Parties use technology more effectively
Groups tend to be policy specialists while parties tend to be policy generalists.
The group's main arena is the electoral system.
Parties seek many access points in the government.
Group theory of politics
Hyper pluralist theory
Is a part of traditional democratic theory
Supports the idea that elites run the government
Sees groups as an important linkage institution
States that groups have become too powerful
Groups are extremely unequal in power.
Groups usually play by the rules of the game.
Groups weak in one resource can use another.
Real power is held by relatively few key groups.
The power of a few is fortified by an extensive system of interlocking directorates.
The real game of group politics is the one played by the corporate elites.
Groups provide an effective check on elite power.
It is open to too many groups.
It benefits the few at the expense of the many.
It disperses power among a wide range of groups.
Legislators have become immune to group pressures.
Interest group leaders
Congressional committees and subcommittees.
The group theory of politics
A sub government
Elite control of government
Groups have become too powerful int the political process.
Interest group liberalism is aggravated by numerous sub governments.
The result of group conflict is contradictory and confusing policy.
All the above.
More government support it receives.
More it behaves like a party.
Less effective it is.
More specialized it becomes.
Is composed of people who share a common interest
Is usually smaller than an actual group
Is composed of only active group members
Always consists of all consumers.
Can be packaged and sold separately.
Can be withheld from any group member
Are available only to members of the actual group who secure them.
Are shared by members of the potential group.
Are actual group members
Avoid collective goods
Aggravate large groups more than small groups
Automatically share in selective benefits.
The problems of public interest lobbies
Why small groups are easier to organize
Why large groups are less effective
The successes of the Consumers Union
They are the same as public interest lobbies
They have narrow interests
The dislike compromise
They single-mindedly pursue their goals
The Tax Reform Act eliminated all but a very few loopholes.
The Tax Reform Act is a classic example of how PACs can influence votes.
The Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee was Congress's top PAC recipient during the tax reform struggle.
Senator Packwood turned against lobbyists trying to get his ear on behalf of various tax loopholes.