Block 6 Anatomy Abdomen Prt 2

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Block 6 Anatomy Abdomen Prt 2 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not true of a hydrocele?

    • A.

      It can be distinguished from a hematocele by transillumination.

    • B.

      It is typically associated with a direct inguinal hernia

    • C.

      It refers to excess fluid in a persistent processus vaginalis.

    • D.

      It may be confined to the spermatic cord.

    • E.

      It may be associated with inflammation of the epididymis

    Correct Answer
    B. It is typically associated with a direct inguinal hernia
    Explanation
    A hydrocele is a condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the scrotum. It is typically caused by a persistent processus vaginalis, which is a small pouch of peritoneum that extends into the scrotum during fetal development. This condition is not typically associated with a direct inguinal hernia, which is a separate condition involving the protrusion of abdominal contents through the inguinal canal. Therefore, the statement that a hydrocele is typically associated with a direct inguinal hernia is not true.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following associations is incorrect?

    • A.

      Rete testis—opening of the ductus deferens

    • B.

      Testicular arteries—arise from abdominal aorta

    • C.

      Varicocele—dilation of the pampiniform plexus

    • D.

      Epididymis—sperm maturation

    • E.

      Anterior scrotum—innervated by branches from the ilioinguinal and genitofemoral nerves

    Correct Answer
    A. Rete testis—opening of the ductus deferens
    Explanation
    The rete testis is a network of tubules within the testicle that connects the seminiferous tubules to the efferent ductules. It does not directly open into the ductus deferens. The correct association is that the rete testis connects to the efferent ductules, which then open into the ductus deferens.

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  • 3. 

    While removing a cancerous testis, the surgeon inadvertently allowed fluid from the testis to flow over the incised skin of the scrotum. The surgeon should:

    • A.

      Not be concerned about this accident

    • B.

      Be concerned about a potential spread of the cancer to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes

    • C.

      Be concerned about the potential spread of the cancer to lumbar lymph nodes.

    • D.

      Be concerned about the potential spread of the cancer to perineal lymph nodes.

    • E.

      Be concerned about the potential spread of the cancer to penile lymph nodes.

    Correct Answer
    B. Be concerned about a potential spread of the cancer to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes
    Explanation
    The surgeon should be concerned about a potential spread of the cancer to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes because the lymphatic drainage of the testis is primarily to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Any fluid from the testis that comes into contact with the incised skin of the scrotum can potentially carry cancer cells to the lymph nodes, leading to metastasis and further spread of the cancer. Therefore, it is important for the surgeon to be concerned about this accident and take appropriate measures to prevent the spread of cancer.

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  • 4. 

    Technically, the peritoneal cavity:

    • A.

      Contains all the intraperitoneal organs.

    • B.

      Is a closed cavity in both sexes.

    • C.

      Is the potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum.

    • D.

      Is typically open to the testis in the male.

    • E.

      Contains lymph nodes.

    Correct Answer
    C. Is the potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum.
    Explanation
    The peritoneal cavity is the potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum. The parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall, while the visceral peritoneum covers the organs within the abdominal cavity. The peritoneal cavity allows for movement and lubrication of the organs within it. It is not a closed cavity in both sexes, as it is typically open to the testis in males. The fact that it contains lymph nodes is not mentioned in the given options.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following associations is incorrect?

    • A.

      Ruptured appendix—peritonitis

    • B.

      Peritoneal adhesions—volvulus

    • C.

      Withdrawal of urine from bladder—paracentesis

    • D.

      Intraperitoneal injection—rapid rate of absorption

    • E.

      Peritoneal dialysis—removal of wastes from abdominal cavity

    Correct Answer
    C. Withdrawal of urine from bladder—paracentesis
    Explanation
    Paracentesis is a medical procedure that involves the removal of fluid from the peritoneal cavity, typically for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is not used for the withdrawal of urine from the bladder. Therefore, the association between "withdrawal of urine from bladder" and "paracentesis" is incorrect.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to a mesentery?

    • A.

      It is sensitive to laceration near its attachment to organs.

    • B.

      It is a double-layer of peritoneum

    • C.

      It transmits nerves and blood vessels to organs from the body wall

    • D.

      It constitutes a region of continuity between visceral and parietal peritoneum

    • E.

      It contains lymph nodes and vessels

    Correct Answer
    A. It is sensitive to laceration near its attachment to organs.
    Explanation
    The given answer is incorrect because a mesentery is indeed sensitive to laceration near its attachment to organs. Laceration refers to a deep cut or tear in the skin or flesh, which can cause severe damage. Since the mesentery attaches organs to the body wall and contains blood vessels and nerves, any laceration near its attachment can potentially harm these structures. Therefore, the correct statement should be that a mesentery is sensitive to laceration near its attachment to organs.

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  • 7. 

    To minimize the spread of peritoneal fluid via the paracolic gutters from a lower abdominal infection, the patient is placed:

    • A.

      On his right side

    • B.

      On his left side

    • C.

      Supine

    • D.

      Prone

    • E.

      In an inclined position (head and trunk elevated at least 45 degrees).

    Correct Answer
    E. In an inclined position (head and trunk elevated at least 45 degrees).
    Explanation
    Placing the patient in an inclined position with the head and trunk elevated at least 45 degrees helps to minimize the spread of peritoneal fluid via the paracolic gutters from a lower abdominal infection. This position utilizes gravity to prevent the fluid from flowing towards the diaphragm and potentially causing further complications. It allows the fluid to pool in the lower abdomen, reducing the risk of it spreading to other areas of the peritoneal cavity.

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  • 8. 

    The omental bursa:

    • A.

      Is a completely sealed-off recess of the peritoneal cavity.

    • B.

      Is located anterior to the stomach.

    • C.

      Can contain pancreatic fluid following rupture of the pancreas.

    • D.

      Has medial and lateral recesses

    • E.

      Contains the portal vein

    Correct Answer
    C. Can contain pancreatic fluid following rupture of the pancreas.
    Explanation
    The omental bursa is a completely sealed-off recess of the peritoneal cavity located anterior to the stomach. It has medial and lateral recesses and contains the portal vein. However, the most relevant information in this context is that the omental bursa can contain pancreatic fluid following rupture of the pancreas. This suggests that the omental bursa acts as a potential space where pancreatic fluid can accumulate in case of pancreatic injury or rupture.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to the esophagus?

    • A.

      Typically it joins with the stomach at the T11 level.

    • B.

      GERD (gastroesophageal reflex disorder) is associated with pyrosis (heartburn).

    • C.

      Esophageal varices are associated with blockage of the inferior vena cava.

    • D.

      The esophagus is innervated by the vagal trunks and thoracic sympathetic splanchnic nerves.

    • E.

      Its abdominal part is typically supplied by the left gastric artery.

    Correct Answer
    C. Esophageal varices are associated with blockage of the inferior vena cava.
    Explanation
    Esophageal varices are not associated with blockage of the inferior vena cava. Esophageal varices are enlarged veins in the lower part of the esophagus that occur due to increased pressure in the portal vein system, which is often caused by liver cirrhosis. The increased pressure in the portal vein system leads to the development of collateral veins, including esophageal varices. These varices can rupture and cause life-threatening bleeding. Blockage of the inferior vena cava does not directly cause esophageal varices.

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  • 10. 

    The superior mesenteric artery:

    • A.

      Arises from the aorta at the T10 level.

    • B.

      Is accompanied by the superior mesenteric vein on its right.

    • C.

      Gives rise to a series of arterial arcades called vasa recta.

    • D.

      Passes posterior to the horizontal part of the duodenum.

    • E.

      Is accompanied by sympathetic fibers derived from lumbar splanchnic nerves.

    Correct Answer
    B. Is accompanied by the superior mesenteric vein on its right.
    Explanation
    The superior mesenteric artery is accompanied by the superior mesenteric vein on its right. This means that the vein runs parallel to the artery on its right side. This anatomical relationship is important for the venous drainage of the intestines.

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  • 11. 

    Following an automobile accident, a female patient complains of colicky abdominal  pain. She also has been vomiting and her abdomen is distended. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her pain and signs?

    • A.

      Her small bowel has been torn.

    • B.

      The accident freed a small clot from her aorta that subsequently entered and occluded the vasa recta supplying her ileum.

    • C.

      The sympathetic nerve supply to her small bowel has been injured.

    • D.

      Her parietal peritoneum has been lacerated

    • E.

      The accident triggered appendicitis.

    Correct Answer
    B. The accident freed a small clot from her aorta that subsequently entered and occluded the vasa recta supplying her ileum.
    Explanation
    The most likely cause of the patient's pain and signs is the small clot that was freed from her aorta during the accident. This clot then entered and blocked the vasa recta, which are the blood vessels that supply the ileum of the small bowel. This blockage leads to a lack of blood flow and oxygen to the affected area, causing colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, and distension of the abdomen. This explanation is supported by the symptoms described and the mechanism of clot formation and occlusion.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is least likely pertaining to an ileal diverticulum (of Merkel)?

    • A.

      It occurs near the junction between the jejunum and the ileum.

    • B.

      It occurs on the antimesenteric border of the ileum.

    • C.

      It may have a cordlike attachment to the umbilicus.

    • D.

      If inflamed, it may produce symptoms that mimic those of appendicitis.

    • E.

      It may be present in both infants and adults.

    Correct Answer
    A. It occurs near the junction between the jejunum and the ileum.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "It occurs near the junction between the jejunum and the ileum." This is least likely pertaining to an ileal diverticulum because ileal diverticula typically occur on the antimesenteric border of the ileum, not near the junction between the jejunum and the ileum.

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  • 13. 

    Initially appendicitis manifests as diffuse pain in the periumbilical region and later as circumscribed pain in the right lower quadrant. Why?

    • A.

      Because the appendix swells with appendicitis so that it contacts both the anterior and posterior abdominal walls.

    • B.

      Because the pain is first conveyed via vagal parasympathetic fibers and then by somatic fibers in the parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall.

    • C.

      Because the pain is first conveyed via sympathetic fibers that enter the spinal cord at the T10 level and then by somatic fibers in the parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall.

    • D.

      Because the appendix first irritates the subcostal nerve and then the ilioinguinal nerve.

    • E.

      Because the most sensitive afferents of the appendix are those that are associated with the sympathetic fibers that enter the T10 level of the spinal cord, but later less sensitive afferents associated with the lower quadrant become activated.

    Correct Answer
    C. Because the pain is first conveyed via sympathetic fibers that enter the spinal cord at the T10 level and then by somatic fibers in the parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is because the pain is first conveyed via sympathetic fibers that enter the spinal cord at the T10 level and then by somatic fibers in the parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall. This is because the appendix is innervated by sympathetic fibers that enter the spinal cord at the T10 level. Initially, the pain is felt in the periumbilical region due to the convergence of visceral afferents from the appendix and other abdominal structures onto the same level of the spinal cord. As the inflammation progresses, the pain becomes localized to the right lower quadrant due to the somatic fibers in the parietal peritoneum being more sensitive and specific in localizing pain.

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  • 14. 

    The teniae coli:

    • A.

      Are located along the jejunum

    • B.

      Compose the muscular wall of the appendix.

    • C.

      Are found along the walls of the rectum.

    • D.

      Are the most superficial part of the sphincter ani.

    • E.

      May be used during an appendectomy to locate the appendix.

    Correct Answer
    E. May be used during an appendectomy to locate the appendix.
    Explanation
    The teniae coli may be used during an appendectomy to locate the appendix. The teniae coli are three bands of longitudinal muscle that run along the length of the large intestine. They are visible on the outer surface of the colon and can be used as a landmark to locate the appendix during surgery. By following the teniae coli, surgeons can accurately locate the appendix and remove it if necessary. This is an important step in an appendectomy procedure.

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  • 15. 

    The following image is an arteriogram of the superior mesenteric artery and its branches. The artery indicated by the arrow is the:

    • A.

      Superior mesenteric.

    • B.

      Middle colic.

    • C.

      Inferior pancreaticoduodenal.

    • D.

      First jejunal branch.

    • E.

      Ileocolic.

    Correct Answer
    E. Ileocolic.
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, the correct answer is "ileocolic". The image is an arteriogram of the superior mesenteric artery and its branches. The arrow indicates a specific artery, and based on its location and course, it corresponds to the ileocolic artery.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is not correct for the sigmoid arteries?

    • A.

      They traverse the sigmoid mesocolon

    • B.

      They help to form the marginal artery.

    • C.

      They arise from the inferior mesenteric artery.

    • D.

      They typically divide into ascending and descending branches.

    • E.

      They are the main source of blood to the left ureter.

    Correct Answer
    E. They are the main source of blood to the left ureter.
    Explanation
    The sigmoid arteries do not serve as the main source of blood to the left ureter. Instead, they supply blood to the sigmoid colon and rectum. The left ureter receives its blood supply from the renal arteries.

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  • 17. 

    In the following barium-enhanced radiograph, the arrow points to the:

    • A.

      Sigmoid colon.

    • B.

      Ascending colon.

    • C.

      Descending colon.

    • D.

      Duodenum.

    • E.

      Cecum.

    Correct Answer
    A. Sigmoid colon.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sigmoid colon because the arrow is pointing to a segment of the large intestine that is located in the lower left side of the abdomen, which corresponds to the position of the sigmoid colon. The other options, such as ascending colon, descending colon, duodenum, and cecum, are located in different parts of the digestive system and are not consistent with the location indicated by the arrow.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following associations is incorrect?

    • A.

      Crohn disease—chronic inflammation of the colon and rectum

    • B.

      Colonoscopy—visualization of the interior of the colon

    • C.

      Diverticulosis—primarily affects infants

    • D.

      Diverticulitis—hemorrhage

    • E.

      Tumors of the colon—mainly occur in the rectum

    Correct Answer
    C. Diverticulosis—primarily affects infants
  • 19. 

    Your friend was in an automobile accident in which his spleen was ruptured. Which of the following is least likely based on this knowledge?

    • A.

      The accident caused trauma to the left upper abdominal quadrant.

    • B.

      The spleen must be repaired or your friend will die.

    • C.

      The rupture resulted in the escape of red blood cells into the peritoneal cavity.

    • D.

      The inferior lobe of the left lung may also have been injured.

    • E.

      Ribs 9—11 on the left side were fractured.

    Correct Answer
    B. The spleen must be repaired or your friend will die.
    Explanation
    Based on the knowledge that the spleen was ruptured, it is least likely that the spleen must be repaired or your friend will die. While a ruptured spleen can be a serious medical condition that requires immediate attention, it does not necessarily mean that the spleen must be repaired in order for the friend to survive. In some cases, the spleen may be removed or the bleeding may be controlled without repairing the spleen. Other options such as blood transfusions or surgical interventions may be considered to manage the situation.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is incorrect pertaining to the pancreas?

    • A.

      The superior mesenteric artery lies anterior to its neck.

    • B.

      Its head is embraced mainly by the descending part of the duodenum.

    • C.

      It is retroperitoneal

    • D.

      Its main duct joins with the common bile duct before entering the duodenum

    • E.

      It is partially supplied by branches from the splenic artery.

    Correct Answer
    A. The superior mesenteric artery lies anterior to its neck.
    Explanation
    The superior mesenteric artery does not lie anterior to the neck of the pancreas.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following associations is incorrect?Which of the following associations is incorrect?

    • A.

      Gallstone in hepatopancreatic ampulla—pancreatitis

    • B.

      Sudden, severe, forceful compression of the abdomen—rupture of the pancreas

    • C.

      Pancreatectomy—removal of most of the pancreas

    • D.

      Cancer of the head of the pancreas—jaundice

    • E.

      Pancreatic cancer—rarely metastasizes

    Correct Answer
    E. Pancreatic cancer—rarely metastasizes
    Explanation
    Pancreatic cancer is known to have a high rate of metastasis, meaning it can spread to other parts of the body. This is because the pancreas is rich in blood vessels and lymphatic channels that allow cancer cells to travel to distant sites. Therefore, the association between pancreatic cancer and rarely metastasizing is incorrect.

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  • 22. 

    In the following enhanced radiograph of the biliary system, the arrow points to the:

    • A.

      Cystic duct.

    • B.

      Left hepatic duct.

    • C.

      Common hepatic duct.

    • D.

      (common) bile duct.

    • E.

      Pancreatic duct.

    Correct Answer
    B. Left hepatic duct.
    Explanation
    The arrow in the enhanced radiograph is pointing to the left hepatic duct. This can be determined by analyzing the anatomy of the biliary system and identifying the structures present in the image. The left hepatic duct is one of the main ducts that carries bile from the liver. It is located on the left side of the liver and connects to the common hepatic duct. Therefore, based on the information provided, the correct answer is the left hepatic duct.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 24, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly
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