# Data Structure & Algorithyms

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• 1.

### The situation when in a linked list START=NULL is

• A.

Underflow

• B.

Overflow

• C.

Housefull

• D.

saturated

A. Underflow
Explanation
When the linked list's START pointer is NULL, it indicates that the list is empty and there are no elements in it. This situation is known as underflow. Underflow occurs when we try to retrieve or access elements from an empty data structure, which is not possible. Therefore, the correct answer is underflow.

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• 2.

### On which prinicple does stack work?

• A.

FILO

• B.

FIFO

• C.

LILO

• D.

Both a and c above

B. FIFO
Explanation
The stack works on the principle of FIFO, which stands for "First-In, First-Out." This means that the first item to be inserted into the stack is the first one to be removed. The stack follows a strict order of insertion and removal, where new items are added on top of the stack and can only be removed from the top. This principle ensures that the most recently added item is always the next one to be removed, making it a fundamental characteristic of stack data structures.

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• 3.

### Which data structure allows deleting data elements from front and inserting at rear?

• A.

Stacks

• B.

Queues

• C.

Deques

• D.

Binary search tree

B. Queues
Explanation
Queues are a data structure that allows deleting data elements from the front and inserting at the rear. In a queue, the first element that is inserted is the first one to be removed, following the FIFO (First-In-First-Out) principle. This makes queues suitable for scenarios where the order of elements is important, such as processing tasks in the order they are received. Stacks, on the other hand, follow the LIFO (Last-In-First-Out) principle, where the last element inserted is the first one to be removed. Deques and binary search trees do not have the specific characteristic of deleting from the front and inserting at the rear.

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• 4.

### Identify the data structure which allows deletions at both ends of the list but insertion at only one end.

• A.

Input-restricted deque

• B.

Output-restricted deque

• C.

Priority queues

• D.

None of above

A. Input-restricted deque
Explanation
An input-restricted deque is a data structure that allows deletions at both ends of the list but only allows insertion at one end. This means that elements can be removed from either the front or the back of the deque, but new elements can only be inserted at one end (either the front or the back). This restriction on insertion allows for efficient removal operations, but limits the flexibility of inserting new elements.

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• 5.

### Which of the following data structure is non-linear type?

• A.

Strings

• B.

Lists

• C.

Stacks

• D.

None of above

D. None of above
Explanation
The correct answer is "None of above." This is because all the options provided (Strings, Lists, and Stacks) are linear data structures, meaning that the elements are arranged in a linear sequence. However, the "None of above" option indicates that there is another data structure that is non-linear, which is not specified in the given question.

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• 6.

### The elements of an array are stored successively in memory cells because

• A.

by this way computer can keep track only the address of the first element and the addresses of other elements can be calculated

• B.

The architecture of computer memory does not allow arrays to store other than serially

• C.

Both of above

• D.

none of above

A. by this way computer can keep track only the address of the first element and the addresses of other elements can be calculated
Explanation
The elements of an array are stored successively in memory cells because by this way computer can keep track only the address of the first element and the addresses of other elements can be calculated. This allows for efficient memory management as the computer only needs to know the starting address of the array and can easily calculate the address of any element based on its index. This sequential storage also allows for faster access to array elements as they are stored in contiguous memory locations.

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• 7.

### The memory address of the first element of an array is called

• A.

• B.

• C.

• D.

Explanation
The memory address of the first element of an array is referred to as the base address. This is because the base address is the starting point or foundation of the array in memory. It is used to access and manipulate the elements of the array by adding an offset or index to it. The base address is crucial in determining the location of each element within the array.

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• 8.

### Which of the following is not the required condition for binary search algorithm?

• A.

The list must be sorted

• B.

There should be the direct access to the middle element in any sublist

• C.

There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list

• D.

none of above

C. There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list
Explanation
The correct answer is "There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list." This is because binary search is a searching algorithm that works by repeatedly dividing the search interval in half. It is most efficient when working with sorted lists. The direct access to the middle element and the ability to delete or insert elements are not necessary conditions for the binary search algorithm to work correctly.

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• 9.

### Which of the following is not a limitation of binary search algorithm?

• A.

Must use a sorted array

• B.

requirement of sorted array is expensive when a lot of insertion and deletions are needed

• C.

there must be a mechanism to access middle element directly

• D.

binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than 1000.

D. binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than 1000.
Explanation
The given answer states that the binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than 1000. This means that the algorithm may become slower and less effective when searching through a large number of data elements. However, it is important to note that this is not a limitation of the binary search algorithm itself, but rather a limitation in terms of its efficiency in certain scenarios. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the requirement of a sorted array and the need for a mechanism to access the middle element directly, are actual limitations of the binary search algorithm.

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• 10.

### Two dimensional arrays are also called

• A.

tables arrays

• B.

Matrix arrays

• C.

Both of above

• D.

None of above

C. Both of above
Explanation
Two-dimensional arrays are also called tables arrays and matrix arrays because they are structured in a tabular form with rows and columns, similar to a table or a matrix. They allow for the storage and manipulation of data in a grid-like structure, making them suitable for organizing and accessing data that has multiple dimensions. Therefore, the correct answer is both of above.

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• 11.

### A variable P is called pointer if

• A.

P contains the address of an element in DATA.

• B.

P points to the address of first element in DATA

• C.

P can store only memory addresses

• D.

P contain the DATA and the address of DATA

A. P contains the address of an element in DATA.
Explanation
A variable P is called a pointer if it contains the address of an element in DATA. This means that P is storing the memory address of a specific element within the DATA. Pointers are used to access and manipulate data indirectly by referencing their memory locations.

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• 12.

### Each data item in a record may be a group item composed of sub-items; those items which are indecomposable are called

• A.

Elementary items

• B.

Atoms

• C.

Scalars

• D.

All of above

D. All of above
Explanation
The correct answer is "all of above". This is because each data item in a record may be a group item composed of sub-items, which are called elementary items. Additionally, indecomposable items are also called atoms, and scalars are individual values that cannot be divided into smaller components. Therefore, all of these terms accurately describe the different types of data items in a record.

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• 13.

### Which of the following statement is false?

• A.

Arrays are dense lists and static data structure

• B.

Data elements in linked list need not be stored in adjecent space in memory

• C.

pointers store the next data element of a list

• D.

Linked lists are collection of the nodes that contain information part and next pointer

C. pointers store the next data element of a list
Explanation
The given statement is false because pointers do not store the next data element of a list. Pointers store the memory address of the next node in a linked list, allowing for the traversal of the list. The actual data element is stored within each node of the linked list.

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• 14.

### The depth of a complete binary tree is given by

• A.

Dn = n log2n

• B.

Dn = n log2n+1

• C.

Dn = log2n

• D.

Dn = log2n+1

D. Dn = log2n+1
Explanation
The correct answer is Dn = log2n+1. This is because the depth of a complete binary tree is determined by the number of nodes, which is represented by n. The logarithm base 2 of n gives the height of the tree, and adding 1 to the height gives the depth. Therefore, Dn = log2n+1.

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• 15.

### An algorithm that calls itself directly or indirectly is known as

• A.

Sub algorithm

• B.

Recursion

• C.

Polish notation

• D.

Traversal algorithm Back to top