Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder

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COPD Quizzes & Trivia

Studying for Medical-Surgical Nursing. COPD


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Define COPD.        Airflow limitation that is not entirely      .  Airflow limitation is usually       and associated with an abnormal      response of the lungs to noxious particles/gases.

    Explanation
    COPD is defined as a reversible progressive inflammatory airflow limitation that is usually associated with an abnormal response of the lungs to noxious particles/gases. This means that the airflow in the lungs is restricted and it worsens over time, but it can be partially reversed. The condition is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airways, which is triggered by exposure to harmful substances.

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  • 2. 

    What are the 2 main types of COPD?

    Explanation
    The two main types of COPD are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Emphysema is a condition where the air sacs in the lungs become damaged, leading to difficulty in breathing and reduced lung function. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, causing persistent cough and excessive mucus production. Both conditions are chronic and progressive, often caused by smoking or long-term exposure to lung irritants. Treatment for COPD focuses on managing symptoms and improving lung function.

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  • 3. 

    Emphysema is a pathological loss of        tissue

    Explanation
    Emphysema is a pathological condition characterized by the progressive destruction of alveolar tissue in the lungs. This destruction leads to the enlargement of the air spaces and loss of elasticity in the lungs, making it difficult for them to properly function. The correct answer, "alveolar," accurately reflects this characteristic of emphysema, as it specifically refers to the alveoli, which are the tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.

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  • 4. 

    How does the loss of alveolar tissue in emphysema lead to airflow obstruction?        The alveolar tissue in the walls of the alveoli are what are tethering the airways open; without these walls, especially on      , the airways are not held open and they      , which leads to crimping (like stopping a water hose), so emphysematous patient can't breathe out.

    Explanation
    The loss of alveolar tissue in emphysema leads to airflow obstruction because the alveolar tissue is responsible for tethering the airways open. Without this tissue, the airways are not held open and can collapse during exhalation, similar to stopping a water hose. This collapse of the airways during exhalation restricts the flow of air, leading to difficulty in breathing out for emphysematous patients.

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  • 5. 

    Emphysema is an      disease.A. obstructiveB. restrictive

    • A.

      Obstructive

    • B.

      Restrictive

    Correct Answer
    A. Obstructive
    Explanation
    Emphysema is a disease that is characterized by the destruction of the alveoli in the lungs, leading to air trapping and difficulty in exhaling. This condition is associated with obstructive lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Obstructive lung diseases are characterized by airflow limitation, usually due to narrowing or blockage of the airways. On the other hand, restrictive lung diseases are characterized by a reduced lung volume or capacity, often due to lung tissue stiffness or scarring. Since emphysema is associated with airflow limitation rather than reduced lung volume, it is classified as an obstructive lung disease.

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  • 6. 

    What is being describe below: Lungs with presence of lots of alveolar walls A. EmpysemaB. Normal lung tissue

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Normal lung tissue

    Correct Answer
    B. Normal lung tissue
    Explanation
    The given description is referring to "lungs with presence of lots of alveolar walls." Alveolar walls are the thin, delicate structures in the lungs that facilitate the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. In normal lung tissue, there are numerous alveolar walls present, allowing for efficient gas exchange. On the other hand, in emphysema, the alveolar walls are damaged and destroyed, leading to decreased surface area for gas exchange. Therefore, the correct answer is "B. Normal lung tissue."

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  • 7. 

    What is being describe below:Lungs with presence of lots of big spaces, loss of alveolar tissue  A. EmpysemaB. Normal lung tissue

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Normal lung tissue

    Correct Answer
    A. Emphysema
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Emphysema. Emphysema is a lung condition characterized by the presence of numerous large spaces and the loss of alveolar tissue. This leads to a decrease in the lung's ability to efficiently exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. In contrast, normal lung tissue does not exhibit these characteristics.

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  • 8. 

    In what CT scan does the lungs looks digested away and fuzzy?A. EmpysemaB. Normal lung tissue

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Normal lung tissue

    Correct Answer
    A. Emphysema
    Explanation
    Emphysema is a condition characterized by the destruction of the lung tissue and the enlargement of the air sacs. This leads to a loss of lung elasticity and difficulty in breathing. In a CT scan of a person with emphysema, the lungs appear digested away and fuzzy due to the destruction and damage to the lung tissue. This is in contrast to a CT scan of normal lung tissue, where the lungs would appear clear and well-defined. Therefore, the correct answer is Emphysema.

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  • 9. 

    T/F.  Cigarette smoking causes the same emphysematous change in all people.      

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False. But it does tend to cause centrilobular emphysema.

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  • 10. 

    What are the 4 types of emphysema?C     P     P     I    

    Correct Answer
    Centrilobular Panlobular Paraseptal Irregular
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the four types of emphysema are centrilobular, panlobular, paraseptal, and irregular.

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  • 11. 

            emphysema affects mostly around the rim of the lung.

    Correct Answer
    Paraseptal
    Explanation
    Emphysema is a condition characterized by the destruction of the air sacs in the lungs. Paraseptal emphysema is a specific type of emphysema that primarily affects the peripheral areas of the lungs, particularly around the edges or rims. This type of emphysema is often associated with smoking and can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath and coughing. The destruction of the air sacs in the peripheral areas of the lungs can result in reduced lung function and impaired gas exchange.

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  • 12. 

                 can be defined pathologically A. EmphysemaB. Chronic bronchitis

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Chronic bronchitis

    Correct Answer
    A. Emphysema
    Explanation
    Emphysema can be defined pathologically, meaning that it can be described or diagnosed based on the examination of tissues or organs. This is because emphysema is a lung condition characterized by the destruction of the air sacs in the lungs, leading to difficulty in breathing. Pathological examination of lung tissue can reveal the presence of enlarged air spaces and destruction of the lung tissue, which are characteristic of emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is defined clinically based on symptoms such as cough and mucus production, rather than pathological examination.

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  • 13. 

               is defined  by symptoms A. EmphysemaB. Chronic bronchitis

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Chronic bronchitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Chronic bronchitis
    Explanation
    Chronic bronchitis is the correct answer because it is one of the two conditions that define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the other being emphysema. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the bronchial tubes, leading to persistent cough with mucus production. Emphysema, on the other hand, is characterized by damage to the air sacs in the lungs, causing shortness of breath. Both conditions are chronic and progressive, but chronic bronchitis specifically refers to the inflammation of the bronchial tubes.

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  • 14. 

    What is the definition of chronic bronchitis?Cough on most days for     months for      consecutive years

    Correct Answer
    3 2
    Explanation
    Chronic bronchitis is defined as having a persistent cough on most days for at least three consecutive months in two consecutive years. This means that an individual must experience a cough for a significant period of time, specifically three months, for two years in a row to be diagnosed with chronic bronchitis.

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  • 15. 

    What are the typically changes seen in the airways in chronic bronchitis?            of airways  and      plugging up the lumen of the airways

    Correct Answer
    Inflammation mucus
    Explanation
    In chronic bronchitis, the airways undergo inflammation and an excessive production of mucus. This inflammation causes the airways to become swollen and narrowed, leading to difficulty in breathing. Additionally, the excessive mucus production can clog up the lumen of the airways, further obstructing the flow of air. These changes in the airways contribute to the characteristic symptoms of chronic bronchitis, such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

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  • 16. 

     What are the 2 main histologic changes typically seen in patients with chronic bronchitis?        1.       of bronchial                    2.        of bronchial     

    Correct Answer
    Thickening smooth muscle Enlargement glands
    Explanation
    Patients with chronic bronchitis typically exhibit two main histologic changes: thickening of smooth muscle and enlargement of glands. These changes occur due to chronic inflammation and irritation of the bronchial walls. The thickening of smooth muscle leads to narrowing of the airways, resulting in airflow limitation. The enlargement of glands leads to increased mucus production, contributing to the characteristic cough and sputum production seen in chronic bronchitis. These histologic changes are key features in the diagnosis and understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic bronchitis.

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  • 17. 

    What is the main pathophysiology of COPD?      is blocked; lungs don't empty

    Correct Answer
    Airflow
    Explanation
    The main pathophysiology of COPD is airflow limitation. In COPD, the airways become narrowed and obstructed, making it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs. This is typically caused by a combination of factors, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The obstruction of airflow leads to symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Over time, this can result in damage to the lungs and a decrease in lung function.

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  • 18. 

    T/F.  People with COPD often don't complain of shortness of breath.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This is because as they start to become dyspneic, they stop doing whatever activity it was that made them dyspneic to begin with, so then they don't notice it anymore.

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  • 19. 

    What punctuates the cycle of COPD?                  - worsening of airflow obstruction, brought on by pollutants, infections, etc.

    Correct Answer
    Acute exacerbations
    Explanation
    Acute exacerbations punctuate the cycle of COPD. These exacerbations refer to sudden worsening of symptoms, such as increased difficulty in breathing, coughing, and mucus production. They are often triggered by factors such as pollutants, infections, or other respiratory irritants. These episodes can lead to a significant decline in lung function and overall health, requiring medical intervention and treatment adjustments. Managing and preventing acute exacerbations is crucial in the management of COPD to minimize their impact on the patient's quality of life and disease progression.

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  • 20. 

    Many patients with COPD will die from _______ 

    Correct Answer
    Acute exacerbations
    Explanation
    Patients with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) have a progressive lung disease characterized by airflow limitation. Acute exacerbations refer to sudden worsening of symptoms, such as increased breathlessness, cough, and sputum production. These exacerbations can be triggered by infections, air pollution, or other factors. They can lead to severe respiratory distress and complications, which may ultimately result in the death of the patient. Therefore, many patients with COPD will die from acute exacerbations.

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  • 21. 

    COPD is the ______ leading cause of death in the U.S.

    Correct Answer
    4th
    Explanation
    COPD, which stands for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, is the 4th leading cause of death in the U.S. This means that there are three other causes of death that rank higher than COPD in terms of frequency. COPD is a chronic lung disease that includes conditions such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and it is often caused by smoking or long-term exposure to lung irritants. The high ranking of COPD as a cause of death highlights the importance of preventive measures and early detection in order to reduce the impact of this disease on public health.

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  • 22. 

    What accounts for most of the costs related to COPD?

    Correct Answer
    Hospitalizations
    Explanation
    The majority of costs related to COPD are accounted for by hospitalizations. This is because COPD is a chronic respiratory disease that often requires frequent hospital visits for treatment and management. Hospitalizations involve various expenses such as medical procedures, medication, healthcare professionals' fees, and hospital stay costs. Due to the progressive nature of COPD, patients may experience exacerbations and complications that necessitate hospitalization, leading to significant financial burden. Managing and preventing hospitalizations in COPD patients is crucial to reducing healthcare costs and improving patient outcomes.

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  • 23. 

    T/F.  Only cigarette smoking causes COPD.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False. Other industrial pollutants can also cause COPD.

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  • 24. 

    What are 5 risk factors for COPD?       1.       S     2.       P     3.       D     exposure 4.       Increased airway r     /a      5.     G    

    Correct Answer
    smoking prematurity dust responsiveness allergy genetics
    Explanation
    The correct answer is smoking, prematurity, dust exposure, allergy responsiveness, and genetics. These are the five risk factors for COPD. Smoking is the most significant risk factor for developing COPD. Prematurity and low birth weight are also associated with an increased risk. Exposure to dust and chemicals in the workplace can contribute to the development of COPD. Allergy responsiveness, particularly to environmental allergens, can also increase the risk. Finally, genetics play a role in determining an individual's susceptibility to developing COPD.

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  • 25. 

    T/F.  Lung function begins to decrease around age 25-30, no matter if you smoke or not.      

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    True. Lung function is lost at about 30 cc per year, so just by aging and being exposed to pollutants, you can develop airflow limitation compatible to that of COPD.

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  • 26. 

    T/F.  COPD can be thought of as a disease of accelerated aging. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    True. This is b/c with aging, you lose about 30 cc of lung function per year; a heavy smoker will lose 60-90 cc of lung function per year, so he is just accelerating that process.

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  • 27. 

    When tpatients lose about 1/2 of their lung function they become       

    Correct Answer
    symptomatic
    Explanation
    When patients lose about 1/2 of their lung function, they experience symptoms related to their respiratory system. This can include shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing. These symptoms indicate that their lung function has significantly decreased, leading to a noticeable impact on their overall health and well-being. Therefore, the term "symptomatic" accurately describes the condition of patients who have lost approximately 1/2 of their lung function.

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  • 28. 

    T/F If a patient quits smoking after an extended period of time, can he/she regain lung function? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Yes, but only to a certain extent; can never regain full lung function

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  • 29. 

           affects an individual's susceptibility to tobacco smoke.  Especially alpha-1      deficiency, which lets       go unchecked, and it tends to digest the lungs where you have the most blood flow, at the bases.

    Correct Answer
    Genetics antitrypsin proteinase
  • 30. 

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin usually keeps          in check.  

    Correct Answer
    proteinases
    Explanation
    Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protein that helps regulate the activity of proteinases, which are enzymes that break down proteins. When alpha-1 antitrypsin is functioning properly, it keeps the proteinases in check, preventing them from causing excessive damage to tissues.

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  • 31. 

    In       emphysema, most of the loss of alveolar tissue is seen at the apex of the lungs (apex will be blacker on chest x-ray), but in                deficiency emphysema, the loss of alveolar tissue tends to be at the base of the lung.

    Correct Answer
    typical alpha-1 antitrypsin
    Explanation
    The given explanation suggests that the correct answer is "typical alpha-1 antitrypsin." This implies that the loss of alveolar tissue at the apex of the lungs is characteristic of emphysema, while the loss of alveolar tissue at the base of the lung is characteristic of deficiency emphysema. Therefore, the presence of typical alpha-1 antitrypsin is associated with the former, indicating that this is the correct answer.

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  • 32. 

    What are the 3 major symptoms of COPD? 1.       C        2.       S        production3.    D     

    Correct Answer
    Cough Sputum Dyspnea
    Explanation
    COPD is characterized by chronic cough, sputum production, and dyspnea (shortness of breath). These three symptoms are commonly seen in individuals with COPD and are used to diagnose and monitor the condition. Coughing is often caused by the irritation and inflammation of the airways, while sputum production refers to the excessive mucus that is often coughed up. Dyspnea, on the other hand, is the difficulty or discomfort in breathing that is experienced by individuals with COPD. These symptoms can vary in severity and can significantly impact a person's quality of life.

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  • 33. 

    Describe the sputum production associated with COPD.        
    • Usually       , clear-whitish
    • Can be more purulent with episodes of         
    • Excessive daily sputum (2-3 tbsp) suggests         

  • Correct Answer
    mucoid exacerbation bronchiectasis
    Explanation
    The sputum production associated with COPD is usually clear-whitish, but it can become more purulent during episodes of exacerbation. Excessive daily sputum production, typically 2-3 tablespoons, suggests the presence of mucoid exacerbation bronchiectasis.

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  • 34. 

    Describe the dyspnea associated with COPD.        
    •       in onset, patients usually abandon activities to avoid sensation.  
    • More severe in acute       , can lead to anxiety and decreased quality of life.

  • Correct Answer
    Insidious exacerbations
    Explanation
    The given correct answer, "Insidious exacerbations," suggests that the dyspnea associated with COPD is characterized by gradual and subtle worsening over time. It implies that the symptoms of dyspnea may not be immediately noticeable or severe, leading patients to gradually reduce their activities to avoid discomfort. However, during acute exacerbations, the dyspnea can become more severe, potentially causing anxiety and negatively impacting the patient's quality of life.

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  • 35. 

    What are 6 other symptoms that can be associated with COPD?         1.       W      2.                 pain/tightness 3.       Weight loss/      4.                 weakness 5.       Lower extremity        6.          /anxiety

    Correct Answer
    Wheezing Chest anorexia Muscle edema Depression
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes symptoms that can be associated with COPD, such as wheezing, chest tightness, anorexia (loss of appetite), muscle weakness, edema (swelling), and depression. These symptoms can occur due to the chronic inflammation and obstruction of the airways in COPD, leading to difficulty breathing, reduced oxygen intake, and overall decline in physical and mental health.

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  • 36. 

    What are the 7 diseases typically included in the differential diagnosis for COPD?         1. C    2. A     3. Congestive h      failure 4. B     5. T      6. Obliterative         7. Diffuse        

    Correct Answer
    COPD Asthma heart Bronchiectasis tuberculosis bronchiolitis panbronchiolitis
    Explanation
    The 7 diseases typically included in the differential diagnosis for COPD are COPD, asthma, heart disease, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, bronchiolitis, and panbronchiolitis.

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  • 37. 

    COPD description for the differential Dx       ·         Presents at mid-life long history of                ·         Symptoms are slowly       ·                 during activity ·         Largely         airflow limitation

    Correct Answer
    tobacco smoking progressive Dyspnea irreversible
    Explanation
    The given answer correctly identifies the key features of COPD. COPD is a chronic respiratory disease that typically presents in mid-life with a long history of tobacco smoking. It is characterized by slowly progressive dyspnea, which worsens during physical activity. COPD is largely caused by airflow limitation, which is irreversible. Therefore, the answer accurately describes the main characteristics of COPD.

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  • 38. 

    Congestive heart failure description for the differential Dx        
    • Fine      crackles on exam
    • Prominent      and PND
    • Pulmonary function test shows     , not     
    • Lower       edema with weight gain
    • CxR with dilated heart,       edema

  • Correct Answer
    basilar orthopnea restriction obstruction extremity pulmonary
    Explanation
    The given answer includes key symptoms and findings that are commonly associated with congestive heart failure. "Basilar" refers to fine crackles heard on exam, which are often present in patients with fluid accumulation in the lungs. "Orthopnea" refers to difficulty breathing while lying flat, which is a classic symptom of heart failure. "Restriction" and "obstruction" suggest impaired lung function, which can be seen in heart failure patients. "Extremity edema" and "pulmonary edema" both indicate fluid retention, which is a hallmark of congestive heart failure. Therefore, the answer accurately describes the description and associated findings of congestive heart failure.

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  • 39. 

    Chronic exertional dyspnea is more common in        A.asthmaB.COPD

    • A.

      Asthma

    • B.

      COPD

    Correct Answer
    B. COPD
    Explanation
    Chronic exertional dyspnea refers to the difficulty in breathing that occurs during physical activity. It is more commonly seen in individuals with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) rather than asthma. COPD is a chronic lung disease characterized by airflow limitation and is often caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as smoking. Asthma, on the other hand, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing, coughing, and breathlessness. While both conditions can cause dyspnea, it is more prevalent in COPD due to the progressive nature of the disease and the resulting damage to the lungs.

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  • 40. 

    What kind of pulmonary function test indicates COPD?       ·         FEV1/FVC <   % of predicted ·         COPD patients will have a much lower    , because they are unable to get as much air out of the lungs and it takes them longer to get the air out ·         Variable      response

    Correct Answer
    70 FEV1 bronchodilator
    Explanation
    The correct answer, "70 FEV1 bronchodilator," indicates a specific measurement taken during a pulmonary function test to diagnose COPD. FEV1 stands for Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, which measures the amount of air a person can forcefully exhale in one second. A value of 70% or lower indicates airflow obstruction, which is characteristic of COPD. The term "bronchodilator" suggests that this measurement was taken after the patient used a medication to open up their airways, which helps determine if the obstruction is reversible.

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  • 41. 

    What does lung volume measurement of a pt with COPD show?        Use gas     method, will see an increased     because of air trapping (increased amt of air trapped at the end of each breath) and get    

    Correct Answer
    dilution FRC hyperinflation
    Explanation
    The lung volume measurement of a patient with COPD shows dilution FRC hyperinflation. This means that there is an increased amount of air trapped at the end of each breath, leading to an increase in the functional residual capacity (FRC) of the lungs. This can be measured using the gas method, which helps to assess the extent of hyperinflation in patients with COPD.

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  • 42. 

    What are the 2 prototypical presentations of COPD?

    Correct Answer
    Blue bloater Pink puffer
    Explanation
    Blue bloater and pink puffer are the two prototypical presentations of COPD. Blue bloater refers to individuals who have chronic bronchitis, characterized by chronic cough, sputum production, and cyanosis. They often have excess body weight and are more prone to respiratory infections. Pink puffer, on the other hand, refers to individuals with emphysema, characterized by severe dyspnea, minimal cough, and pursed-lip breathing. They are often thin and exhibit barrel chest. These presentations help in understanding the different phenotypes and clinical manifestations of COPD.

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  • 43. 

    Describe the blue bloater        
    •      /cyanosis and cor    
    • Often     
    • Poor      drive
    • Minimal     
    • Significant      production
    • Mild     

  • Correct Answer
    Hypoxia pulmonale obese respiratory emphysema sputum dyspnea
    Explanation
    The blue bloater is a term used to describe a patient with chronic bronchitis, which is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The symptoms associated with a blue bloater include cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin), poor exercise tolerance, minimal sputum production, and mild dyspnea (shortness of breath). This patient is also likely to be obese and may have respiratory emphysema. Hypoxia pulmonale refers to low oxygen levels in the blood due to lung disease, which is commonly seen in patients with chronic bronchitis.

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  • 44. 

    What condition is described below:Damage to the right ventricle as a response to high blood pressure or resistance in the lungs; cause must originate in the pulmonary system

    Correct Answer
    Cor pulmonale
    Explanation
    Cor pulmonale is a condition that occurs due to damage to the right ventricle of the heart as a result of high blood pressure or resistance in the lungs. It is important to note that the cause of cor pulmonale must originate in the pulmonary system. This condition is typically associated with chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pulmonary hypertension. The increased pressure in the lungs puts strain on the right side of the heart, leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and eventually heart failure.

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  • 45. 

    Describe the pink puffer phenotype of COPD ·         Thin/    ·         Adequate      drive ·         Minimal      production ·         Severe     ·                    and        by CT  

    Correct Answer
    cachexic respiratory sputum dyspnea Hyperinflation emphysema
    Explanation
    The pink puffer phenotype of COPD is characterized by cachexia, respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, increased sputum production, hyperinflation of the lungs, and emphysema. This phenotype is typically seen in patients with severe COPD and is associated with weight loss, muscle wasting, and a thin appearance. The respiratory symptoms are due to the destruction of lung tissue and the inability to adequately exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. Hyperinflation of the lungs occurs as a compensatory mechanism to try to improve lung function, but it ultimately leads to shortness of breath. Emphysema is a type of COPD characterized by the destruction of the alveoli, resulting in decreased lung elasticity and airflow limitation.

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  • 46. 

    Blue bloater is associated with COPD due to:A. chronic bronchitisB. emphysema

    • A.

      Chronic bronchitis

    • B.

      Emphysema

    Correct Answer
    A. Chronic bronchitis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is chronic bronchitis. Blue bloater is a term used to describe a subset of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who exhibit symptoms such as chronic cough, excessive sputum production, and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin). These symptoms are typically seen in individuals with chronic bronchitis, which is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways due to excessive mucus production. Emphysema, on the other hand, is another form of COPD that is characterized by damage to the air sacs in the lungs, leading to difficulty in exhaling air.

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  • 47. 

    Pink puffer is associated with COPD due to :A. chronic bronchitisB. emphysema

    • A.

      Chronic bronchitis

    • B.

      Emphysema

    Correct Answer
    B. Emphysema
    Explanation
    The correct answer is emphysema because pink puffer is a term used to describe a specific phenotype of patients with COPD who have predominantly emphysema. Emphysema is a type of COPD characterized by the destruction of the air sacs in the lungs, leading to difficulty in exhaling and a pink complexion due to increased work of breathing. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is another type of COPD characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and a blue-ish complexion known as blue bloater.

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  • 48. 

    What is the mainstay of pharmacologic Tx of COPD?

    Correct Answer
    Bronchodilators
    Explanation
    Bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for COPD. These medications work by relaxing the muscles around the airways, which helps to open them up and improve airflow. By using bronchodilators, COPD patients can experience relief from symptoms such as shortness of breath and wheezing. There are different types of bronchodilators available, including short-acting and long-acting ones, which can be delivered through inhalers or nebulizers. Overall, bronchodilators play a crucial role in managing COPD and improving the quality of life for patients.

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  • 49. 

    What are the 4 pharmacological agents used in Tx of COPD?1. B        2. T       3. C       4. C       agents

    Correct Answer
    Bronchodilators Theophylline Corticoseroids Combination
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a combination of bronchodilators, theophylline, corticosteroids, and combination agents. These pharmacological agents are commonly used in the treatment of COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). Bronchodilators help to relax and open up the airways, improving breathing. Theophylline is a medication that helps to relax the muscles in the airways and can also improve breathing. Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory medications that help to reduce inflammation in the airways. Combination agents are medications that contain a combination of bronchodilators and corticosteroids, providing a dual action to improve breathing and reduce inflammation.

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  • 50. 

                        increases survival in about 5% of COPD patients

    Correct Answer
    Inhaled oxygen
    Explanation
    Inhaled oxygen is the correct answer because it has been shown to increase survival in about 5% of COPD patients. This means that for a small percentage of individuals with COPD, inhaling oxygen can improve their chances of survival.

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