Cellular Stress And Homeostasis/Stress Adaptation

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| By Grudell
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Grudell
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 374
Questions: 15 | Attempts: 374

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Homeostasis Quizzes & Trivia

This is a quiz that I made to help you guys review this material.
Happy studying! :)
-Gretchen


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    You are providing wound care to a 78 year old male with history of blood clots and diabetes mellitus. He has a wound on his foot that is dry, black, wrinkling, and is clearly separated from the healthy skin. What do you think is going on with this patient?

    • A.

      The patient's skin cells on his foot are undergoing apoptosis to replace those cells with new cells so that is his skin will look younger and healthier.

    • B.

      The patient is exhibiting dry gangrene due to a decrease in arterial blood flow.

    • C.

      The patient has wet gangrene due to an infection.

    • D.

      The patient has a pressure ulcer.

    Correct Answer
    B. The patient is exhibiting dry gangrene due to a decrease in arterial blood flow.
    Explanation
    The patient is exhibiting dry gangrene due to a decrease in arterial blood flow. Dry gangrene occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the affected area, leading to tissue death. The dry, black, wrinkling appearance of the wound, along with the clear separation from healthy skin, are characteristic features of dry gangrene. The patient's history of blood clots and diabetes mellitus may contribute to the decreased arterial blood flow, further supporting this diagnosis.

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  • 2. 

    Select all that apply. Which of the following are physical causes of cellular injury?

    • A.

      Fractures

    • B.

      Alcohol

    • C.

      Burns

    • D.

      Lead

    • E.

      Hypothermia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fractures
    C. Burns
    E. Hypothermia
    Explanation
    Fractures, burns, and hypothermia are physical causes of cellular injury. Fractures can lead to damage of cells and tissues due to the mechanical force applied to the bones. Burns cause damage to cells and tissues through heat or chemical exposure. Hypothermia, which is a condition of abnormally low body temperature, can lead to cellular injury by affecting the normal functioning of cells and tissues. Alcohol and lead, on the other hand, are not physical causes of cellular injury but can cause harm through different mechanisms such as toxicity.

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  • 3. 

    What is the difference between necrosis and apoptosis?

    • A.

      Necrosis is untimely death of the cells. Apoptosis is death of cells that occurs naturally.

    • B.

      There is so difference-- necrosis and apoptosis both are cellular death.

    • C.

      Apoptosis is the untimely death of cells. Necrosis is death of cells that occurs naturally.

    Correct Answer
    A. Necrosis is untimely death of the cells. Apoptosis is death of cells that occurs naturally.
    Explanation
    Necrosis and apoptosis are both forms of cellular death. However, there is a difference between them. Necrosis refers to the untimely death of cells, which can occur due to injury, infection, or other external factors. On the other hand, apoptosis is a natural process of programmed cell death that occurs as a part of normal development, tissue homeostasis, and immune response. Unlike necrosis, apoptosis is a controlled and regulated process that helps in maintaining the balance and functionality of the organism.

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  • 4. 

    Select all that apply. Which of the following describe dystrophic calcification?

    • A.

      Occurs in normal tissues but inappropriate sites

    • B.

      Occurs in injured, dead, or dying tissues

    • C.

      Due to injury or inflammation

    • D.

      Can cause organ dysfunction

    • E.

      Usually due to increased calcium levels

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Occurs in injured, dead, or dying tissues
    C. Due to injury or inflammation
    D. Can cause organ dysfunction
    Explanation
    Dystrophic calcification refers to the deposition of calcium salts in injured, dead, or dying tissues. It occurs as a result of injury or inflammation and can lead to organ dysfunction. This process does not necessarily require increased calcium levels in the body.

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  • 5. 

    What are 3 physiologic changes that occur due to long term stress?

    • A.

      Adrenal atrophy, thymic atrophy, and gastic ulcers

    • B.

      Adrenal enlargement, thymic enlargement, and gastric ulcers

    • C.

      Adrenal enlargement, thymic atrophy, and diaherrea

    • D.

      Adrenal enlargement, thymic atrophy, and gastric ulcers

    Correct Answer
    D. Adrenal enlargement, thymic atrophy, and gastric ulcers
    Explanation
    Long-term stress can lead to adrenal enlargement, thymic atrophy, and gastric ulcers. Adrenal enlargement occurs as a result of the prolonged release of stress hormones such as cortisol from the adrenal glands. Thymic atrophy happens when chronic stress suppresses the immune system, leading to the shrinking of the thymus gland. Gastric ulcers can develop due to increased production of stomach acid and decreased blood flow to the stomach lining caused by stress.

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  • 6. 

    Select all that apply. What effects does long term stress have on the nervous system?

    • A.

      Impaired thinking and memory

    • B.

      Improved concentration

    • C.

      Anxiety and depression

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Impaired thinking and memory
    C. Anxiety and depression
    Explanation
    Long-term stress can have negative effects on the nervous system, including impaired thinking and memory. This is because stress hormones can interfere with the brain's ability to form new memories and retrieve existing ones. Additionally, long-term stress can also lead to anxiety and depression, as it can disrupt the balance of chemicals in the brain that regulate mood and emotions.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following does not correlate with PTSD?

    • A.

      Intrusion/flashbacks

    • B.

      Avoidance

    • C.

      Irritability

    • D.

      Increased cortisol levels

    Correct Answer
    D. Increased cortisol levels
    Explanation
    PTSD, or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, is a mental health condition that can occur after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. Symptoms of PTSD include intrusion/flashbacks, avoidance, and irritability. Increased cortisol levels, which is a stress hormone, are commonly associated with PTSD. However, the given answer states that increased cortisol levels do not correlate with PTSD, which contradicts the known information about the condition. Therefore, the given answer is incorrect.

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  • 8. 

    Describe the three phases of the general adaptation syndrome.

  • 9. 

    You have a patient that was admitted this morning with a 101 degrees farenheit temp.Lab work has been drawn and it shows that your patient has a shift to the left. What does "a shift to the left" mean?

    • A.

      There are high levels of immature neutrophils indicating that the body is trying to fight an infection by sending out neutrophils before they are mature enough.

    • B.

      There are high levels of neutrophils that help the person deal with stress.

    • C.

      There is a low level of neutrophils indicated the the person has an immunodeficiency.

    • D.

      There are low levels of immature netrophils which means the body is fighting off the infection successfully.

    Correct Answer
    A. There are high levels of immature neutrophils indicating that the body is trying to fight an infection by sending out neutrophils before they are mature enough.
    Explanation
    A "shift to the left" refers to an increase in the number of immature neutrophils in the blood. This indicates that the body is responding to an infection by releasing neutrophils before they are fully mature. This is a normal immune response to help fight off the infection.

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  • 10. 

    Select all that apply. What is the purpose of the coagulation cascade?

    • A.

      Prevent the spread of infection

    • B.

      Signal more WBCs to come to the sight of infection

    • C.

      Stop any bleeding

    • D.

      Increase vascular permeability

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Prevent the spread of infection
    C. Stop any bleeding
    D. Increase vascular permeability
    Explanation
    The purpose of the coagulation cascade is to prevent the spread of infection by forming a blood clot to stop any bleeding and seal off the site of injury. Additionally, it helps to increase vascular permeability, allowing immune cells and antibodies to reach the site of infection more easily.

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  • 11. 

    True or false. An eosinophil is a phagocyte that is involved in allergic reactions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergic reactions. It is not a phagocyte, which are cells that engulf and destroy pathogens. Therefore, the statement that an eosinophil is a phagocyte involved in allergic reactions is false.

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  • 12. 

    Why it is necessary to have increased vascular permeability during inflammation?

    • A.

      To allow any bacterial cells to escape the blood vessels

    • B.

      To bring phagocytic cells and antibodies to the area of inflammation

    • C.

      To cause pain for the person so they will be alerted of an inflammatory process occurring in their body

    Correct Answer
    B. To bring phagocytic cells and antibodies to the area of inflammation
    Explanation
    During inflammation, increased vascular permeability is necessary to bring phagocytic cells and antibodies to the area of inflammation. This allows for the migration of immune cells from the blood vessels to the site of infection or injury, where they can eliminate pathogens and promote tissue repair. Increased permeability also facilitates the delivery of antibodies, which can neutralize pathogens and enhance the immune response. This process helps to contain and eliminate the inflammatory stimulus, ultimately leading to resolution of the inflammation.

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