Cognition Process Science Trivia Facts Quiz

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Cognition Process Science Trivia Facts Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    1. Compared to detectors that haven’t fired recently, a detector that has fired recently is likely to:

    • A.

      Be at a higher position within the network of detectors

    • B.

      Have a higher response threshold

    • C.

      Have a higher activation level

    • D.

      Require more priming in order to fire

    Correct Answer
    C. Have a higher activation level
    Explanation
    A detector that has fired recently is likely to have a higher activation level because firing increases the activation level of a detector. When a detector fires, it becomes more sensitive and responsive to stimuli, resulting in a higher activation level. This increased activation level allows the detector to detect and respond to stimuli more easily, making it more likely to fire again compared to detectors that haven't fired recently.

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  • 2. 

    2. The term “introspection” refers to the:

    • A.

      Process by which one individual seeks to infer the thoughts of another individual

    • B.

      Procedure of examining thought processing by monitoring the brain’s electrical activity

    • C.

      Process of each person looking within, to observe his or her own thoughts and ideas

    • D.

      Technique of studying thought by interpreting the symbols used in communication

    Correct Answer
    C. Process of each person looking within, to observe his or her own thoughts and ideas
    Explanation
    The term "introspection" refers to the process of each person looking within, to observe his or her own thoughts and ideas. It involves self-reflection and self-awareness, where an individual examines their own mental state and experiences. Introspection allows individuals to gain insight into their thoughts, emotions, motivations, and behavior, leading to a better understanding of oneself. It is a subjective and personal process that focuses on internal experiences rather than external factors or the thoughts of others.

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  • 3. 

    3. In order to summarize the Gestalt psychologists’ movement in a few words, one might say:

    • A.

      “If you can’t see it happen, it isn’t worth studying.”

    • B.

      “The perceptual whole is different than the sum of its parts.”

    • C.

      “All that is important happens in the subconscious.”

    • D.

      “What you see is what you get.”

    Correct Answer
    B. “The perceptual whole is different than the sum of its parts.”
    Explanation
    The correct answer, "The perceptual whole is different than the sum of its parts," summarizes the key principle of Gestalt psychology. This principle suggests that the way we perceive and experience something is not simply the sum of its individual components, but rather a unique and holistic perception that emerges from the organization and interaction of those components. Gestalt psychologists emphasized the importance of studying the whole perception rather than focusing solely on the individual elements.

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  • 4. 

    4. In cognition, like other sciences, we first develop _____ and then _____ them.

    • A.

      Tests; prove

    • B.

      Theories; test

    • C.

      Hypotheses; prove

    • D.

      Hypotheses; test

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypotheses; test
    Explanation
    In cognition, like other sciences, researchers typically begin by formulating hypotheses, which are educated guesses or predictions about a particular phenomenon. These hypotheses are then tested through various experiments and observations to determine their validity and accuracy. By conducting tests on these hypotheses, researchers can gather evidence and data to either support or refute their initial predictions. This process of hypothesis testing allows scientists to refine their understanding of cognitive processes and develop more accurate theories over time.

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  • 5. 

    5. An elderly woman has suffered a stroke in her left temporal lobe, and consequently can no longer name common nouns. This provides evidence that language is located in the left hemisphere for most people. What kind of evidence is this?

    • A.

      introspection

    • B.

      Unique population

    • C.

      Neuroscience

    • D.

      Behavioral

    Correct Answer
    C. Neuroscience
    Explanation
    This evidence is categorized as neuroscience because it involves the study of the brain and its functions. By observing the specific area of the brain that is affected by the stroke and the resulting language impairment, it supports the understanding that language is typically located in the left hemisphere for most individuals.

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  • 6. 

    6. The hindbrain is responsible for which of the following?

    • A.

      Rhythm of breathing, level of alertness, posture

    • B.

      Complex thought, long-term memory

    • C.

      Planned motor activity

    • D.

      Perception and visual imagery

    Correct Answer
    A. Rhythm of breathing, level of alertness, posture
    Explanation
    The hindbrain is responsible for controlling the rhythm of breathing, level of alertness, and posture. It helps regulate the automatic functions of the body, such as breathing, and maintains the body's balance and coordination. Additionally, it plays a role in controlling the level of alertness and arousal, as well as maintaining proper posture and balance. The hindbrain does not control complex thought, long-term memory, planned motor activity, perception, or visual imagery.

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  • 7. 

    7. Commissures, including the corpus callosum, are:

    • A.

      Blood vessels that carry blood to all areas of the brain

    • B.

      Brain areas associated with various types of sensory information

    • C.

      Pockets of oxygen found throughout the brain

    • D.

      Thick bundles of fibers that allow communication between the brain’s hemispheres

    Correct Answer
    D. Thick bundles of fibers that allow communication between the brain’s hemispheres
    Explanation
    Commissures, including the corpus callosum, are thick bundles of fibers that allow communication between the brain's hemispheres. These fibers enable the transfer of information and coordination between the left and right sides of the brain. The corpus callosum, in particular, is the largest commissure in the brain and plays a crucial role in integrating and coordinating cognitive, sensory, and motor functions between the two hemispheres. Without these commissures, the hemispheres would not be able to communicate effectively, leading to impaired brain function.

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  • 8. 

    8. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI):

    • A.

      Is less useful than other types of neuroimaging for the study of the functioning of the brain

    • B.

      Creates a three-dimensional representation of the brain’s tissue

    • C.

      Is useful only for studying features on the outer surface of the brain

    • D.

      Makes self-report data unnecessary

    Correct Answer
    B. Creates a three-dimensional representation of the brain’s tissue
    Explanation
    An MRI or fMRI creates a three-dimensional representation of the brain's tissue. This means that it can provide detailed images of the brain's structure, allowing researchers and medical professionals to study and analyze different regions of the brain. This imaging technique is valuable for diagnosing and studying various neurological conditions and disorders. It is not limited to studying features on the outer surface of the brain and does not eliminate the need for self-report data, as it primarily focuses on visualizing the brain's structure rather than its functioning.

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  • 9. 

    9. The auditory cortex follows the principle of contralateral control. Thus, the:

    • A.

      Right temporal lobe receives most of its input from the left ear

    • B.

      Right temporal lobe receives most of its input from the right ear

    • C.

      Right temporal lobe receives equal input from both ears

    • D.

      Information received by the right temporal lobe depends on whether the listener favors his or her right or left ear

    Correct Answer
    A. Right temporal lobe receives most of its input from the left ear
    Explanation
    The auditory cortex follows the principle of contralateral control, meaning that sensory information from one side of the body is processed in the opposite side of the brain. In this case, the right temporal lobe receives most of its input from the left ear. This is because sound waves from the environment first reach the ears and are then transmitted to the auditory cortex for processing.

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  • 10. 

    10. A neuron is:

    • A.

      A group of cells specialized for a particular type of information storage

    • B.

      One of the fibers connecting the eye to the visual cortex

    • C.

      An individual cell within the nervous system

    • D.

      A region within the brain dedicated to a single function

    Correct Answer
    C. An individual cell within the nervous system
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an individual cell within the nervous system." A neuron is a specialized cell that transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. It is the basic building block of the nervous system and plays a crucial role in transmitting and processing information in the brain and throughout the body. Neurons have a unique structure with dendrites that receive signals, a cell body that processes the signals, and an axon that transmits the signals to other neurons or target cells.

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  • 11. 

    11. The form of brain damage identified as prosopagnosia is primarily characterized by an inability to:

    • A.

      Recognize faces

    • B.

      Comprehend written text

    • C.

      Identify inverted stimuli even though perception of upright stimuli seems normal

    • D.

      Identify familiar voices

    Correct Answer
    A. Recognize faces
    Explanation
    Prosopagnosia is a form of brain damage that primarily affects the ability to recognize faces. This condition is characterized by an inability to identify familiar faces, even of close friends and family members. People with prosopagnosia may have difficulty recognizing faces in different contexts and may rely on other cues such as voice, hairstyle, or clothing to identify individuals. This condition can significantly impact social interactions and daily life, as facial recognition is an important aspect of human communication.

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  • 12. 

    12. The cortex makes up the surface of what brain structure?

    • A.

      The hindbrain

    • B.

      The midbrain

    • C.

      The thalamus

    • D.

      The forebrain

    Correct Answer
    D. The forebrain
    Explanation
    The cortex is the outermost layer of the brain and is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, perception, and memory. It is found in the forebrain, which is the largest and most complex part of the brain. The forebrain includes structures such as the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Therefore, the correct answer is the forebrain.

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  • 13. 

    13. Biederman’s recognition by components (RBC) model:

    • A.

      Does not rely on a hierarchy of detectors

    • B.

      Makes use of geon detectors, which in turn trigger detectors for geon assemblies

    • C.

      Asserts that priming takes place primarily at levels higher than the level of geon detectors

    • D.

      Can recognize three-dimensional objects provided they are seen from the appropriate viewing angle

    Correct Answer
    B. Makes use of geon detectors, which in turn trigger detectors for geon assemblies
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that Biederman's recognition by components (RBC) model makes use of geon detectors, which in turn trigger detectors for geon assemblies. This means that the model relies on detecting basic geometric shapes called geons and then combining them to recognize more complex objects. Geons are considered as the building blocks of object recognition in this model.

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  • 14. 

    14. Patients who have suffered damage to the occipital-parietal pathway (the “where” system) will have difficulties with which of the following tasks?

    • A.

      Visually identifying a toothbrush on the counter in front of them

    • B.

      Describing the function of the toothbrush without touching it

    • C.

      Reaching in the correct direction to retrieve the toothbrush

    • D.

      Knowing how to use the toothbrush once they have retrieved it

    Correct Answer
    C. Reaching in the correct direction to retrieve the toothbrush
    Explanation
    Patients who have suffered damage to the occipital-parietal pathway, which is responsible for the "where" system, will have difficulties with reaching in the correct direction to retrieve the toothbrush. This pathway is involved in spatial processing and the perception of visual motion. Damage to this pathway can result in impaired ability to accurately reach and grasp objects in the environment. The other tasks mentioned, such as visually identifying the toothbrush, describing its function, and knowing how to use it once retrieved, are more related to the ventral stream or the "what" system, which is responsible for object recognition and visual perception of form and color.

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  • 15. 

    15. The primary motor projection area forms a “map” of the body, and the projections control movement to specific areas of the body. The amount of cortical tissue dedicated to specific parts of the body varies based on the:

    • A.

      Size of the body part

    • B.

      Distance of the body part from the brain

    • C.

      Precision of movement for the body part

    • D.

      Cortical area does not vary; it is the same for all body parts

    Correct Answer
    C. Precision of movement for the body part
    Explanation
    The primary motor projection area forms a "map" of the body, meaning that different parts of this area are responsible for controlling movement in specific areas of the body. The amount of cortical tissue dedicated to specific parts of the body varies based on the precision of movement required for that body part. This means that body parts that require more precise movements will have a larger representation in the primary motor projection area, while body parts that require less precise movements will have a smaller representation. This allocation of cortical tissue allows for more precise control and coordination of movements in the body.

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  • 16. 

    16. Modern psychology turned away from behaviorism in its classic form because:

    • A.

      Our behavior is routinely determined by our understanding of stimuli

    • B.

      Humans are more similar to computers than to other species studied in the laboratory

    • C.

      Psychology rejected behaviorism’s emphasis on an organism’s subjective states

    • D.

      An organism’s behavior can be changed by learning

    Correct Answer
    A. Our behavior is routinely determined by our understanding of stimuli
    Explanation
    Modern psychology turned away from behaviorism in its classic form because our behavior is routinely determined by our understanding of stimuli. This suggests that behavior is not solely determined by external factors, but also by our interpretation and understanding of those stimuli. This shift in focus acknowledges the importance of cognitive processes and internal factors in influencing behavior, rather than solely relying on observable behavior and external stimuli.

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  • 17. 

    17. Which of the following statements is NOT true for feature-based models of pattern recognition?

    • A.

      Features, as general-purpose building blocks, can help explain how humans recognize variations on a form (e.g., a cat in different positions or a letter in different type fonts).

    • B.

      The visual system identifies small pieces of a pattern first and then combines them to form more complex wholes.

    • C.

      Studies using people with parietal damage suggest that the detection of features is separate from the process to put the features together.

    • D.

      The term “features” can also be used to describe a distinct object made up of several parts.

    Correct Answer
    D. The term “features” can also be used to describe a distinct object made up of several parts.
    Explanation
    Feature-based models of pattern recognition focus on identifying and analyzing individual features or components of a pattern and then combining them to form a complete representation. The given statement suggests that the term "features" can be used to describe a distinct object made up of several parts, which is not true. In feature-based models, features refer to the smaller elements or characteristics of a pattern, not to a distinct object composed of multiple parts.

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  • 18. 

    18. Participants are shown a visual stimulus for just 30 ms and are then asked, “Was there an E or a K in the stimulus?” We would expect the BEST performance if the stimulus was:

    • A.

      BARK

    • B.

      K

    • C.

      BWQK

    • D.

      GALK

    Correct Answer
    A. BARK
    Explanation
    The stimulus "BARK" would likely result in the best performance because it contains both the letters "E" and "K," which are the target letters that participants are asked to identify. The other stimuli ("K," "BWQK," and "GALK") do not contain both target letters, so they would not result in the best performance.

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  • 19. 

    19. The “word-superiority effect” refers to the fact that it is easier to recognize:

    • A.

      Short (three- or four-letter) words than long words

    • B.

      A letter within the context of a word than it is to recognize a letter presented by itself

    • C.

      A word presented in a phrase than it is to recognize a word presented by itself

    • D.

      Words that are frequently used under tachistoscopic conditions

    Correct Answer
    B. A letter within the context of a word than it is to recognize a letter presented by itself
    Explanation
    The "word-superiority effect" refers to the phenomenon where it is easier to recognize a letter within the context of a word compared to recognizing a letter presented by itself. This is because the surrounding letters in a word provide additional cues and context that aid in letter recognition. When a letter is presented in isolation, there are no surrounding letters to provide support, making it more difficult to identify.

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  • 20. 

    20. Englishlike nonwords (e.g., “HICE”) are easier to perceive than strings of letters not resembling English words (e.g., “RSFK”) because:

    • A.

      They are encountered more often

    • B.

      Bigram detectors for more common letter combinations fire more readily

    • C.

      They are more distinctive

    • D.

      Word detectors will respond to near-words as well as true words

    Correct Answer
    B. Bigram detectors for more common letter combinations fire more readily
    Explanation
    Englishlike nonwords are easier to perceive than strings of letters not resembling English words because bigram detectors, which detect common letter combinations, are more likely to fire when encountering Englishlike nonwords. These detectors are more familiar with common letter combinations found in English words, making it easier for the brain to process and perceive them. On the other hand, strings of letters not resembling English words may not activate these detectors as readily, leading to more difficulty in perception.

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  • 21. 

    21. Once a cell fires, the part of a neuron that transmits information to another location is the:

    • A.

      Dendrite

    • B.

      Cell body

    • C.

      Axon

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    C. Axon
    Explanation
    The axon is the part of a neuron that transmits information to another location. It is a long, slender projection that carries electrical impulses away from the cell body towards other neurons, muscles, or glands. Once a cell fires, the electrical signal travels down the axon, allowing for communication between different parts of the nervous system. The dendrites receive incoming signals from other neurons, the cell body integrates these signals, and the nucleus contains the cell's genetic material. However, it is the axon that is responsible for transmitting the information.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 10, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 24, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Rdowney
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