The Cognitive Approach End Of Topic Test Resit

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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 151
Questions: 17 | Attempts: 151

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All multiple choice questions are worth one mark and have only one correct answer. The essay question (the last question) is worth 12 marks.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Give an example of a one tailed (directional) hypothesis.

    • A.

      Listening to music will not change how well you remember a word list.

    • B.

      Eating chocolate will lift or depress your mood.

    • C.

      Relaxation causes a decrease in heart rate.

    Correct Answer
    C. Relaxation causes a decrease in heart rate.
    Explanation
    The given statement "Relaxation causes a decrease in heart rate" is an example of a one-tailed (directional) hypothesis because it specifies the direction of the expected effect. It suggests that relaxation will lead to a decrease in heart rate, without considering the possibility of an increase in heart rate. This hypothesis can be tested by conducting an experiment where individuals are exposed to relaxation techniques and their heart rates are measured before and after. The focus is on determining if relaxation causes a decrease in heart rate, rather than exploring any other potential effects.

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  • 2. 

    What is a dependent variable?

    • A.

      A variable that is being measured.

    • B.

      A variable we seek to control.

    • C.

      A variable that may disrupt our results.

    Correct Answer
    A. A variable that is being measured.
    Explanation
    A dependent variable is the variable that is being measured or observed in an experiment or study. It is the outcome or response variable that is expected to change based on the manipulation of the independent variable. In other words, the dependent variable is the variable that researchers are interested in studying and analyzing to determine the effects or relationships with other variables.

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  • 3. 

    What is an independent variable?

    • A.

      A variable that is indpendent of our research.

    • B.

      A variable that is manipulated by the researcher.

    • C.

      A variable that the participant brings to the research.

    Correct Answer
    B. A variable that is manipulated by the researcher.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A variable that is manipulated by the researcher." This is because an independent variable is the variable that the researcher intentionally changes or manipulates in an experiment to observe its effect on the dependent variable. It is independent of any other factors and is under the control of the researcher.

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  • 4. 

    Which of these is correct?DV: Dependent VariableIV: Independent Variable

    • A.

      Number of questions answered correctly is a DV. Boys versus girls is an IV Morning versus afternoon is an IV

    • B.

      Number of questions answered correctly is a IV. Boys versus girls is an DV Morning versus afternoon is an IV

    • C.

      Number of questions answered correctly is a IV. Boys versus girls is an IV Morning versus afternoon is an DV

    • D.

      Number of questions answered correctly is a DV. Boys versus girls is an DV. Morning versus afternoon is an IV

    • E.

      Number of questions answered correctly is a IV. Boys versus girls is an DV. Morning versus afternoon is an DV

    Correct Answer
    A. Number of questions answered correctly is a DV. Boys versus girls is an IV Morning versus afternoon is an IV
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Number of questions answered correctly is a DV. Boys versus girls is an IV. Morning versus afternoon is an IV."

    In this question, the dependent variable (DV) is the variable that is being measured or observed, which is the number of questions answered correctly. The independent variables (IVs) are the variables that are manipulated or controlled, which are boys versus girls and morning versus afternoon. Therefore, the given answer correctly identifies the DV and IVs in the context of the question.

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  • 5. 

    Which of these reduces the effect of participant variables when using an independent measures design:

    • A.

      Making sure our participants are as similar as possible.

    • B.

      Randomly allocating participants to groups.

    • C.

      Removing all distractions from the room.

    Correct Answer
    B. Randomly allocating participants to groups.
    Explanation
    Randomly allocating participants to groups reduces the effect of participant variables in an independent measures design. This is because random allocation helps to ensure that any individual differences among participants are evenly distributed across the different groups. By doing so, it minimizes the potential influence of these variables on the study's results, allowing for a more accurate assessment of the independent variable's effect. Making sure participants are similar as possible and removing distractions from the room are not directly related to reducing participant variables in this design.

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  • 6. 

    What does cognitive psychology investigate?

    • A.

      Observable behaviour

    • B.

      Interaction with others

    • C.

      The unconscious mind

    • D.

      Thought processes

    Correct Answer
    D. Thought processes
    Explanation
    Cognitive psychology investigates thought processes. This field of study focuses on understanding how people perceive, think, remember, and problem-solve. It explores mental processes such as attention, language, decision-making, and problem-solving. Cognitive psychologists use various research methods and techniques to study these processes, including experiments, observations, and computer simulations. By understanding thought processes, cognitive psychology aims to gain insights into how people acquire knowledge, make judgments, and interact with the world around them.

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  • 7. 

    According to the levels of processing theory of memory...

    • A.

      We remember items that are repeated again and again

    • B.

      Maintenance rehearsal will encode items into our long-term memory

    • C.

      Deep processing involves elaborative rehearsal, ensuring encoding into long-term memory

    • D.

      Input, output, and storage are the three levels

    Correct Answer
    C. Deep processing involves elaborative rehearsal, ensuring encoding into long-term memory
    Explanation
    The levels of processing theory of memory suggests that deep processing, which involves elaborative rehearsal, is necessary for encoding information into long-term memory. This means that when we engage in deep processing, such as making meaningful connections or relating new information to existing knowledge, we are more likely to remember it. This is in contrast to shallow processing, such as simply repeating or rehearsing information, which is less effective for encoding into long-term memory. Therefore, deep processing through elaborative rehearsal ensures that information is encoded and stored in our long-term memory.

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  • 8. 

    James was drunk, so his girlfriend convinced him to get out of his car, and she drove him home in her car.  He could not remember where his car was parked when he got up the next morning, but after drinking a beer, James remembered where he left his car.  This phenomenon best illustrates:

    • A.

      The misinformation effect

    • B.

      Context-dependent memory

    • C.

      The framing effect

    • D.

      State-dependent memory

    Correct Answer
    D. State-dependent memory
    Explanation
    State-dependent memory refers to the phenomenon where memory retrieval is influenced by the individual's internal state or condition during encoding and retrieval. In this case, James was drunk when he parked his car, and the next morning, after drinking a beer, he was able to remember where he left his car. This suggests that his memory retrieval was dependent on his state of being intoxicated. Therefore, the correct answer is state-dependent memory.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following terms is synonymous with “motivated forgetting”?

    • A.

      Regression

    • B.

      Repression

    • C.

      Sublimation

    • D.

      Rationalization

    Correct Answer
    B. Repression
    Explanation
    Repression is synonymous with "motivated forgetting" because it refers to the unconscious act of pushing unwanted memories or thoughts out of awareness. It involves blocking or suppressing memories or thoughts that may cause discomfort or anxiety. This defense mechanism helps individuals cope with traumatic experiences or unacceptable desires by keeping them hidden in the unconscious mind. Therefore, repression is the term that best aligns with the concept of "motivated forgetting."

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  • 10. 

    A retrieval cue is…

    • A.

      A brain structure stimulus used to locate a particular memory

    • B.

      The same thing as an elaboration encoding variable

    • C.

      Always based on the mood you were in when a memory was first encoded

    • D.

      A stimulus associated with a memory that is used to locate that memory

    Correct Answer
    D. A stimulus associated with a memory that is used to locate that memory
    Explanation
    A retrieval cue is a stimulus associated with a memory that helps in locating that memory. It serves as a trigger or reminder that helps in accessing and retrieving a specific memory from the brain. Retrieval cues can be various things such as sights, sounds, smells, or emotions that were present during the encoding of the memory. By encountering these cues again, the brain is able to retrieve and recall the associated memory more easily.

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  • 11. 

    If you were attempting to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is...

    • A.

      Retrieval

    • B.

      Storage

    • C.

      Acquisition

    • D.

      Encoding

    Correct Answer
    A. Retrieval
    Explanation
    When attempting to recall a memory, the memory process being used is retrieval. Retrieval refers to the process of accessing and bringing forth stored information from memory. It involves searching through the memory storage system and retrieving the specific information or memory that is being sought. In this case, the individual is trying to retrieve a memory, indicating that they are in the process of accessing and bringing forth stored information from their memory.

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  • 12. 

    Which level of processing should result in the longest lasting memories?

    • A.

      Structural encoding

    • B.

      Mnemonic encoding

    • C.

      Semantic encoding

    • D.

      Shonemic encoding

    Correct Answer
    C. Semantic encoding
    Explanation
    Semantic encoding is the level of processing that should result in the longest lasting memories. This is because semantic encoding involves the meaningful processing and understanding of information, which leads to a deeper and more elaborate encoding of memories. When information is encoded semantically, it is more likely to be stored and retrieved effectively, resulting in longer-lasting memories compared to other levels of processing such as structural encoding or mnemonic encoding.

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  • 13. 

    What do cognitive psychologists compare the mind to?

    • A.

      A keyboard

    • B.

      A DVD

    • C.

      A Computer

    • D.

      A Television

    Correct Answer
    C. A Computer
    Explanation
    Cognitive psychologists compare the mind to a computer because both process information, store memories, and perform complex tasks. Just like a computer uses algorithms and programming to execute tasks, the mind uses cognitive processes such as perception, attention, and memory to understand and interact with the world. This analogy helps cognitive psychologists study how the mind processes information, makes decisions, and solves problems.

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  • 14. 

    What method did Bartlett use in his attempt to show how schema can affect memory.

    • A.

      The field method

    • B.

      The serial reproduction method

    • C.

      The case study method

    • D.

      The serial positioning method

    Correct Answer
    B. The serial reproduction method
    Explanation
    Bartlett used the serial reproduction method in his attempt to show how schema can affect memory. This method involved presenting a story or picture to one participant, who then had to reproduce it for the next participant, and so on. Bartlett found that as the story or picture was passed along, it became distorted and changed based on each participant's own schema and understanding. This demonstrated how schema can influence memory, as individuals tend to remember information in a way that aligns with their existing knowledge and beliefs.

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  • 15. 

    What did Koehler (1932) use as a measure of stress in his study on repression?

    • A.

      Blood pressure

    • B.

      Heart rate

    • C.

      Saliva samples

    • D.

      Galvanic skin response

    Correct Answer
    D. Galvanic skin response
    Explanation
    Koehler (1932) used galvanic skin response as a measure of stress in his study on repression. Galvanic skin response refers to the change in the electrical conductivity of the skin in response to emotional or psychological stimuli. This physiological response is often associated with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is involved in the body's stress response. By measuring galvanic skin response, Koehler could assess the level of stress experienced by individuals in his study on repression.

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  • 16. 

    What did Elizabeth Loftus' work show?

    • A.

      That traumatic events can distort memory.

    • B.

      That the environment can distort memory.

    • C.

      That post event information can distort memory.

    • D.

      That the way we ask questions will not affect memory.

    Correct Answer
    C. That post event information can distort memory.
    Explanation
    Elizabeth Loftus' work showed that post event information can distort memory. This means that the information we receive after an event can influence and alter our memory of that event. Loftus conducted numerous studies and experiments that demonstrated how easily memories can be manipulated and changed through the introduction of false information. This has significant implications for the reliability of eyewitness testimony and the potential for false memories to be created.

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  • 17. 

    Describe and evaluate one theory of forgetting. (12)

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