# Security + Cryptography

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Joelcg
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Quizzes Created: 5 | Total Attempts: 4,685
Questions: 30 | Attempts: 3,023

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CRYPTOGRAPHY

• 1.

### Which of the following is not one of the three main categories of cryptography?

• A.

Steganography

• B.

Physical

• C.

Mathematical

• D.

Quantum

A. Steganography
Explanation
The three main categories of cryptography are physical, mathematical, and quantum. Steganography is a form of physical cryptography but not a category of its own.

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• 2.

### Which type of cipher is a simple coding system that changes one character or symbol into another?

• A.

Reverseography

• B.

Steganography

• C.

Transposition

• D.

Substitution

D. Substitution
Explanation
A substitution cipher is a simple coding system that changes one character or symbol into another. There is no such valid cipher as reverseography. Steganography is the hiding of one message within another. A transposition cipher is one in which characters are scrambled in a certain manner.

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• 3.

### Which of the following is a hexadecimal value that is computed to verify authenticity?

• A.

Mince

• B.

Checksum

• C.

Denomination

• D.

Integer

B. Checksum
Explanation
A checksum is a hexadecimal value that is computed to verify authenticity. The other values are not hexadecimal values computed to verify authenticity.

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• 4.

### If security is a real concern on your network, what length do most experts recommend as the minimum for password length?

• A.

10

• B.

9

• C.

8

• D.

6

A. 10
Explanation
If security is a real concern on your network, most experts recommend 10 characters as the minimum for password length. They also recommend including as many different character sets as possible.

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• 5.

### Which of the following involves looking at blocks of an encrypted message to determine whether any common patterns exist?

• A.

Quantum cryptography

• B.

Algorithm errors

• C.

Frequency analysis

• D.

Brute-force attacks

C. Frequency analysis
Explanation
Frequency analysis involves looking at blocks of an encrypted message to determine whether any common patterns exist. Quantum cryptography is a form of encryption that is based on the characteristics of the smallest particles known. Algorithm errors occur when predictable results create a weakness in the coding system. Brute-force attacks apply every possible combination of characters until a match is found.

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• 6.

### Which of the following is the process of converting a message into a numeric value?

• A.

Hashing

• B.

Digitizing

• C.

Conversion

• D.

Reassignment

A. Hashing
Explanation
Hashing is the process of converting a message into a numeric value.

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• 7.

### Which of the following is not one of the three most common versions of Message Digest Algorithm (MDA)?

• A.

MD2

• B.

MD3

• C.

MD4

• D.

MD5

B. MD3
Explanation
The three most common versions of MDA are MD2, MD4, and MD5.

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• 8.

### Which of the following is an update to Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)?

• A.

SHA-1

• B.

SHA2

• C.

SHB

• D.

SHAA

A. SHA-1
Explanation
The update for SHA is the SHA-1 standard.

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• 9.

### What bit hash value does Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) produce?

• A.

96

• B.

128

• C.

160

• D.

256

C. 160
Explanation
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) produces a 160-bit hash value.

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• 10.

### What bit hash value does MD5 produce?

• A.

96

• B.

128

• C.

160

• D.

256

B. 128
Explanation
MD5 produces a 128-bit hash value.

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• 11.

### Symmetric algorithm encryption methods use either of which two ciphers? (Choose two.)

• A.

Block

• B.

Stream

• C.

Character

• D.

Bit

A. Block
B. Stream
Explanation
Symmetric algorithm encryption methods use either a block cipher or a stream cipher.

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• 12.

### Which type of cipher involves the hiding of one message within another?

• A.

Reverseography

• B.

Steganography

• C.

Transposition

• D.

Substitution

B. Steganography
Explanation
Steganography is the hiding of one message within another. There is no such valid cipher as reverseography. A transposition cipher is one in which characters are scrambled in a certain manner. A substitution cipher is a simple coding system that changes one character or symbol into another.

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• 13.

### Which of the following was developed by a Swiss consortium and uses a 128-bit algorithm key for symmetric encryption?

• A.

IDEA

• B.

CAST

• C.

Blowfish

• D.

RC5

A. IDEA
Explanation
IDEA was developed by a Swiss consortium and uses a 128-bit algorithm key for symmetric encryption. CAST was developed by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares and uses a 40-bit to 128-bit key. Blowfish is a 64-bit block cipher. RC5 uses a key size up to 2,048 bits.

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• 14.

### Which of the following is an asymmetric algorithm based on calculating logarithms?

• A.

ECC

• B.

Diffie-Hellman

• C.

El Gamal

• D.

RSA

C. El Gamal
Explanation
El Gamal is an asymmetric algorithm based on calculating logarithms. ECC is based on the idea of using points on a curve to define the public/private key pair. Diffie-Hellman is used for the transmission of keys only. RSA uses large integer numbers for the basis of its process.

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• 15.

### Which of the following is derived from the message and a key and is used to verify the integrity of a message?

• A.

MAC

• B.

BDC

• C.

ERC

• D.

CDC

A. MAC
Explanation
Message Authentication Code (MAC) is derived from the message and a key and is used to verify integrity of a message. The other choices listed are not valid options.

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• 16.

### Which of the following is not a key component of PKI?

• A.

CA

• B.

LRB

• C.

RSA

• D.

RA

B. LRB
Explanation
The four key components of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) are certificate authority (CA), registration authority (RA), RSA, and digital certificates.

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• 17.

### Which is named after the creators and uses a 40-bit to 128-bit key for symmetric encryption?

• A.

IDEA

• B.

CAST

• C.

Blowfish

• D.

RC5

B. CAST
Explanation
CAST was developed by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares and uses a 40-bit to 128-bit key. IDEA was developed by a Swiss consortium and uses a 128-bit algorithm key. Blowfish is a 64-bit block cipher. RC5 uses a key size up to 2,048 bits for symmetric encryption.

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• 18.

### Which of the following is a form of encryption based on the characteristics of the smallest particles known?

• A.

Quantum cryptography

• B.

Algorithm errors

• C.

Frequency analysis

• D.

Brute-force attacks

A. Quantum cryptography
Explanation
Quantum cryptography is a form of encryption that is based on the characteristics of the smallest particles known. Algorithm errors occur when predictable results create a weakness in the coding system. Frequency analysis involves looking at blocks of an encrypted message to determine whether any common patterns exist. Brute-force attacks apply every possible combination of characters until a match is found.

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• 19.

### What is the primary difference between an RA and LRA?

• A.

The LRA saves the CA from responding to so much traffic.

• B.

The LRA can route requests to more than one CA.

• C.

The LRA can be used to identify or establish the identity of an individual.

• D.

The LRA is available only on the LAN, while the CA is available on the WAN.

C. The LRA can be used to identify or establish the identity of an individual.
Explanation
The Local Registration Authority (LRA) can be used to identify or establish the identity of an individual.

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• 20.

### What is the most popular version of X.509?

• A.

Version 5

• B.

Version 3

• C.

Version 2

• D.

Version 1

B. Version 3
Explanation
The most popular version of X.509 is version 3.

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• 21.

### Which of the following is a statement that the CA uses to issue certificates and implement the policies of the CA?

• A.

CTP

• B.

CRL

• C.

CPS

• D.

CNS

C. CPS
Explanation
The Certificate Practice Statement (CPS) is a statement that the CA uses to issue certificates and implement the policies of the CA. The Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is a list of the certificates that are being revoked (usually because they were lost or stolen). The other choices are not valid for PKI.

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• 22.

### Which of the following is not one of the main types of trust models used with PKI?

• A.

Hierarchical

• B.

Bridge

• C.

Mesh

• D.

Star

D. Star
Explanation
The four main types of trust models used with PKI are hierarchical, bridge, mesh, and hybrid.

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• 23.

### Which of the following is based on the idea of using large integer numbers for the basis of asymmetric encryption?

• A.

ECC

• B.

Diffie-Hellman

• C.

El Gamal

• D.

RSA

D. RSA
Explanation
RSA uses large integer numbers for the basis of its process. ECC is based on the idea of using points on a curve to define the public/private key pair. Diffie-Hellman is used for the transmission of keys only. El Gamal is an asymmetric algorithm based on calculating logarithms.

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• 24.

### Which of the following is a 64-bit block cipher?

• A.

IDEA

• B.

CAST

• C.

Blowfish

• D.

RC5

C. Blowfish
Explanation
Blowfish is a 64-bit block cipher. IDEA was developed by a Swiss consortium and uses a 128-bit algorithm key. CAST was developed by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares and uses a 40-bit to 128-bit key. RC5 uses a key size up to 2,048 bits for symmetric encryption.

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• 25.

### In which PKI trust model does a root CA at the top provide all the information to intermediate CAs?

• A.

Hierarchical

• B.

Bridge

• C.

Mesh

• D.

Hybrid

A. Hierarchical
Explanation
In the hierarchical model, a root CA at the top provides all the information to intermediate CAs (and they pass it down to leaf CAs). This does not happen in the other models.

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• 26.

### Which of the following occur when predictable results create a weakness in the coding system?

• A.

Quantum cryptography

• B.

Algorithm errors

• C.

Frequency analysis

• D.

Brute-force attacks

B. Algorithm errors
Explanation
Algorithm errors occur when predictable results create a weakness in the coding system. Quantum cryptography is a form of encryption that is based on the characteristics of the smallest particles known. Frequency analysis involves looking at blocks of an encrypted message to determine whether any common patterns exist. Brute-force attacks apply every possible combination of characters until a match is found.

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• 27.

### Which government agency was formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards?

• A.

NSA

• B.

NIST

• C.

CSS

• D.

IETF

B. NIST
Explanation
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS).

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• 28.

### Which is the simplest type of PKI trust model in which a peer-to-peer relationship exists between the root CAs?

• A.

Hierarchical

• B.

Bridge

• C.

Mesh

• D.

Hybrid

B. Bridge
Explanation
In a bridge trust model, a peer-to-peer relationship exists between the root CAs. This can also be true in the mesh and hybrid models, but they are not the simplest model in which this happens. In the hierarchical model, a root CA at the top provides all the information to intermediate CAs (and they pass it down to leaf CAs).

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• 29.

### Which of the following is a list of which certificates are being revoked?

• A.

CTP

• B.

CRL

• C.

CPS

• D.

CNS

B. CRL
Explanation
The Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is a list of the certificates that are being revoked (usually because they are lost or stolen). The Certificate Practice Statement (CPS) is a statement that that CA uses to issue certificates and implement the policies of the CA. The other choices are not valid for PKI.

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• 30.

### Which of the following is based on the idea of using points on a curve to define the public/private key pair?

• A.

ECC

• B.

Diffie-Hellman

• C.

El Gamal

• D.

RSA

A. ECC
Explanation
ECC is based on the idea of using points on a curve to define the public/private key pair. Diffie-Hellman is used for the transmission of keys only. El Gamal is an asymmetric algorithm based on calculating logarithms. RSA uses large integer numbers for the basis of its process.

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