The origin of new species
The gradual uplift of the Himalayas by the collision of the Australian crustal plate with the Eurasian crustal plate
The formation of the Grand Canyon by the Colorado River over millions of years
The gradual deposition of sediments many kilometers thick on the floors of seas and oceans
The sudden demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large extraterrestrial body with Earth
The development of the Galapagos Islands from underwater seamounts over millions of years
Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging.
Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations gradually change
Earth is millions of years old, and populations rapidly change.
Earth is millions of years old, and populations are unchanging.
Earth is millions of years old, and populations gradually change.
Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes.
Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits.
Only favorable adaptations have survival value.
Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance.
Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival.
Linnaeus, Cuvier, and Lamarck
Aristotle, Cuvier, and Lamarck
Lyell, Linnaeus, and Lamarck
Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuvier
Hutton, Lyell, and Darwin
Individual members of the population slowly adapt to the presence of the chemical by striving to meet the new challenge.
All insects exposed to the insecticide begin to use a formerly silent gene to make a new enzyme that breaks down the insecticide molecules.
Insects observe the behavior of other insects that survive pesticide application, and adjust their own behaviors to copy those of the survivors.
Offspring of insects that are genetically resistant to the pesticide become more abundant as the susceptible insects die off.
They live in very different habitats.
They should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms.
Their chromosomes should be very similar.
They shared a common ancestor relatively recently.
They should be members of the same genus
All organisms require energy.
All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.
All organisms reproduce
All organism show heritable variation
All organisms have undergone eveolution
Examples of convergent evolution
Adaptations to a common environment
A and C only
B and C only
Island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors.
Common environments are inhabited by the same organisms.
The islands were originally part of the continent.
The island forms and mainland forms are converging.
Island forms and mainland forms have identical gene pools.
An educated guess about how species originate.
One possible explanation, among several scientific alternatives, about how species have come into existence.
An opinion that some scientists hold about how living things change over time.
An overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time.
An idea about how acquired characteristics are passed on to subsequent generations.
HIV can change its surface proteins and resist vaccines.
The patient must have become reinfected with 3TC-resistant viruses.
HIV began making drug-resistant versions of reverse transcriptase in response to the drug.
A few drug-resistant viruses were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency.
The drug caused the HIV RNA to change.
There is heritable variation among individuals.
Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
Species produce more offspring than the environment can support.
Individuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environment generally leave more offspring than those whose characteristics are less suited.
Only a fraction of the offspring produced by an individual may survive.
The wings of a bat and the arms of a human
The hemoglobin of a baboon and that of a gorilla
The mitochondria of a plant and those of an animal
The wings of a bird and those of an insect
The brain of a cat and that of a dog
Species diversity declines farther from the equator.
Fewer species live on islands than on the nearest continents.
Birds can be found on islands located farther from the mainland than the birds' maximum
Earthquakes reshape life by causing mass extinctions.
South American temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe.
2 → 4 → 1 → 3
4 → 2 → 1 → 3
4 → 1 → 2 → 3
4 → 2 → 3 → 1
2 → 4 → 3 → 1
Species are fixed in the form in which they are created.
Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply normally allows.
Earth changed over the years through a series of catastrophic upheavals.
The environment is responsible for natural selection.
Earth is more than 10,000 years old.
All variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors.
The environment is changing at a relatively slow rate.
The population size is large.
The population lives in a habitat where there are no competing species present.
Environmental change plays a role in evolution.
The smallest entity that can evolve is an individual organism
Individuals can acquire new characteristics as they respond to new environments or situations
Inherited variation in a population is a necessary precondition for natural selection to operate.
Populations tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support.
Change in gene frequency in gene pools
Descent with modification
The gradual change of a population's heritable traits over generations
Populations becoming better adapted to their environments over the course of generations
The appearance of new varieties and new species with the passage of time
There is not enough information to say
A species gene frequency
A population's gene frequency
An individual's genome
An individual's genotype
an individual's phenotype