Chapter 21 - The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels And Dynamics

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Chapter 21 - The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels And Dynamics - Quiz

End of chapter Self-quiz questions


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ______ reflex helps maintain normal blood pressure in the brain; the ________ reflex governs general systemic blood pressure.

    • A.

      Aortic; carotid sinus

    • B.

      Pulse; flow

    • C.

      Carotid sinus; aortic

    • D.

      Flow; pulse

    Correct Answer
    C. Carotid sinus; aortic
    Explanation
    The carotid sinus reflex helps maintain normal blood pressure in the brain, while the aortic reflex governs general systemic blood pressure. The carotid sinus is a specialized area in the carotid artery that contains baroreceptors, which detect changes in blood pressure. When blood pressure in the carotid sinus increases, it triggers a reflex response to lower blood pressure. On the other hand, the aortic reflex is initiated by baroreceptors in the aortic arch, which also monitor blood pressure. This reflex helps regulate blood pressure throughout the body.

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  • 2. 

    In addition to the pressure created by contraction of the left ventricle, venous return is aided by the _____ and the _____, both of which depend on the presence of valves in the veins.

    • A.

      Skeletal pump; respiratory pump

    • B.

      Sodium pump; potassium pump

    • C.

      Bicuspid valve; tricuspid valve

    • D.

      Carotid reflex; respiratory reflex

    Correct Answer
    A. Skeletal pump; respiratory pump
    Explanation
    The correct answer is skeletal pump; respiratory pump. The skeletal pump refers to the contraction of skeletal muscles surrounding the veins, which helps to squeeze blood towards the heart. The respiratory pump refers to the changes in pressure in the thoracic cavity during breathing, which also aids in venous return. Both of these mechanisms rely on the presence of valves in the veins to prevent backflow of blood.

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  • 3. 

    Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors are located in the aorta and carotid arteries.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors are sensory receptors that detect changes in blood pressure and chemical composition, respectively. They are located in the aorta and carotid arteries because these are major blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain and other vital organs. The presence of these receptors in these specific locations allows for rapid detection and regulation of blood pressure and oxygen levels, helping to maintain homeostasis in the body. Therefore, the statement "Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors are located in the aorta and carotid arteries" is true.

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  • 4. 

    The most important method of capillary exchange is simple diffusion.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Capillary exchange refers to the movement of substances between the blood in capillaries and the surrounding tissues. Simple diffusion is the primary method by which small molecules, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients, move across the capillary walls. This is because these molecules can passively diffuse down their concentration gradients from areas of higher concentration (blood) to areas of lower concentration (tissues). Therefore, it can be concluded that simple diffusion is indeed the most important method of capillary exchange.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following are not true?  (1) Muscular arteries are also known as conducting arteries.  (2) Capillaries play a key role in regulating resistance.  (3) The flow of blood through true capillaries is controlled by precapillary sphincters.  (4) The lumen of an artery is larger than in a comparable vein.  (5) Elastic arteries help propel blood.  (6) The tunica media of arteries is thicker than the tunica media of veins.

    • A.

      2, 3, 6

    • B.

      1, 2, 4

    • C.

      1, 2, 4, 6

    • D.

      3, 4, 5

    • E.

      1, 2, 3, 4

    Correct Answer
    B. 1, 2, 4
  • 6. 

    Which of the following are true?  (1) Large, lipid-insoluble molecules cross capillary walls by transcytosis.  (2) The blood hydrostatic pressure promotes reabsorption of fluid into the capillaries.  (3) If the pressures that promote filtration are greater than the pressures that promote reabsorption, fluid will move out of a capillary and into interstitial spaces.  (4) A negative net filtration pressure results reabsorption of fluid from interstitial spaces into a capillary.  (5) The difference in osmotic pressure across a capillary wall is due primarily to red blood cells.

    • A.

      1, 3, 4

    • B.

      1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    • C.

      1, 2, 3, 4

    • D.

      3, 4

    • E.

      2, 4, 5

    Correct Answer
    A. 1, 3, 4
    Explanation
    Large, lipid-insoluble molecules cross capillary walls by transcytosis, which is stated in statement (1). If the pressures that promote filtration are greater than the pressures that promote reabsorption, fluid will move out of a capillary and into interstitial spaces, which is stated in statement (3). A negative net filtration pressure results in reabsorption of fluid from interstitial spaces into a capillary, which is stated in statement (4). Therefore, the correct answer is 1, 3, 4.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following wound not increase vascular resistance?  (1) vasodilation; (2) polycythemia; (3) obesity; (4) dehydration; (5) anemia

    • A.

      1, 2

    • B.

      1, 3, 4

    • C.

      1, 5

    • D.

      1, 4, 5

    • E.

      1 only

    Correct Answer
    C. 1, 5
  • 8. 

    Capillary exchange is enhanced by:  (1) the slow rate of flow through the capillaries; (2) a small cross-sectional area; (3) the thinness of capillary walls; (4) the respiratory pump; (5) extensive branching, which increases the surface area.

    • A.

      1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    • B.

      1, 2, 3, 5

    • C.

      1, 3

    • D.

      3, 5

    • E.

      1, 3, 5

    Correct Answer
    E. 1, 3, 5
    Explanation
    Capillary exchange refers to the movement of substances between the blood in the capillaries and the surrounding tissues. The slow rate of flow through the capillaries allows more time for exchange to occur. A small cross-sectional area of capillaries increases the pressure and velocity of blood flow, enhancing exchange. The thinness of capillary walls allows for easy diffusion of substances. Extensive branching of capillaries increases the surface area available for exchange. Therefore, options 1, 3, and 5 are correct as they all contribute to enhancing capillary exchange.

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  • 9. 

    Systemic vascular resistance depends on which of the following factors?  (1) blood viscosity; (2) total blood vessel length; (3) size of the lumen; (4) type of blood vessel; (5) oxygen concentration of the blood

    • A.

      1, 2, 3

    • B.

      2, 3, 4

    • C.

      3, 4, 5

    • D.

      1, 3, 5

    • E.

      2, 4, 5

    Correct Answer
    A. 1, 2, 3
    Explanation
    Systemic vascular resistance is the resistance to blood flow offered by the systemic blood vessels. It depends on several factors including blood viscosity, total blood vessel length, and size of the lumen. Blood viscosity refers to the thickness or stickiness of the blood, which affects how easily it flows through the vessels. Total blood vessel length refers to the combined length of all the blood vessels in the body, which impacts the overall resistance to blood flow. The size of the lumen, or the diameter of the blood vessels, also affects resistance as narrower vessels offer more resistance to blood flow. Therefore, factors 1, 2, and 3 are all relevant to determining systemic vascular resistance.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following help regulate blood pressure and help control regional blood flow?  (1) baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes; (2) hormones; (3) autoregulation; (4) H+ concentration of blood; (5) oxygen concentration of the blood.

    • A.

      1, 2, 4

    • B.

      2, 4, 5

    • C.

      1, 4, 5

    • D.

      1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    • E.

      3, 4, 5

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes help regulate blood pressure by sensing changes in pressure and chemical composition of the blood. Hormones such as aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone also play a role in regulating blood pressure. Autoregulation refers to the ability of blood vessels to adjust their diameter to maintain a steady blood flow. The H+ concentration of blood and oxygen concentration of the blood also affect blood pressure and regional blood flow.

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  • 11. 

    Supplies blood to the stomach, liver and pancreas. Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    8
    Explanation
    The celiac trunk is the correct answer because it is the main artery that supplies blood to the stomach, liver, and pancreas. It branches off into smaller arteries that distribute blood to these organs, ensuring that they receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients for proper functioning.

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  • 12. 

    Supply blood to the brain.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    6
    Explanation
    The carotid arteries supply blood to the brain.

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  • 13. 

    Drain blood from the head.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    7
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 7 because the jugular veins are responsible for draining blood from the head.

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  • 14. 

    Detours venous blood from the gastrointestinal organs and spleen through the liver before it returns to the heart.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    5
    Explanation
    The hepatic portal system is responsible for carrying venous blood from the gastrointestinal organs and spleen to the liver before it returns to the heart. This system helps the liver filter and process nutrients, toxins, and other substances absorbed from the digestive tract. Choice 5, which is the hepatic portal, is the correct answer as it accurately describes the detour of venous blood through the liver.

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  • 15. 

    Drains most of the thorax and abdominal wall; can serve as a bypass for the inferior vena cava.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    10
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 10, which is the azygos veins. The azygos veins drain most of the thorax and abdominal wall and can serve as a bypass for the inferior vena cava.

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  • 16. 

    A part of the venous circulation of the leg; a vessel used in heart bypass surgery.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    12
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 12. The great saphenous vein is a part of the venous circulation of the leg and is commonly used in heart bypass surgery. It is the longest vein in the body and runs along the inside of the leg, from the groin to the ankle. During bypass surgery, the great saphenous vein is often harvested and used to create a graft to bypass blocked or damaged arteries in the heart.

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  • 17. 

    Carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    13
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 13 because the pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

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  • 18. 

    Supplies blood to the kidney.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    11
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 11 - renal artery. The renal artery is responsible for supplying blood to the kidney. It branches off from the abdominal aorta and carries oxygenated blood to the kidneys, where it helps in filtration and waste removal.

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  • 19. 

    Drains blood from the small intestine, portions of the large intestine, stomach and pancreas.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    1
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1. The superior mesenteric vein drains blood from the small intestine, portions of the large intestine, stomach, and pancreas.

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  • 20. 

    Main blood supply to arm; commonly used to measure blood pressure.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    4
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the brachial artery. The brachial artery is the main blood supply to the arm and is commonly used to measure blood pressure.

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  • 21. 

    Supply blood to the free lower limbs.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    9
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 9. The common iliac arteries supply blood to the free lower limbs.

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  • 22. 

    Drain oxygenated blood from the lungs and send it to the left atrium.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    3
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 3 because the pulmonary veins are responsible for draining oxygenated blood from the lungs and sending it to the left atrium.

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  • 23. 

    A traveling pressure wave created by the alternate expansion and recoil of elastic arteries after each systole of the left ventricle.  Enter choice 1-6 without parenthesis or spaces:  (1) shock; (2) pulse; (3) tachycardia; (4) bradycardia; (5) systolic blood pressure; (6) diastolic blood pressure. 

    Correct Answer
    2
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "pulse" because a pulse is a traveling pressure wave that is created by the expansion and recoil of elastic arteries after each systole of the left ventricle.

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  • 24. 

    The lowest blood pressure in arteries during ventricular relaxation.  Enter choice 1-6 without parenthesis or spaces:  (1) shock; (2) pulse; (3) tachycardia; (4) bradycardia; (5) systolic blood pressure; (6) diastolic blood pressure. 

    Correct Answer
    6
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is 6 - diastolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure refers to the lowest blood pressure in the arteries during ventricular relaxation. During this phase, the heart is at rest and blood is filling the arteries. This is in contrast to systolic blood pressure, which is the highest blood pressure during ventricular contraction. Monitoring diastolic blood pressure is important in assessing cardiovascular health and determining the risk of conditions such as hypertension.

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  • 25. 

    A slow resting heart rate or pulse rate.  Enter choice 1-6 without parenthesis or spaces:  (1) shock; (2) pulse; (3) tachycardia; (4) bradycardia; (5) systolic blood pressure; (6) diastolic blood pressure. 

    Correct Answer
    4
    Explanation
    A slow resting heart rate or pulse rate is referred to as bradycardia. Bradycardia is a condition where the heart beats slower than the normal range. This can be caused by various factors such as certain medications, heart disease, and an imbalance in the electrical signals of the heart. It can also be a natural occurrence in athletes or individuals who are physically fit. Bradycardia can sometimes be a sign of an underlying health issue and may require medical attention if accompanied by symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, or shortness of breath.

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  • 26. 

    An indadequate cardiac output that results in a failure of the cardiovascular system to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of body cells.  Enter choice 1-6 without parenthesis or spaces:  (1) shock; (2) pulse; (3) tachycardia; (4) bradycardia; (5) systolic blood pressure; (6) diastolic blood pressure. 

    Correct Answer
    1
    Explanation
    Inadequate cardiac output refers to a decrease in the amount of blood pumped by the heart, leading to a decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients to body cells. This condition is known as shock.

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  • 27. 

    A rapid resting heart rate or pulse rate.  Enter choice 1-6 without parenthesis or spaces:  (1) shock; (2) pulse; (3) tachycardia; (4) bradycardia; (5) systolic blood pressure; (6) diastolic blood pressure. 

    Correct Answer
    3
    Explanation
    A rapid resting heart rate or pulse rate is referred to as tachycardia. Tachycardia is a condition where the heart beats faster than normal, typically defined as a resting heart rate above 100 beats per minute. It can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, certain medications, or underlying medical conditions. Monitoring and managing tachycardia is important to ensure proper heart function and overall health.

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  • 28. 

    The highest force with which blood pushes against aterial walls as a result of ventricular contraction.  Enter choice 1-6 without parenthesis or spaces:  (1) shock; (2) pulse; (3) tachycardia; (4) bradycardia; (5) systolic blood pressure; (6) diastolic blood pressure. 

    Correct Answer
    5
    Explanation
    Systolic blood pressure refers to the highest force with which blood pushes against arterial walls during ventricular contraction.

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  • 29. 

    Returns oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetal liver.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    5
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 5. The umbilical vein returns oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetal liver.

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  • 30. 

    An opening in the septum between the right and left atria.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    3
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 3. The foramen ovale is an opening in the septum between the right and left atria of the heart. During fetal development, this opening allows oxygenated blood to bypass the lungs and flow directly from the right atrium to the left atrium. After birth, when the baby takes its first breath, the foramen ovale typically closes, allowing blood to flow normally through the heart and lungs.

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  • 31. 

    Becomes the ligamentum venosum after birth.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    1
    Explanation
    After birth, the ductus venosus becomes the ligamentum venosum.

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  • 32. 

    Passes blood from the fetus to the placenta.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    4
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 4. The umbilical arteries are responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta.

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  • 33. 

    Bypasses the nonfunctioning lungs; becomes the ligamentum arteriosum at birth.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    2
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 2. The ductus arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta, bypassing the nonfunctioning lungs. At birth, it becomes the ligamentum arteriosum, a fibrous band that closes off the connection between the two blood vessels.

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  • 34. 

    Becomes the medial umbilical ligaments at birth.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    4
    Explanation
    At birth, the umbilical arteries become the medial umbilical ligaments. This is because the umbilical arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta, are no longer needed once the baby is born. They close off and become fibrous cords known as the medial umbilical ligaments. These ligaments are remnants of the fetal circulatory system and can be seen on the inner surface of the abdominal wall.

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  • 35. 

    Transports oxygenated blood into the inferior vena cava.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    1
    Explanation
    The correct answer is (1) ductus venosus. The ductus venosus is a blood vessel that connects the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava in the fetus. It allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver and enter the systemic circulation.

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  • 36. 

    Becomes the ligamentum teres at birth.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    5
    Explanation
    At birth, the umbilical vein becomes the ligamentum teres. The ligamentum teres is a fibrous remnant of the umbilical vein that runs along the free edge of the falciform ligament in the liver. It is a non-functional structure and serves as a landmark in anatomical dissections.

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  • 37. 

    Becomes the fossa ovalis after birth.  Enter choice 1-5 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) ductus venosus; (2) ductus arteriosus; (3) foramen ovale; (4) umbilical arteries; (5) umbilical vein

    Correct Answer
    3
    Explanation
    The foramen ovale is a small opening between the two atria in the fetal heart that allows blood to bypass the non-functioning lungs. After birth, when the baby starts to breathe on its own, the foramen ovale closes and becomes the fossa ovalis, a depression in the interatrial septum. This closure is important to ensure that oxygenated blood flows properly through the heart and to the rest of the body.

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  • 38. 

    Supplies blood to the large intestine.  Enter choice 1-13 without parenthesis or spaces: (1) superior mesentric vein; (2) inferior mesentric artery; (3) pulmonary veins; (4) brachial artery; (5) hepatic portal; (6) carotid arteries; (7) jugular veins; (8) celiac trunk; (9) common iliac arteries; (10) azygos veins; (11) renal artery; (12) great saphenous vein; (13) pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    2
    Explanation
    The correct answer is (2) inferior mesenteric artery. The inferior mesenteric artery is responsible for supplying blood to the large intestine.

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