Ch 4 Human Impact On Land Retake Test

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Ch 4 Human Impact On Land Retake Test - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Coal is a nonrenewable natural resource. Why is coal considered nonrenewable?

    • A.

      Coal will never run out.

    • B.

      No new coal is being produced on Earth.

    • C.

      Coal is used to produce energy and not materials.

    • D.

      Coal is being used faster than it is being produced.

    Correct Answer
    D. Coal is being used faster than it is being produced.
    Explanation
    Coal is considered nonrenewable because it is being used faster than it is being produced. This means that the rate of consumption of coal is higher than the rate at which new coal is being formed or created on Earth. As a result, the available reserves of coal are being depleted over time, making it a finite resource. Once the existing coal reserves are exhausted, there will be no new sources of coal available, making it nonrenewable.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following would be considered a natural resource?

    • A.

      Rock

    • B.

      Plastic

    • C.

      Steel

    • D.

      Concrete

    Correct Answer
    A. Rock
    Explanation
    Rock would be considered a natural resource because it is a naturally occurring solid material composed of minerals. It is found in the Earth's crust and can be used for various purposes such as construction, manufacturing, and decoration. Unlike plastic, steel, and concrete, which are man-made materials, rock is formed through natural geological processes over a long period of time. Therefore, it is considered a natural resource that is abundant in nature and can be utilized for different applications.

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  • 3. 

    Today there are approximately 82,000 registered dams in the United States. Dams like the one shown below are often used to produce electric power. Which of these terms best describes the role of water in this power system?

    • A.

      A created resource

    • B.

      A material resource

    • C.

      An energy resource

    • D.

      A nonrenewable resource

    Correct Answer
    C. An energy resource
    Explanation
    Water plays a crucial role as an energy resource in the power system of dams. By harnessing the force of flowing water, dams are able to generate electricity through hydroelectric power. This renewable energy source is considered an energy resource because it can be continuously replenished through the natural water cycle.

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  • 4. 

    Millions of automobiles are on roads around the world every day. The image below shows one effect of car travel. What does the image best illustrate?

    • A.

      Urbanization

    • B.

      Air pollution

    • C.

      Global warming

    • D.

      Acid precipitation

    Correct Answer
    B. Air pollution
    Explanation
    The image best illustrates air pollution caused by car travel. This can be inferred from the visible smog and smoke emitted from the cars in the image. Air pollution is a significant problem associated with automobiles due to the release of harmful pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. These pollutants can have detrimental effects on human health and the environment.

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  • 5. 

     The burning of fossil fuels can lead to acid precipitation.  What do fossil fuels generate that is needed to form acid precipitation?

    • A.

      Energy

    • B.

      Particulate pollutants

    • C.

      Gas pollutants

    • D.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    C. Gas pollutants
    Explanation
    Fossil fuels generate gas pollutants that are needed to form acid precipitation. When fossil fuels are burned, they release gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) into the atmosphere. These gases can react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals in the air to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3), which are the main components of acid precipitation. These acids can then fall to the ground as rain, snow, fog, or dry particles, causing damage to the environment, ecosystems, and human-made structures.

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  • 6. 

    Lynnette is categorizing natural resources. Which of these is a nonrenewable resource she should include on her list?  

    • A.

      Oil

    • B.

      Water

    • C.

      Solar energy

    • D.

      Wind

    Correct Answer
    A. Oil
    Explanation
    Lynnette should include oil on her list of nonrenewable resources. Oil is a finite resource that takes millions of years to form and cannot be easily replenished. Once it is used up, it cannot be replaced within a human lifetime.

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  • 7. 

    Earth’s surface is mostly water. However, only a small amount of water on Earth is clean freshwater. Why is it important to maintain water quality?

    • A.

      To keep water from evaporating

    • B.

      To keep the ocean levels from lowering

    • C.

      To keep the polar ice caps from melting

    • D.

      To keep water from becoming a nonrenewable resource

    Correct Answer
    D. To keep water from becoming a nonrenewable resource
    Explanation
    It is important to maintain water quality in order to prevent water from becoming a nonrenewable resource. If water becomes contaminated or polluted, it becomes unusable and cannot be replenished easily. By ensuring that water is clean and free from pollutants, we can continue to use it for various purposes such as drinking, agriculture, and industry, without depleting this valuable resource.

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  • 8. 

    Everyone uses natural resources. How do natural resources benefit humans?

    • A.

      Natural resources are low cost.

    • B.

      Natural resources improve lives.

    • C.

      Natural resources are readily available.

    • D.

      Natural resources are in unlimited supply.

    Correct Answer
    B. Natural resources improve lives.
    Explanation
    Natural resources improve lives because they provide essential materials and energy for human survival and development. They offer raw materials for industries, such as timber, minerals, and oil, which are used to produce goods and generate economic growth. Natural resources also provide food, water, and clean air, which are necessary for human health and well-being. Additionally, renewable resources like solar and wind energy offer sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels, reducing pollution and mitigating climate change. Overall, natural resources play a crucial role in supporting human societies and improving their quality of life.

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  • 9. 

    Water pollution can affect the ability of organisms to survive. Which of these statements is true regarding the chemical pollution of water?

    • A.

      Chemical pollution is not regulated

    • B.

      Only a few chemicals dissolve in water.

    • C.

      Chemical pollutants can come from both point-sources and nonpoint-sources.

    • D.

      Chemical pollutants are harmful only if present in very high concentrations.

    Correct Answer
    C. Chemical pollutants can come from both point-sources and nonpoint-sources.
    Explanation
    Chemical pollution can come from both point-sources (such as factories or sewage treatment plants) and nonpoint-sources (such as runoff from agricultural fields or urban areas). This means that various activities and sources can contribute to the contamination of water with chemicals, making it important to regulate and control these sources to prevent water pollution.

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  • 10. 

    How does maintaining water quality help ecosystems?  

    • A.

      It prevents them from becoming deserts.

    • B.

      It prevents pollution from poisoning living things

    • C.

      It helps hydroelectric power plants make more electricity.

    • D.

      It helps freshwater ecosystems obtain more salt water.

    Correct Answer
    B. It prevents pollution from poisoning living things
    Explanation
    Maintaining water quality helps ecosystems by preventing pollution from poisoning living things. When water quality is maintained, it ensures that the water is free from harmful substances or pollutants that can negatively impact the organisms living in the ecosystem. This helps to preserve the health and balance of the ecosystem, allowing the organisms to thrive and maintain their natural functions.

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  • 11. 

    Eutrophication refers to a process of change that takes place in a body of water. Which of the following causes eutrophication?  

    • A.

      CFCs

    • B.

      Acid rain

    • C.

      Thermal Pollution

    • D.

      Additional Nutrients

    Correct Answer
    D. Additional Nutrients
    Explanation
    Eutrophication is caused by the addition of excessive nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, to a body of water. These additional nutrients can come from various sources, including agricultural runoff, sewage, and fertilizer runoff. The excess nutrients promote the growth of algae and other aquatic plants, leading to an overabundance of plant life. As these plants die and decompose, the process consumes oxygen, resulting in oxygen depletion in the water. This can have negative impacts on aquatic organisms and disrupt the balance of the ecosystem.

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  • 12. 

    One job that many governments have is stewardship of Earth’s resources. Stewardship is the careful and responsible management of a resource. Why is stewardship of Earth’s resources important?

    • A.

      It gives people the opportunity to vote.

    • B.

      It keeps governments stable.

    • C.

      It prevents people from using resources.

    • D.

      It ensures that resources will not be polluted or used up too quickly.

    Correct Answer
    D. It ensures that resources will not be polluted or used up too quickly.
    Explanation
    Stewardship of Earth's resources is important because it ensures that resources will not be polluted or used up too quickly. By managing resources carefully and responsibly, governments can prevent overexploitation and depletion of natural resources. This helps to maintain a sustainable balance between resource use and conservation, ensuring that future generations will also have access to these resources. It also helps to protect the environment by preventing pollution and minimizing the negative impact on ecosystems. Overall, stewardship of Earth's resources is crucial for long-term sustainability and the well-being of both present and future generations.

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  • 13. 

    Which rocks can be changed into sediments by weathering and erosion?

    • A.

      Sedimentary

    • B.

      Igneous

    • C.

      Metamorphic

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    All types of rocks, including sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks, can be changed into sediments through the processes of weathering and erosion. Weathering refers to the breakdown of rocks into smaller particles due to exposure to elements like wind, water, and temperature changes. Erosion, on the other hand, involves the transportation and deposition of these weathered particles. Therefore, all three types of rocks can undergo weathering and erosion, leading to the formation of sediments.

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  • 14. 

    Tectonic plates may move because of convection currents that occur in the mantle. What is convection?

    • A.

      The transfer of energy due to the movement of matter.

    • B.

      The transfer of energy through materials in direct contact.

    • C.

      The transfer of energy as earthquake waves.

    • D.

      The process that breaks down rocks.

    Correct Answer
    A. The transfer of energy due to the movement of matter.
    Explanation
    Convection is the transfer of energy due to the movement of matter. In the context of tectonic plates, convection currents occur in the mantle, which is a layer of hot, semi-fluid rock beneath the Earth's crust. These currents are driven by the heat generated from the Earth's core and the radioactive decay of elements in the mantle. As the hot material rises and the cooler material sinks, it creates a circular motion, transferring heat and causing the tectonic plates to move. This movement of the plates leads to various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains.

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  • 15. 

    Scientists think the continents once formed a large, single landmass that broke apart, and the continents slowly drifted to their present locations. What is the name given to this theory?

    • A.

      Continental Drift

    • B.

      Continental Movement

    • C.

      Continental Shelf

    • D.

      Continental Rise

    Correct Answer
    A. Continental Drift
    Explanation
    The theory that explains the movement of continents over time is called Continental Drift. This theory suggests that the continents were once joined together in a supercontinent called Pangaea, which eventually broke apart and drifted to their current positions. This idea was proposed by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century and has since been supported by various lines of evidence, such as the matching coastlines, similar rock formations, and fossil records found on different continents. Continental Drift is a fundamental concept in the field of geology and has greatly contributed to our understanding of Earth's history and the formation of its landforms.

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  • 16. 

    Bart believes that mice exposed to radio waves will become stronger. To experiment he places 10 mice near a radio for 5 hours. Bart also tested a control group of  10 mice that were not  exposed to radio waves. His test consisted of a heavy block of wood that blocked the mice food. He found that 8 out of 10 of the radio waved mice were able to push the block away and only 2 out of 10 of the non-exposed mice were able to do the same. What is the independent variable in Bart's experiment?

    • A.

      The amount of mice exposure to radio waves

    • B.

      The strength of the mice.

    • C.

      The weight of the mice.

    • D.

      Whether the mice live or die.

    Correct Answer
    A. The amount of mice exposure to radio waves
    Explanation
    The independent variable in Bart's experiment is the amount of mice exposure to radio waves. This is because Bart is manipulating the level of exposure to radio waves by placing the mice near a radio for 5 hours. The strength of the mice, the weight of the mice, and whether the mice live or die are not being manipulated by Bart in this experiment.

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  • 17. 

    Scientists use absolute dating to determine

    • A.

      The physical appearance of fossils

    • B.

      The chemical composition of rocks

    • C.

      The numerical age of an object in years

    • D.

      The approximate date of a rock layer or fossil

    Correct Answer
    C. The numerical age of an object in years
    Explanation
    Absolute dating is a scientific method used by scientists to determine the numerical age of an object in years. This technique relies on various methods such as radiometric dating, which measures the decay of radioactive isotopes in rocks or fossils to calculate their age. By analyzing the ratio of parent isotopes to daughter isotopes, scientists can determine the precise age of an object. This is different from relative dating, which only provides an approximate date of a rock layer or fossil based on its position in relation to other geological features.

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  • 18. 

    Adaptation is one of the parts of natural selection. What is an adaptation?

    • A.

      A group of organisms that can mate to produce fertile offspring

    • B.

      A process by which inherited traits in a population change over generations

    • C.

      A process by which individuals that are better adapted are more likely to camoflage themselves to their environment

    • D.

      An inherited trait that improves chances of survival and reproduction for a group of individuals in a population

    Correct Answer
    D. An inherited trait that improves chances of survival and reproduction for a group of individuals in a population
    Explanation
    Adaptation refers to an inherited trait that enhances the likelihood of survival and reproduction for a group of individuals within a population. This trait allows organisms to better adjust to their environment and increases their chances of passing on their genes to the next generation. Through natural selection, individuals with advantageous adaptations have a higher probability of surviving and reproducing, leading to the propagation of these beneficial traits throughout the population over generations.

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  • 19. 

    Several factors can lead to soil erosion. Which of these human activities is most likely to contribute to soil erosion?

    • A.

      Clearing land for farming

    • B.

      Planting trees and vegetation

    • C.

      Designating land as a wildlife habitat

    • D.

      Reducing the amount of livestock in an area

    Correct Answer
    A. Clearing land for farming
    Explanation
    Clearing land for farming is most likely to contribute to soil erosion because it involves removing vegetation and exposing the soil to erosion agents such as wind and water. When the natural vegetation is removed, there are no roots to hold the soil in place, leading to increased erosion. Additionally, the tilling and plowing of the land for farming can further disrupt the soil structure and increase the risk of erosion.

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  • 20. 

    Sustainable practices are activities that can be carried on for years and years without using up all the resources in an area.  A community needs food every year, and a sustainable farm can produce crops every year for that community. Why is it important to use land in a sustainable way?  

    • A.

      It helps save crops and food for future use.

    • B.

      It helps conserve land resources for future use.

    • C.

      It helps a farmer make more money the first year.

    • D.

      It helps a community grow more crops every year.

    Correct Answer
    B. It helps conserve land resources for future use.
    Explanation
    Using land in a sustainable way is important because it helps conserve land resources for future use. By practicing sustainable farming methods, such as crop rotation and soil conservation, the land's fertility and productivity can be maintained over time. This ensures that the land can continue to be used for agriculture in the future, providing a stable source of food for the community. Additionally, conserving land resources helps to preserve biodiversity and protect natural habitats, contributing to the overall health and sustainability of the ecosystem.

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