element in the list is known as
Correct Answer
D. Traversal
Explanation
Traversal refers to the process of accessing and processing each element in a list or data structure. It involves visiting each element one by one, usually in a linear manner, without any specific order or sorting. Traversal is commonly used in algorithms and data structures to perform operations such as searching, printing, or modifying each element in a list. It is different from sorting, merging, or inserting, which involve specific operations to rearrange or modify the elements in a list.
16.
Finding the location of the element with a given value is:
Correct Answer
B. Search
Explanation
The correct answer is "Search" because finding the location of an element with a given value involves searching through a data structure or collection to locate the desired element. Traversal refers to the process of accessing each element in a data structure or collection, while sorting involves arranging elements in a specific order. None of the above options accurately describe the process of finding the location of an element with a given value.
17.
Arrays are best data structures
Correct Answer
A. For relatively permanent collections of data
Explanation
Arrays are best data structures for relatively permanent collections of data because arrays provide a fixed size and contiguous memory allocation, making them suitable for storing and accessing elements efficiently. Arrays also offer direct access to elements using their indices, making them ideal for situations where the size of the structure and the data in the structure do not change frequently. However, arrays may not be suitable for situations where the size of the structure and the data in the structure are constantly changing, as resizing arrays can be inefficient.
18.
Linked lists are best suited
Correct Answer
B. for the size of the structure and the data in the structure are constantly changing
Explanation
Linked lists are best suited for situations where the size of the structure and the data in the structure are constantly changing. Unlike arrays, linked lists can easily accommodate changes in size without requiring a complete restructuring of the data. This is because each element in a linked list contains a reference to the next element, allowing for efficient insertion and deletion operations. In contrast, arrays have a fixed size and require shifting of elements when new data is added or removed. Therefore, linked lists are a more flexible data structure for handling dynamic collections of data.
19.
Each array declaration need not give, implicitly or explicitly, the information about
Correct Answer
C. The first data from the set to be stored
Explanation
When declaring an array, it is not necessary to specify the first data from the set to be stored. The array declaration only requires information about the name of the array and the data type of the array elements. The first data from the set to be stored can be assigned later when the array is initialized or accessed using indexing.
20.
The elements of an array are stored successively in memory cells because
Correct Answer
A. By this way computer can keep track only the address of the first element and the addresses of other elements can be calculated
Explanation
The elements of an array are stored successively in memory cells because by this way computer can keep track only the address of the first element and the addresses of other elements can be calculated. This allows for efficient memory management as the computer only needs to remember the starting address of the array, and can easily calculate the addresses of subsequent elements based on the size of each element and the index. This method also allows for easy access and manipulation of array elements using indexing.