Biosciences 2 Exam (Ch. 22-24)

61 Questions | Total Attempts: 167

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Biology Quizzes & Trivia

Biology examn based on chapter 22 through 26 on the campbell-reese biology text 8 edition


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    1) Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of
    • A. 

      Evolution

    • B. 

      Fossil record

    • C. 

      Uniformitarianism

    • D. 

      The origin of new species

    • E. 

      Natural selection

  • 2. 
    Which of the events described below agrees with the idea of catastrophism?
    • A. 

      The gradual uplift of the Himalayas by the collision of the Australian crustal plate with the Eurasian crustal plate

    • B. 

      The formation of the Grand Canyon by the Colorado River over millions of years

    • C. 

      The gradual deposition of sediments many kilometers thick on the floors of seas and oceans

    • D. 

      The sudden demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large extraterrestrial body with Earth

    • E. 

      The development of the Galapagos Islands from underwater seamounts over millions of years

  • 3. 
    What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
    • A. 

      Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging.

    • B. 

      Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations gradually change

    • C. 

      Earth is millions of years old, and populations rapidly change.

    • D. 

      Earth is millions of years old, and populations are unchanging.

    • E. 

      Earth is millions of years old, and populations gradually change.

  • 4. 
    During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student's misconception?
    • A. 

      Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes.

    • B. 

      Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits.

    • C. 

      Only favorable adaptations have survival value.

    • D. 

      Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance.

    • E. 

      Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival.

  • 5. 
    Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are fixed (i.e., unchanging)?
    • A. 

      Linnaeus, Cuvier, and Lamarck

    • B. 

      Aristotle, Cuvier, and Lamarck

    • C. 

      Lyell, Linnaeus, and Lamarck

    • D. 

      Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuvier

    • E. 

      Hutton, Lyell, and Darwin

  • 6. 
    Which statement best describes the evolution of pesticide resistance in a population of insects?
    • A. 

      Individual members of the population slowly adapt to the presence of the chemical by striving to meet the new challenge.

    • B. 

      All insects exposed to the insecticide begin to use a formerly silent gene to make a new enzyme that breaks down the insecticide molecules.

    • C. 

      Insects observe the behavior of other insects that survive pesticide application, and adjust their own behaviors to copy those of the survivors.

    • D. 

      Offspring of insects that are genetically resistant to the pesticide become more abundant as the susceptible insects die off.

  • 7. 
    41) If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that
    • A. 

      They live in very different habitats.

    • B. 

      They should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms.

    • C. 

      Their chromosomes should be very similar.

    • D. 

      They shared a common ancestor relatively recently.

    • E. 

      They should be members of the same genus

  • 8. 
    If 3TC resistance is costly for HIV, then which plot (I—IV) best represents the response of a strain of 3TC-resistant HIV over time, if 3TC administration begins at the time indicated by the arrow?
    • A. 

      I

    • B. 

      II

    • C. 

      III

    • D. 

      IV

  • 9. 
    Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth?
    • A. 

      All organisms require energy.

    • B. 

      All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.

    • C. 

      All organisms reproduce

    • D. 

      All organism show heritable variation

    • E. 

      All organisms have undergone eveolution

  • 10. 
    Ichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurs. Fossils show us that they had dorsal fins and tails, as do fish, even though their closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. The dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs and fish are
    • A. 

      Homologous

    • B. 

      Examples of convergent evolution

    • C. 

      Adaptations to a common environment

    • D. 

      A and C only

    • E. 

      B and C only

  • 11. 
    It has been observed that organisms on islands are different from, but closely related to, similar forms found on the nearest continent. This is taken as evidence that
    • A. 

      Island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors.

    • B. 

      Common environments are inhabited by the same organisms.

    • C. 

      The islands were originally part of the continent.

    • D. 

      The island forms and mainland forms are converging.

    • E. 

      Island forms and mainland forms have identical gene pools.

  • 12. 
    The theory of evolution is most accurately described as
    • A. 

      An educated guess about how species originate.

    • B. 

      One possible explanation, among several scientific alternatives, about how species have come into existence.

    • C. 

      An opinion that some scientists hold about how living things change over time.

    • D. 

      An overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time.

    • E. 

      An idea about how acquired characteristics are passed on to subsequent generations.

  • 13. 
    Monkeys of South and Central America have prehensile tails, meaning that their tails can be used to grasp objects. The tails of African and Asian monkeys are not prehensile. Which discipline is most likely to provide an evolutionary explanation for how this difference in tails came about?
    • A. 

      Aerodynamics

    • B. 

      Biogeography

    • C. 

      Physiology

    • D. 

      Biochemistry

    • E. 

      Botany

  • 14. 
    Within a few weeks of treatment with the drug 3TC, a patient's HIV population consists entirely of 3TC-resistant viruses. How can this result best be explained?
    • A. 

      HIV can change its surface proteins and resist vaccines.

    • B. 

      The patient must have become reinfected with 3TC-resistant viruses.

    • C. 

      HIV began making drug-resistant versions of reverse transcriptase in response to the drug.

    • D. 

      A few drug-resistant viruses were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency.

    • E. 

      The drug caused the HIV RNA to change.

  • 15. 
    Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based?
    • A. 

      There is heritable variation among individuals.

    • B. 

      Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.

    • C. 

      Species produce more offspring than the environment can support.

    • D. 

      Individuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environment generally leave more offspring than those whose characteristics are less suited.

    • E. 

      Only a fraction of the offspring produced by an individual may survive.

  • 16. 
    Which of the following pairs of structures is least likely to represent homology?
    • A. 

      The wings of a bat and the arms of a human

    • B. 

      The hemoglobin of a baboon and that of a gorilla

    • C. 

      The mitochondria of a plant and those of an animal

    • D. 

      The wings of a bird and those of an insect

    • E. 

      The brain of a cat and that of a dog

  • 17. 
    Which of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification?
    • A. 

      Species diversity declines farther from the equator.

    • B. 

      Fewer species live on islands than on the nearest continents.

    • C. 

      Birds can be found on islands located farther from the mainland than the birds' maximum

    • D. 

      Earthquakes reshape life by causing mass extinctions.

    • E. 

      South American temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe.

  • 18. 
    Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection? 1.   Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring than do poorly adapted individuals. 2.   A change occurs in the environment. 3.   Genetic frequencies within the population change. 4.   Poorly adapted individuals have decreased survivorship.
    • A. 

      2 → 4 → 1 → 3

    • B. 

      4 → 2 → 1 → 3

    • C. 

      4 → 1 → 2 → 3

    • D. 

      4 → 2 → 3 → 1

    • E. 

      2 → 4 → 3 → 1

  • 19. 
    Which of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of Thomas Malthus?
    • A. 

      Species are fixed in the form in which they are created.

    • B. 

      Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply normally allows.

    • C. 

      Earth changed over the years through a series of catastrophic upheavals.

    • D. 

      The environment is responsible for natural selection.

    • E. 

      Earth is more than 10,000 years old.

  • 20. 
    Which of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time?
    • A. 

      All variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors.

    • B. 

      The environment is changing at a relatively slow rate.

    • C. 

      The population size is large.

    • D. 

      The population lives in a habitat where there are no competing species present.

  • 21. 
    Which of these is a statement that Darwin would have rejected?
    • A. 

      Environmental change plays a role in evolution.

    • B. 

      The smallest entity that can evolve is an individual organism

    • C. 

      Individuals can acquire new characteristics as they respond to new environments or situations

    • D. 

      Inherited variation in a population is a necessary precondition for natural selection to operate.

    • E. 

      Populations tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support.

  • 22. 
    Which definition of evolution would have been most foreign to Charles Darwin during his lifetime?
    • A. 

      Change in gene frequency in gene pools

    • B. 

      Descent with modification

    • C. 

      The gradual change of a population's heritable traits over generations

    • D. 

      Populations becoming better adapted to their environments over the course of generations

    • E. 

      The appearance of new varieties and new species with the passage of time

  • 23. 
    If, on average, 46% of the loci in a species' gene pool are heterozygous, then the average homozygosity of the species should be
    • A. 

      23%

    • B. 

      46%

    • C. 

      54%

    • D. 

      92%

    • E. 

      There is not enough information to say

  • 24. 
    Which of these is the smallest unit upon which natural selection directly acts?
    • A. 

      A species gene frequency

    • B. 

      A population's gene frequency

    • C. 

      An individual's genome

    • D. 

      An individual's genotype

    • E. 

      an individual's phenotype

  • 25. 
    Which of these evolutionary agents is most consistent at causing populations to become better suited to their environments over the course of generations?
    • A. 

      Mutations

    • B. 

      Gene flow

    • C. 

      Natural selection

    • D. 

      Genetic drift