Communications 300 Lesson 10

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Lesson Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz is taken from lesson 10 of comm 300


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is false?

    • A.

      The technical term for making ethical decisions is moral decision making.

    • B.

      According to C. Edwin Baker, communication is coercive (and thus unethical) if it manifestly disrespects and attempts to undermine the other person's will and the integrity of the other person's mental processes.

    • C.

      According to Bivins, the media do not influence society, they only reflect it.

    • D.

      The media are prone to ethical dilemmas partly because their actions are very public, and they influence the public.

    Correct Answer
    C. According to Bivins, the media do not influence society, they only reflect it.
    Explanation
    According to the given answer, it is false to say that according to Bivins, the media do not influence society, they only reflect it. This statement contradicts Bivins' view, as Bivins believes that the media does have an influence on society.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is false, according to Bivins?

    • A.

      The sole goal of the media is to serve as an instrument of democracy.

    • B.

      The media exist in a complex and competitive environment and can't always afford to act in the best interest of their readers, listeners and viewers.

    • C.

      The SPJ code of ethics was made up by people who didn't understand the realities of real-life journalism

    • D.

      The moral imperatives to behave ethically in gathering the news far outweigh, in most newsrooms, the economic (efficiency) imperatives of news gathering

    Correct Answer
    B. The media exist in a complex and competitive environment and can't always afford to act in the best interest of their readers, listeners and viewers.
    Explanation
    According to Bivins, the media do not always act in the best interest of their audience due to the complex and competitive environment they operate in. They may prioritize other factors such as profitability or attracting viewership, which can sometimes conflict with serving the best interest of their readers, listeners, and viewers.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is false, according to Bivins?

    • A.

      Responsibility refers to the bundle of obligations one has associated with the multiple facets of one's job or function

    • B.

      Accountability refers to blaming or crediting someone for an action associated with a recognized responsibility.

    • C.

      Moral buck passing is the exception rather than the rule in complex organizations.

    • D.

      The Bormann defense is the failure to assume accountability for our actions because of orders from above

    Correct Answer
    C. Moral buck passing is the exception rather than the rule in complex organizations.
    Explanation
    According to Bivins, moral buck passing is not the exception but rather the rule in complex organizations. This means that in complex organizations, it is more common for individuals to avoid taking responsibility for their actions by passing the blame onto others.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is false, according to Bivins?

    • A.

      We do not hold people strictly accountable for the results of their actions if the outcome could not reasonably have been predicted

    • B.

      Personal values often come in conflict with professional values.

    • C.

      The default position of a professional journalist is to provide information unless there is a good reason not to.

    • D.

      Newsweek should be held strictly accountable for the suicide of Admiral Boorda.

    Correct Answer
    D. Newsweek should be held strictly accountable for the suicide of Admiral Boorda.
    Explanation
    According to Bivins, Newsweek should not be held strictly accountable for the suicide of Admiral Boorda.

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  • 5. 

    Similarities in moral obligations of the media do not include that they

    • A.

      Are all obligated to moral claimants such as employers, clients, and receivers of their messages

    • B.

      Have a duty to truth telling

    • C.

      Have a duty to avoid harming others

    • D.

      All share the same primary goals and loyalties

    Correct Answer
    D. All share the same primary goals and loyalties
    Explanation
    The similarities in moral obligations of the media do not include that they all share the same primary goals and loyalties. While the media may have obligations to moral claimants such as employers, clients, and receivers of their messages, as well as a duty to truth telling and a duty to avoid harming others, their primary goals and loyalties may vary. Different media outlets may have different objectives and priorities, and may be loyal to different stakeholders or agendas. Therefore, it cannot be said that they all share the same primary goals and loyalties.

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  • 6. 

    With which of the following does Bivins agree?

    • A.

      The goal of the news media is to bring the public the information that they need, not that which they want

    • B.

      The primary goal of advertising is to provide information about available goods and services.

    • C.

      Public relations must adhere to the informational goals of journalism (as opposed to persuasion) in order to achieve legitimacy.

    • D.

      Client loyalty generally supersedes loyalty to third parties for both advertising and public relations

    Correct Answer
    D. Client loyalty generally supersedes loyalty to third parties for both advertising and public relations
    Explanation
    Bivins agrees that client loyalty generally supersedes loyalty to third parties for both advertising and public relations.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is false, according to Bivins?

    • A.

      Egoism is manifest by acting in our own self-interest

    • B.

      Personal, professional, and societal moral obligations are interchangeable; decisions made using one automatically apply at the other levels.

    • C.

      We must learn how and when the standards of each level apply in a given situation.

    • D.

      Instrumental values lead to something of even more value; they lead to greater values

    Correct Answer
    B. Personal, professional, and societal moral obligations are interchangeable; decisions made using one automatically apply at the other levels.
    Explanation
    According to Bivins, personal, professional, and societal moral obligations are not interchangeable. Decisions made at one level do not automatically apply to the other levels.

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  • 8. 

    The following is not true, according to the Bivins text:

    • A.

      Organizational ideals include profit, efficiency, productivity, quality, and stability.

    • B.

      Codes are typically organization-specific

    • C.

      Principles are guidelines for ethical action.

    • D.

      Policies are organizationally-based standards that members of the organization use to guide their actions.

    Correct Answer
    B. Codes are typically organization-specific
    Explanation
    The Bivins text states that codes are typically organization-specific. This means that codes of conduct or ethics are specific to a particular organization and are not universally applicable. Codes are developed by organizations to provide guidelines for ethical behavior and to ensure that members of the organization adhere to certain standards. Therefore, the statement that codes are typically organization-specific is supported by the Bivins text.

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  • 9. 

    The following is true, according to the Bivins text:

    • A.

      The key to moral decision-making is to act from a perspective of care for others, and from a sense of obligation to serve rather than to prevail.

    • B.

      The greatest single roadblock to ethical decision-making by the media is their appeal to their obligations rather than to their rights and freedoms.

    • C.

      Consistency in media decision-making is the norm in the media.

    • D.

      The media should not feel an obligation to the effects they have on others.

    Correct Answer
    A. The key to moral decision-making is to act from a perspective of care for others, and from a sense of obligation to serve rather than to prevail.
    Explanation
    The given answer is the correct one because it aligns with the principle stated in the Bivins text. According to the text, the key to moral decision-making is to prioritize the well-being of others and to have a sense of duty to serve rather than focusing on personal gain or victory. This implies that acting with care and a sense of obligation towards others is crucial for making ethical decisions. Therefore, the answer is accurate based on the information provided.

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  • 10. 

    Journalism has an "equivocal status" as a profession because:

    • A.

      It has no professional organization.

    • B.

      It does not provide an important service to society.

    • C.

      Journalists do not work autonomously

    • D.

      People can be journalists even if they have not received training as journalists

    Correct Answer
    D. People can be journalists even if they have not received training as journalists
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that people can be journalists even if they have not received training as journalists. This contributes to journalism's "equivocal status" as a profession because it means that there are no standardized qualifications or requirements for someone to become a journalist. Unlike other professions, such as law or medicine, journalism does not have a professional organization or regulatory body that sets standards for education and training. This lack of formal training and qualifications can lead to varying levels of professionalism and credibility within the field of journalism, hence its equivocal status.

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  • 11. 

    The following is true according to Bivins:

    • A.

      Journalists have long wanted their occupation to be classified as a profession

    • B.

      PR practitioners have historically rejected the trappings of professionalism.

    • C.

      Professions generally provide services that are vital to the organized function of society.

    • D.

      Professions generally do not require intellectual training or credentialing like occupations do.

    Correct Answer
    C. Professions generally provide services that are vital to the organized function of society.
    Explanation
    According to Bivins, professions generally provide services that are vital to the organized function of society. This means that professions play an important role in society by offering services that are necessary for its smooth functioning. This statement aligns with the idea that journalists have long wanted their occupation to be classified as a profession, as they believe that their work is crucial for society. On the other hand, PR practitioners have historically rejected the trappings of professionalism, indicating that they may not perceive their services as essential for the organized function of society.

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  • 12. 

    The process of an occupation becoming professionalized does not include:

    • A.

      Developing standards of performance and some training in them

    • B.

      The development of professional organizations

    • C.

      Freedom from the need to be licensed, credentialed or certified

    • D.

      Core bodies of knowledge to intellectualize the field

    Correct Answer
    C. Freedom from the need to be licensed, credentialed or certified
    Explanation
    The process of an occupation becoming professionalized includes developing standards of performance and some training in them, the development of professional organizations, and core bodies of knowledge to intellectualize the field. However, it does not include freedom from the need to be licensed, credentialed or certified. This means that even though an occupation may become professionalized, individuals still need to meet certain requirements and obtain the necessary licenses, credentials, or certifications to practice in that profession.

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  • 13. 

    The following is false according to Bivins:

    • A.

      One barrier to public relations becoming a profession is its lack of enforceable standards.

    • B.

      Because journalists value autonomy and the libertarian perspective, they would welcome licensing to establish their professional credibility

    • C.

      Advertising has many of the trappings of a profession, including organizations, codes of ethics, and college degrees.

    • D.

      One of the key features that differentiates a profession from an occupation is service to society as a whole, a feature of professionalism that advertising may not offer.

    Correct Answer
    B. Because journalists value autonomy and the libertarian perspective, they would welcome licensing to establish their professional credibility
    Explanation
    The correct answer is false because the statement suggests that journalists would welcome licensing to establish their professional credibility. However, Bivins, according to the passage, argues that one barrier to public relations becoming a profession is its lack of enforceable standards. This implies that journalists may not necessarily value licensing as a means to establish their professional credibility.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is inaccurate about public journalism?

    • A.

      Its position is that objectivity and providing information are the proper role and product of the media.

    • B.

      It is based in notions of communitarianism, which emphasizes responsibility to community.

    • C.

      It encourages news outlets to become involved in solutions to community problems, not just to report on them.

    • D.

      It encourages news outlets to foster public discussion and debate about relevant issues.

    Correct Answer
    A. Its position is that objectivity and providing information are the proper role and product of the media.
    Explanation
    Public journalism does not advocate for objectivity and providing information as the sole role and product of the media. Instead, it emphasizes notions of communitarianism, responsibility to the community, involvement in finding solutions to community problems, and fostering public discussion and debate about relevant issues.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is not true, according to Bivins?

    • A.

      One way to satisfy a professional's requirement to act in the public interest is to do pro bono work.

    • B.

      Professional pro bono advocacy involves taking on cases and advocating for clients despite one's personal beliefs; without favoring one side of the issue or the other.

    • C.

      When an advertiser takes on a client for free it does not necessarily qualify as pro bono work; advocating for a particular interest is not necessarily serving the public interest.

    • D.

      The work of the Advertising Council does not qualify as pro bono work.

    Correct Answer
    D. The work of the Advertising Council does not qualify as pro bono work.
    Explanation
    According to Bivins, the work of the Advertising Council does not qualify as pro bono work. This means that the Advertising Council, despite its advocacy efforts, does not meet the criteria of providing free services to clients without favoring one side of an issue or the other. Bivins believes that pro bono work involves advocating for clients despite personal beliefs and serving the public interest, which the Advertising Council's work does not align with.

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  • 16. 

    Choose the incorrect answer, according to the Bivins text.

    • A.

      Advertising and public relations both have clients (not customers).

    • B.

      Journalists have customers (not clients)

    • C.

      The product of journalism is the only one protected by the Constitution.

    • D.

      The relationship between the media and the American public can be viewed as contractual, because of the First Amendment and the "public's right to know."

    Correct Answer
    B. Journalists have customers (not clients)
    Explanation
    The given statement that "Journalists have customers (not clients)" is incorrect according to the Bivins text. The Bivins text suggests that journalists have clients, not customers. This is because journalists work for news organizations or publications and their clients are the readers or viewers who consume their content. Journalists provide a service by gathering and reporting news to their clients, who rely on them for accurate and timely information.

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  • 17. 

    Journalism:

    • A.

      Falls squarely under the Agency model because news outlets make most news decisions based on what the audience wants to see and know.

    • B.

      Falls squarely under the Paternalistic model because journalists independently make decisions concerning what to cover in the news, what to headline, and what the public needs to know.

    • C.

      Falls squarely in the Fiduciary model of the professional-client relationship.

    • D.

      Acts paternalistically, but also takes the desires of the public into account by entertaining them with what they want

    Correct Answer
    D. Acts paternalistically, but also takes the desires of the public into account by entertaining them with what they want
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that journalism acts paternalistically, meaning that journalists independently make decisions about what news to cover and what the public needs to know. However, they also take into account the desires of the public by entertaining them with what they want. This implies that while journalists have the responsibility to inform the public, they also consider the audience's preferences and interests in order to engage and entertain them.

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  • 18. 

    Which of these statements is false about advocacy and the Agency Model?

    • A.

      Public relations and advertising are both advocacy-oriented practices.

    • B.

      Advocacy ideology requires professional neutrality (detached from the client's purposes, without regard to the advocate's feelings) and aggressive partisanship for the client

    • C.

      The Agency Model and Advocacy ideology is shown by Bivins to successfully absolve advertisers and public relations from ethical responsibility for their client-directed actions.

    • D.

      Serious moral concerns can arise from ignoring third parties.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Agency Model and Advocacy ideology is shown by Bivins to successfully absolve advertisers and public relations from ethical responsibility for their client-directed actions.
    Explanation
    The statement that the Agency Model and Advocacy ideology is shown by Bivins to successfully absolve advertisers and public relations from ethical responsibility for their client-directed actions is false. The correct answer is stating that serious moral concerns can arise from ignoring third parties. This means that the Agency Model and Advocacy ideology does not absolve advertisers and public relations from ethical responsibility, and there can be ethical implications when disregarding the impact on third parties.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is false?

    • A.

      In a Fiduciary relationship, the professional is the stronger party and the client is the weaker party

    • B.

      Bivins concludes about the Fiduciary model that it is not a good model for professional communicators.

    • C.

      The issue of multiple responsibilities (as in third-party obligations) is among the most difficult problems associated with loyalty.

    • D.

      The obligation of candor requires the professional to disclose all information the client needs in order to make a good judgment.

    Correct Answer
    B. Bivins concludes about the Fiduciary model that it is not a good model for professional communicators.
    Explanation
    The given statement is false because Bivins concludes that the fiduciary model is not a good model for professional communicators.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is false, according to Bivins?

    • A.

      Being a professional, one assumes different (but not enhanced) ethical norms than societal norms

    • B.

      Codes establish expectations of the ideal character of professionals in the field.

    • C.

      The difference between paparazzi and photojournalists is professionalism.

    • D.

      Professional codes can serve as a defense against being asked by peers or employers to do something that goes against the code's provisions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Being a professional, one assumes different (but not enhanced) ethical norms than societal norms
    Explanation
    According to Bivins, being a professional does not necessarily mean assuming different ethical norms than societal norms. This statement contradicts Bivins' view that professionals should adhere to the same ethical norms as society.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 24, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Cucaracho
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