Block 10 Antiretroviral Transplant Immunology

12 Questions | Total Attempts: 281

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Immunology Quizzes & Trivia

Tumor progession


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A 37-year-old HIV0-positive homosexual man presented to the immunodeficiency clinic for a follow up visit. His CD4 lymphocyte count was found 300 cells/mcL. An HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) was initiated. Which of the following triple drug regimen was most likely used?
    • A. 

      Flucytosine + acyclovir + saquinavir

    • B. 

      Didanosine+ ganciclovir +zidovudine

    • C. 

      Vidarabine + foscarnet +didanosine

    • D. 

      Ribavirin + saquinavir + zidovudine

    • E. 

      Zidovudine + lamivudine + saquinavir

  • 2. 
    A 28-year-old, HIV positive man with an extensive history of treatment with many antiretroviral agents, is presently following an antiretroviral therapy which includes saquinavir. Which of the following steps of the viral growth cycle is inhibited by this drug?
    • A. 

      Attachment

    • B. 

      Penetration

    • C. 

      Uncoating

    • D. 

      Early translation

    • E. 

      Transcription

    • F. 

      Late translation

    • G. 

      Proteolytic cleavage

  • 3. 
    A 34-year-old man with AIDS presented to the clinic for a follow up visit. He was concerned because he noticed a growth on his neck. He has been following an HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) for 4 months. Physical examination disclosed an accumulation of fat on his upper back. Pertinent lab results were: total cholesterol 380 mg/dL, triglycerides 420 mg/dL, blood glucose 240 mg/dL. These lab values were within normal limits before starting the HAART. Which of the following drugs most likely caused the signs and the lab values of this patient?
    • A. 

      Amantadine

    • B. 

      Foscarnet

    • C. 

      Enfuvirtide

    • D. 

      Atazanavir

    • E. 

      Saquinavir

  • 4. 
    A 37-year-old woman with AIDS was found to have a CD4 lymphocyte count of 45 cell/mm at the last control visit. The patient had an extensive history of treatment with 3 h a variety of antiretroviral drugs and has been currently taking zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir. The physician decided to add a new drug that prevents fusion and penetration of the HIV into the host’s cell. Which of the following drugs was most likely prescribed?
    • A. 

      Ribavirin

    • B. 

      Amantadine

    • C. 

      Didanosine

    • D. 

      Enfuvirtide

    • E. 

      Indinavir

    • F. 

      Saquinavir

  • 5. 
    ) A 32-year-old man was diagnosed with HIV and was treated with an antiviral drug. Two months later, he developed nephrolithiasis, insulin resistance, fat redistribution and hyperlipidemia. Which of the following antiviral agents most likely caused these adverse effects?
    • A. 

      Efavirenz

    • B. 

      Indinavir

    • C. 

      Zidovudine

    • D. 

      Raltegravir

  • 6. 
    What is the rationale behind treating an HIV patient with a protease inhibitor?
    • A. 

      Curb viral proliferation by inhibiting the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    • B. 

      Curb viral proliferation by preventing viral integration in infected cells

    • C. 

      Curb viral proliferation by preventing reverse transcription in infected cells

    • D. 

      Curb viral proliferation by preventing viral assembly following infection

    • E. 

      Curb viral proliferation by preventing viral fusion and entry in the first place

  • 7. 
    A 36-year-old HIV-infected man has displayed a steady increase in his viral load over the past 5-months.  Molecular diagnostics reveal that the strain of HIV-1 he is infected with has developed a mutation in the active site of the reverse transcriptase enzyme.  His treating physician removes the drug emtricitabine from his HAART regimen, and replaces it with a drug that targets the same enzyme and which his viral strain shows an increased susceptibility to.  Which of the following drugs is added to this patient’s HAART regimen?
    • A. 

      Abacavir

    • B. 

      Lamivudine

    • C. 

      Raltegravir

    • D. 

      Lopinavir

    • E. 

      Delavirdine

  • 8. 
    A composite virus has the nucleic of poliovirus and the capsid of hepatitis A. If a permissive host can be found, what would be the outcome be?
    • A. 

      Pure hepatitis A

    • B. 

      More composite virus

    • C. 

      Pure poliovirus

    • D. 

      A mixture of hepatitis A, poliovirus and composite virus

  • 9. 
    A 45-year-old man presents with an ulcerating lesion at the inner canthus of right eye. A biopsy shows a malignant tumor composed of basaloid cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The tumor cells show prominent nuclear palisading. Which of the following features best describes the most likely initial mode of spread of the patient’s tumor?
    • A. 

      Distant metastasis

    • B. 

      Local tissue invasion

    • C. 

      Seeding of body cavities

    • D. 

      Hematogenous spread

    • E. 

      Lymphatic spread

  • 10. 
    A 70-year-old male present with painless hematuria. Cystoscopy shows a malignant tumor invading deep into the muscle layer. The tumor is composed of pleomorphic, anaplastic cells with nuclear atypia and many mitotic figures. Which of the following features refer to his stage of the disease rather than the grade of tumor?
    • A. 

      High number of mitotic figures

    • B. 

      High degree of anaplasia

    • C. 

      Tumor penetration into muscular layer

    • D. 

      Higher nuclear atypia

    • E. 

      Degree of pleomorphism

  • 11. 
    Organ grafts between genetically identical individuals such as identical twins are characterized by the following statement:
    • A. 

      Not rejected even with no immunosuppression

    • B. 

      Subject to hyperacute rejection

    • C. 

      Rejected slowly due to minor histocompatibility antigens

    • D. 

      Subject to chronic rejection

    • E. 

      Rejected immediately due to alloincompatibility

  • 12. 
    A patient requires a bone marrow transplant and his brother volunteers to be the donor. Serological tests reveal complete compatibility between the donor and recipient. The laboratory carried out mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) between donor and recipient with the following result:  a large increase in numbers of the non-irradiated cells of the brother, but minimal increase in numbers of the non-irradiated cells of the patient. What would be the most likely outcome?
    • A. 

      Hyperacute graft rejection

    • B. 

      Graft versus host disease

    • C. 

      Host versus graft reaction

    • D. 

      Long term graft survival

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