Chapter 13 Culture Change: Theories And Processes

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Chapter 13 Culture Change: Theories And Processes - Quiz

The questions in this quiz are not of my creation. They are solely used as study material.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    To say that a culture operates as a system means that:

    • A.

      Cultural systems never change

    • B.

      When one part of the system changes all other parts change

    • C.

      When one part of the system changes some other parts have to change as well

    • D.

      Changes never take place randomly within a cultural system

    Correct Answer
    C. When one part of the system changes some other parts have to change as well
    Explanation
    When one part of a cultural system changes, it can have a ripple effect on other parts of the system. This is because cultural systems are interconnected and interdependent, with various elements influencing and shaping each other. Therefore, a change in one aspect of the system can necessitate changes in other related aspects to maintain balance and coherence within the culture. This understanding highlights the dynamic and interconnected nature of cultural systems, where changes are not isolated but rather have broader implications.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following was invented, as opposed to discovered?

    • A.

      The radioactive properties of uranium

    • B.

      He laws of relativity

    • C.

      The nature of a nuclear chain reaction

    • D.

      The atomic bomb

    Correct Answer
    D. The atomic bomb
    Explanation
    The atomic bomb was invented, as opposed to discovered, because it was a man-made creation resulting from scientific research and technological development. The other options mentioned in the question involve natural phenomena or scientific principles that were discovered through observation and experimentation. In contrast, the atomic bomb was a deliberate invention by scientists and engineers who harnessed the knowledge of nuclear chain reactions and applied it to create a powerful weapon.

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  • 3. 

    Ways of making and using fire is an example of:

    • A.

      A discovery

    • B.

      Inventions

    • C.

      Diffusion

    • D.

      Revolution

    Correct Answer
    B. Inventions
    Explanation
    The ways of making and using fire are considered inventions because they were created by humans through experimentation and innovation. Inventions refer to the process of creating something new or improving upon existing technology or methods. In this case, humans discovered how to create and control fire, which revolutionized their ability to cook food, stay warm, and protect themselves. The invention of fire also had a significant impact on human civilization, leading to the development of various other technologies and advancements.

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  • 4. 

    The wheel was invented in the ancient New World but was only used for children's toys because:

    • A.

      The people were not advanced enough to expand their discovery

    • B.

      The technological skills and knowledge were not present for more complex uses

    • C.

      There were no other practical uses for the wheel where it was invented

    • D.

      The people had nothing to transport that warranted wheeled vehicles

    Correct Answer
    C. There were no other practical uses for the wheel where it was invented
    Explanation
    The wheel was only used for children's toys in the ancient New World because there were no other practical uses for it where it was invented. This suggests that the people in that region did not have a need for wheeled vehicles or other applications of the wheel, possibly due to factors such as the terrain, lack of large-scale agriculture or trade, or cultural practices that did not require transportation of heavy loads.

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  • 5. 

    Only about ______ percent of a society's cultural inventory, on average, is invented within that society.

    • A.

      90%

    • B.

      50%

    • C.

      25%

    • D.

      10%

    Correct Answer
    D. 10%
    Explanation
    On average, only about 10% of a society's cultural inventory is invented within that society. This means that the majority of a society's cultural inventory is borrowed or adopted from other societies. This highlights the interconnectedness and influence of different cultures on each other. It also suggests that cultural innovation and invention are relatively rare occurrences within a society, with the majority of cultural elements being passed down and adapted from previous generations or borrowed from other cultures.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is NOT true of the process of diffusion?

    • A.

      It accounts for most a society's cultural inventory

    • B.

      Diffused items are usually modified to fit the receiving society's culture

    • C.

      Some potentially borrowed items are rejected by the receiving society

    • D.

      The U.S. is unique in that most of our cultural items were invented here

    Correct Answer
    D. The U.S. is unique in that most of our cultural items were invented here
    Explanation
    The process of diffusion refers to the spread of cultural traits or ideas from one society to another. It is not true that the U.S. is unique in that most of our cultural items were invented here. Diffusion involves the borrowing and adoption of cultural items from other societies, so it is expected that some cultural items in the U.S. have been borrowed from other cultures.

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  • 7. 

    Syncretism is:

    • A.

      When aspects of a culture all change together

    • B.

      A synonym for a West Indian religious tradition

    • C.

      The blending of new religious practices with traditional ones

    • D.

      Following newly created religious beliefs

    Correct Answer
    C. The blending of new religious practices with traditional ones
    Explanation
    Syncretism refers to the process of blending new religious practices with traditional ones. It involves the incorporation and integration of elements from different belief systems into a cohesive whole. This can occur when cultures come into contact with one another, leading to the adoption and adaptation of certain religious practices. Syncretism allows for the coexistence and fusion of diverse religious traditions, resulting in the creation of unique and hybrid belief systems.

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  • 8. 

    Acculturation is:

    • A.

      The process where young people learn the cultural norms of their society

    • B.

      Voluntary culture change generated from within a society

    • C.

      The violent forcing of one society's culture upon another

    • D.

      A rapid, extensive diffusion of cultural items from a dominant culture

    Correct Answer
    D. A rapid, extensive diffusion of cultural items from a dominant culture
    Explanation
    Acculturation refers to the rapid and extensive diffusion of cultural items from a dominant culture to another society. This process involves the adoption and integration of cultural norms, values, and practices by individuals or groups within the receiving society. It typically occurs through contact and interaction between different cultures, leading to the transfer of ideas, beliefs, technology, and other cultural elements. Acculturation can result in changes in language, behavior, customs, and social institutions, as well as the formation of hybrid or blended cultural identities.

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  • 9. 

    The cargo cults of the South Pacific are examples of:

    • A.

      Diffusion

    • B.

      Acculturation

    • C.

      Revolution

    • D.

      Invention

    Correct Answer
    B. Acculturation
    Explanation
    The cargo cults of the South Pacific are examples of acculturation because they involve the adoption and incorporation of elements from a different culture. These cults emerged during and after World War II when indigenous people witnessed the arrival of Western military personnel and saw the abundance of goods and resources they possessed. In an attempt to replicate this wealth, the local populations began practicing rituals and building structures similar to what they observed. This process of cultural exchange and adaptation is known as acculturation.

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  • 10. 

    Revolution:

    • A.

      Is always violent

    • B.

      Is seldom violent

    • C.

      Is usually instigated by the young

    • D.

      Always involves changes from within a society

    Correct Answer
    D. Always involves changes from within a society
    Explanation
    Revolution refers to a significant and radical change in a society's political, social, or economic structure. It is not necessarily always violent, as revolutions can occur through peaceful means such as protests or civil disobedience. However, it does involve changes from within a society, indicating that the transformation originates from the existing system. The statement does not mention the age group involved or the frequency of violence in revolutions.

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  • 11. 

    The process of change that may be thought of as rapid diffusion under the influence of a more dominant society is:

    • A.

      Revolution

    • B.

      Cultural borrowing

    • C.

      Acculturation

    • D.

      Stimulus diffusion

    Correct Answer
    C. Acculturation
    Explanation
    Acculturation refers to the process of cultural change that occurs when two different cultures come into contact and interact with each other. It involves the adoption and incorporation of elements from one culture into another, often as a result of social, economic, or political pressure. In the given context, acculturation can be seen as the process of rapid diffusion of cultural traits from a more dominant society to a less dominant one. This can lead to significant changes in the less dominant society's beliefs, values, customs, and practices, ultimately resulting in cultural transformation.

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  • 12. 

    The process of change that may be thought of a rapid invention is:

    • A.

      Revolution

    • B.

      Cultural borrowing

    • C.

      Acculturation

    • D.

      Stimulus diffusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Revolution
    Explanation
    Revolution refers to a process of rapid and fundamental change. It often involves a complete overthrow or transformation of existing systems or structures. In the context of the question, revolution can be seen as the most suitable explanation for rapid invention because it implies a significant and abrupt shift in ideas, technologies, or practices. Cultural borrowing, acculturation, and stimulus diffusion may involve the exchange or adoption of ideas, but they do not necessarily imply a rapid or revolutionary change.

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  • 13. 

    When knowledge of a cultural trait in one society motivates the contrivance of a similar trait it is called:

    • A.

      Revolution

    • B.

      Stimulus diffusion

    • C.

      Acculturation

    • D.

      Invention

    Correct Answer
    B. Stimulus diffusion
    Explanation
    Stimulus diffusion refers to the process where knowledge of a cultural trait in one society inspires the creation or modification of a similar trait in another society. This can occur through direct contact or through the spread of information and ideas. It involves the diffusion of the stimulus or inspiration, rather than the complete adoption of the trait itself. In this case, the correct answer suggests that when a cultural trait motivates the creation of a similar trait in another society, it is an example of stimulus diffusion.

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  • 14. 

    The school of thought that proposed that all societies pass through the same series of cultural stages is called:

    • A.

      Classical or unilineal evolutionism

    • B.

      Diffusionism

    • C.

      Kulturkreise

    • D.

      Cultural materialism

    Correct Answer
    A. Classical or unilineal evolutionism
    Explanation
    Classical or unilineal evolutionism is the correct answer because it refers to the school of thought that suggests that all societies go through a similar sequence of cultural stages, progressing from simple to complex. This theory was popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. It posits that societies evolve in a linear fashion, with each stage building upon the previous one. This perspective has been criticized for its ethnocentric and Eurocentric biases, but it played a significant role in the development of anthropology as a discipline.

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  • 15. 

    Which is NOT a reason why the school of classical or unilineal evolutionism has been discounted?

    • A.

      It placed too much emphasis on independent invention

    • B.

      It relied on a predetermined scheme into which new data were forced

    • C.

      It ignored that fact that some societies never change

    • D.

      It was ethnocentric

    Correct Answer
    C. It ignored that fact that some societies never change
    Explanation
    The school of classical or unilineal evolutionism has been discounted because it ignored the fact that some societies never change. This means that the theory failed to recognize that certain societies can remain stagnant or resistant to change, which goes against the idea of linear progress and development proposed by classical evolutionism.

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  • 16. 

    Edward B. Tyler and Lewis Henry Morgan are associated with:

    • A.

      Classical or unilineal evolutionism

    • B.

      Diffusionism

    • C.

      Kulturkreise

    • D.

      Cultural materialism

    Correct Answer
    A. Classical or unilineal evolutionism
    Explanation
    Edward B. Tyler and Lewis Henry Morgan are associated with classical or unilineal evolutionism, which is a theoretical framework in anthropology that suggests that all societies progress through a series of stages, from simple to complex, in a linear fashion. This perspective views cultural change as a result of internal factors, such as technological advancements or social organization, rather than external influences. Tyler and Morgan were prominent figures in the development of this theory, emphasizing the idea of cultural evolution and the notion that societies evolve from a primitive state to a more advanced one.

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  • 17. 

    In classical or unilineal evolutionism the stage of civilization is characterized by the presence of:

    • A.

      Fire

    • B.

      Pottery

    • C.

      Writing

    • D.

      Metallurgy

    Correct Answer
    C. Writing
    Explanation
    In classical or unilineal evolutionism, the stage of civilization is characterized by the presence of writing. Writing is considered a significant development in human civilization as it allows for the recording and preservation of information, communication across time and space, and the development of complex societies. The presence of writing indicates a higher level of social organization, intellectual advancement, and cultural complexity. It is a key feature that distinguishes civilization from earlier stages of human development.

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  • 18. 

    In classical or unilineal evolutionism the stage of barbarism is characterized by the presence of:

    • A.

      Fire

    • B.

      The bow and arrow

    • C.

      Phonetic alphabets

    • D.

      Domestication and pottery

    Correct Answer
    A. Fire
    Explanation
    In classical or unilineal evolutionism, the stage of barbarism is characterized by the presence of fire. Fire was a significant technological advancement for early human societies during this stage. It provided warmth, protection, and the ability to cook food, which improved nutrition and allowed for the consumption of a wider range of foods. Fire also played a crucial role in the development of various crafts and tools, such as pottery, which emerged later in the stage of barbarism.

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  • 19. 

    The diffusionist school of thought:

    • A.

      Emphasized the diffusion of cultural items among all societies

    • B.

      Discounted diffusion as an important process of culture change

    • C.

      Proposed that important cultural items arose in one or a few societies

    • D.

      Proposed that all important cultural items first arose in Greece

    Correct Answer
    C. Proposed that important cultural items arose in one or a few societies
    Explanation
    The diffusionist school of thought proposed that important cultural items arose in one or a few societies. This means that they believed that certain cultural elements, such as technology, ideas, or customs, originated in specific societies and then spread to other societies through cultural diffusion. This perspective suggests that cultural change and innovation are not evenly distributed among all societies, but rather occur in specific places and then spread to others.

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  • 20. 

    One group of the diffusionist school thought all important complex cultural items first arose in:

    • A.

      Greece

    • B.

      Rome

    • C.

      China

    • D.

      Egypt

    Correct Answer
    D. Egypt
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Egypt because this group of diffusionists believed that Egypt was the origin of all important complex cultural items. They argued that Egyptian civilization was highly advanced and influential, and that cultural innovations and ideas spread from Egypt to other civilizations, including Greece, Rome, and China. This theory suggests that Egypt played a crucial role in the development and dissemination of cultural practices and technologies.

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  • 21. 

    The Kulturkreise school felt that important cultural innovations:

    • A.

      First arose in Germany

    • B.

      Spread in widening circles from several cultural centers

    • C.

      Dismisses the idea of less advanced cultures

    • D.

      Explains less advanced cultures as those pushed to marginal areas

    Correct Answer
    B. Spread in widening circles from several cultural centers
    Explanation
    The Kulturkreise school believed that important cultural innovations originated in Germany and then spread outwards in expanding circles from various cultural centers. This theory rejects the notion of less advanced cultures and instead explains them as being pushed to the periphery or marginal areas.

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  • 22. 

    Franz Boas is associated with what school of anthropological theory?

    • A.

      Kulturkreise

    • B.

      Diffusionist

    • C.

      Historical particularism

    • D.

      Unilineal evolutionism

    Correct Answer
    C. Historical particularism
    Explanation
    Franz Boas is associated with historical particularism, which is a school of anthropological theory that emphasizes the uniqueness of each culture and rejects the idea of universal laws of cultural development. Boas believed that each culture should be studied in its own historical context, and that cultural traits are not necessarily connected or influenced by other cultures. This approach challenged the prevailing idea of unilineal evolutionism, which proposed that cultures evolve in a linear and progressive manner. Boas's emphasis on cultural relativism and the importance of fieldwork greatly influenced the development of modern anthropology.

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  • 23. 

    Which was NOT a focus of the historical particularism school of thought?

    • A.

      Importance of field work and data collection

    • B.

      Holism and cultural relativity

    • C.

      Search of general laws of cultural evolution

    • D.

      Importance of the relationship between culture and environment

    Correct Answer
    C. Search of general laws of cultural evolution
    Explanation
    The historical particularism school of thought did not focus on the search for general laws of cultural evolution. Instead, it emphasized the importance of field work and data collection, holism and cultural relativity, and the relationship between culture and environment. This approach rejected the idea that there are universal laws or patterns that can explain cultural evolution and instead emphasized the uniqueness and specificity of each culture.

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  • 24. 

    The process of invention is analogous to what process of biological evolution?

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Mutation

    • C.

      Gene flow

    • D.

      Genetic drift

    Correct Answer
    B. Mutation
    Explanation
    The process of invention is analogous to the process of mutation in biological evolution. Invention involves the creation of new ideas, technologies, or products, which is similar to how mutation introduces new genetic variations in organisms. Both processes contribute to the generation of diversity and innovation. Just as mutation can lead to beneficial adaptations in species, inventions can lead to advancements and improvements in various fields. Therefore, the analogy between the process of invention and mutation in biological evolution is appropriate.

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  • 25. 

    The process of diffusion is analogous to what process of biological evolution?

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Mutation

    • C.

      Gene flow

    • D.

      Genetic drift

    Correct Answer
    C. Gene flow
    Explanation
    The process of diffusion is analogous to gene flow in biological evolution. Diffusion refers to the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Similarly, gene flow is the transfer of genetic material from one population to another. Both processes involve the spread and mixing of traits or particles, leading to increased genetic diversity and potential for adaptation.

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  • Mar 20, 2023
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