At the level of the sacral promontory
Fascial layers of the abdominal wall that are deep to the peritoneum.
Superficial and deep (respectively) fascial layers of the posterior abdominal wall.
Superficial and deep layers (respectively) of the rectus sheath.
Fatty and membranous layers (respectively) of the superficial fascia of the inferior anterior abdominal wall.
Fatty and membranous fascial layers (respectively) of the perineum.
Run inferomedially from their superior attachment
Run inferolaterally from their superior attachment
Pass deep to the linea alba
Pass deep to the inguinal ligament.
Pierces the peritoneum immediately prior to entering the deep surface of the muscle.
Is derived from the sympathetic trunk
Travels between the internal oblique and transverses abdominis muscles.
Also innervates the diaphragm
Is derived from sacral ventral rami
The linea alba separates (lies in the midline between) the two rectus muscles.
The attachments (tendinous insertions) between the muscle and the anterior layer of sheath account for the abdominal definition (ripples) evident when muscular individuals tense this muscle.
The posterior layer of the sheath is composed of the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and the transversalis fascia throughout the extent of the sheath.
The external oblique aponeurosis contributes to the anterior wall of the sheath throughout the craniocaudal extent of the sheath.
Transverse surgical incisions can be made in this muscle without resulting in muscle fiber necrosis.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
Abdominal organ enlargement
Leakage of fluid through the umbilicus.
Umbilical hernias are more common in women.
Umbilical eversion is associated with increased intraabdominal pressure.
Underlying the umbilicus is the umbilical ring.
All layers of the anterolateral abdominal wall fuse at the umbilicus.
The umbilicus is in the L1 dermatome.
It is called "guarding."
It may indicate an inflamed appendix.
Functionally, these spasmodic muscular contractions are an attempt to protect the underlying viscera.
It is best observed when the patient is perfectly supine.
The impulses for muscular contractions are carried through the ventral rami of the inferior thoracic and first lumbar nerves.
The McBurney point is identified
An almost transverse or an oblique (McBurney) incision may be used.
The subcostal nerve is identified and preserved
The iliohypogastric nerve is identified and preserved.
If gridiron incisions are used, there is no loss of strength in the ability of the anterolateral abdominal muscles to resist intraabdominal pressure.
Requires a larger incision than traditional surgery and is only used for obese patients
Is more likely to result in incisional hernias
Requires less time for healing than conventional surgery
Refers to a procedure whereby the lower six thoracic nerves are anesthetized allowing the patient to be awake during abdominal surgery
Refers to a procedure whereby abdominal surgery is performed via instruments passed through the alimentary tract
Inferior epigastric artery.
First lumbar artery.
T12 intercostal nerve.
Median umbilical fold—urachus
Medial umbilical folds—obliterated parts of umbilical arteries
Lateral umbilical folds—inferior epigastric arteries
Falciform ligament—connects internal aspect of superior abdominal wall to lesser omentum
Falciform ligament—paraumbilical veins
It is composed of the aponeurotic fibers of the external oblique muscle.
It extends primarily between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle.
It is often perforated by a direct inguinal hernia.
It has fibers that cross the midline to help form the reflected inguinal ligament.
It is paralleled deeply by the iliopubic tract, which is composed of transversalis fascia.
Fundus of the stomach.
Inferior margin of the liver.
It is an opening in the peritoneum.
It is located lateral to the inferior epigastric artery.
It transmits the spermatic cord in males
It transmits the round ligament of the uterus in females
It forms the deep entrance to the inguinal canal
It transmits an indirect inguinal hernia.
It is traversed prenatally by the processes vaginalis, which later occludes.
It is traversed prenatally by the primordial testis.
Its roof is formed by the inguinal ligament.
Its superficial opening is the superficial (external) inguinal ring.
Inflammation of the inguinal triangle.
An undescended testis.
An enlargement of the round ligament of the uterus.
Fluid in the inguinal canal
The abnormal descent of an ovary into the inguinal canal.
Twitching of the skin in the hypogastric region
Closing of the labia
Contraction of the dartos muscle
A femoral hernia.
A direct inguinal hernia.
An undescended testis.
A supravesical hernia.