Biopsychosocial Model

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Biopsychosocial Model

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      "Heath is having a sound, disease-free body with good cardiovascular performance, sharp senses, a strong immune system, and the ability to withstand physical injury."

    • B. 

      "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."

    • C. 

      "Heath is being able to think clearly, having good self-esteem, and enjoying a general feeling of well-being."

    • D. 

      "Health is having good interpersonal skills, meaningful relationships with friends and family, and social support in times of crisis."

    • E. 

      "Health is the absence of aberrant somatic processes, such as biochemical imbalances, viruses, or injuries."

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      Health professionals focus on investigating factors that promote physical, psychological and social health.

    • B. 

      Health is nothing more than the absence of disease.

    • C. 

      Disease can always be reduced to an underlying biological cause, such as a pathogen.

    • D. 

      A single psychological problem is sufficient to trigger disease.

    • E. 

      A reduction in the scale of medical procedures is desirable. For example, laparoscopic surgery is less invasive than an open procedure.

  • 3. 
    Pasteur's germ theory of disease suggests that pathogens invade body cells and cause disease.  How the biomedical model incorporated this theory was especially relevant during the early 20th century because:
    • A. 

      Health care costs greatly increased per capita as more citizens started driving automobiles and causing accidents.

    • B. 

      Infectious diseases such as influenza, pneumonia, and consumption (tuberculosis) were among the leading causes of death.

    • C. 

      The placebo effect had not yet been discovered.

    • D. 

      Non-communicable "lifestyle diseases" such as diabetes and heart disease were not preventable in the early 20th century.

    • E. 

      The biomedical model soon became out-dated once antibiotics were discovered.

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      The biomedical model has difficulty explaining the biological basis for how a person's beliefs influence the efficacy of a treatment.

    • B. 

      There are ethical problems when assigning patients to placebo treatments.

    • C. 

      The placebo effect does not pose a problem at all to the biomedical model because it would only affect the patient's emotional state and not have any biological effects.

    • D. 

      It counteracts the biomedical model's concept of the "nocebo effect," where a person attaches negative expectations to a treatment.

    • E. 

      Placebos are considered to be best kept to the realm of science experiments and out of the health care system.

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      A: A hierarchy of systems in which each system can influence higher and lower systems. These interactions and their emergent properties on a person's health could be considered to be influenced by complexity theory.

    • B. 

      B: A hierarchy of systems in which each system is simultaneously part of a larger system and contains smaller subsystems.

    • C. 

      C: A linear cause-effect model that can attribute a single sociological, psychological or biological basis for a given disease.

    • D. 

      Options A and B are true.

    • E. 

      Options A, B and C are true.

  • 6. 
    • A. 

      Psychological factors play an unimportant role in the treatment of chronic diseases.

    • B. 

      A person's health behaviours are an automatic consequence of a given social context.

    • C. 

      A person's health are determined by the interaction of biological, psychological and social processes.

    • D. 

      A healthy body is one that is free of diseases.

    • E. 

      Pathogens and other biological factors are unimportant when considering a person's health.

  • 7. 
    "The interpersonal relationship between a patient and a health professional will affect the efficacy of a given treatment."  Please infer which theory or model could best incorporate this statement.
    • A. 

      Phrenologic theory

    • B. 

      Humoral theory

    • C. 

      Biomedical model

    • D. 

      Biopsychosocial model

    • E. 

      Psychosomatic theory

  • 8. 
    As suggested by Engel, please identify the logical fault in a person's position that "I would rather have a physician who has the most up-to-date biomedical knowledge and techniques than one who understands my psyche."
    • A. 

      The statement assumes a false dicotomy; that competence in one area precludes competence in the other area.

    • B. 

      The statement uses emotional reasoning; this is when a person uses their feelings as a substitute for the objective truth.

    • C. 

      The statement is mentally filtering out the influence of social factors on a person's health.

    • D. 

      The statement creates an inappropriate generalisation; perhaps the physician who is out-of-date with medical knowledge is better.

    • E. 

      The statement is Engel's perspective on health care; there is no logical fault and he would strongly agree with the statement.

  • 9. 
    • A. 

      The students' immune systems were stronger during the exam period.

    • B. 

      The biomedical model can easily identify a pathogen to explain this change in S-IgA concentrations.

    • C. 

      The differences in S-IgA concentrations are arguably because of seasonal variances.

    • D. 

      The biopsychosocial model would not be able to account for these observations.

    • E. 

      The influence of social and psychological factors in this situation is consistent with the interrelationships suggested by the biopsychosocial model.

  • 10. 
    In January 2008, the National Aboriginal Health Organization made the following statement: "For Indigenous Peoples living in Canada and around the world, the inter-relationships between the physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional aspects of being are integral to individual and community health."Although the comparison is imperfect, this holistic perspective has some similarities to the:
    • A. 

      Behavioral model

    • B. 

      Birth cohort perspective

    • C. 

      Biomedical model

    • D. 

      The placebo effect

    • E. 

      Biopsychosocial model

  • 11. 
    Which of the following issues does the biopsychosocial model accommodate for that the biomedical model does not?
    • A. 

      That a particular biochemical alteration does not always translate directly into a illness.

    • B. 

      Why modern surgeons use the term "craniotomy" instead of "trepanation."

    • C. 

      Pathogens can cause illnesses and health problems.

    • D. 

      Antibiotics can be used to treat tuberculosis.

    • E. 

      Aseptic (germ-free) surgical procedures will reduce the risk of complications.

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      Reductionist

    • B. 

      Epidemiological

    • C. 

      Psychosomatic

    • D. 

      Systematist

    • E. 

      Behaviorist

  • 13. 
    • A. 

      Reductionist

    • B. 

      Epidemiological

    • C. 

      Psychosomatic

    • D. 

      Systematist

    • E. 

      Behaviorist

  • 14. 
    Which of the following statements about the biopsychosocial model is true?
    • A. 

      A: When using the biopsychosocial model, an assessment of a person's medical problems would not include his or her illness.

    • B. 

      B: A patient's genetics are unimportant within the context of the biopsychosocial model.

    • C. 

      C: The levels in the hierarchy of natural systems are not weighted equally in all situations.

    • D. 

      Options A and B are true.

    • E. 

      Options A, B, and C are true.

  • 15. 
    Which of the following are not components of a diagnosis of a Somatoform Disorder?
    • A. 

      Experiential

    • B. 

      Cognitive

    • C. 

      Behavioural

    • D. 

      Biological

    • E. 

      All of the above are components of a Somatoform Disorder

  • 16. 
    According to Weiner (2008), which of these is not a problem associated with the biopsychosocial model?
    • A. 

      Surges in correlations between outcomes and psychosocial factors

    • B. 

      Theory is difficult to test

    • C. 

      Healthy patients are difficult to accurately distinguish from unhealthy ones

    • D. 

      Treatment based on the model requires a large number of specialists

    • E. 

      Specialists are using the theory as a scapegoat for difficult to diagnose patients

  • 17. 
    Covic et al (2003) examined a biopsychosocial approach to rheumatoid arthritis in their study. What was the most significant predictor of pain levels and depression in their patients?
    • A. 

      Physical disability

    • B. 

      Feelings of helplessness

    • C. 

      Coping mechanisms

    • D. 

      Satisfaction of care

    • E. 

      Social support

  • 18. 
    Bitton et al (2008) examined the biopsychosocial model and its implication in predicting relapse in Crohn's disease. Which of the following factors reduced the chance of relapse in their patients?
    • A. 

      Low stress levels

    • B. 

      Low psychological distress

    • C. 

      Having an effective coping strategy

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 19. 
    Suls and Rothman (2004) propose that the biopsychosocial model be examined closely in a number of areas to make practical use of the model more effective. Which of the following areas IS NOT mentioned in their article?
    • A. 

      Including the new category of spiritualism discovered in recent research

    • B. 

      Defining linkages of the subsystems of the model

    • C. 

      Look at representative samples on a broader level

    • D. 

      Policymaking that includes the model in treatment/prevention

    • E. 

      Communicating between policy makers, practitioners and researchers

  • 20. 
    • A. 

      Death

    • B. 

      Cancer

    • C. 

      Depression

    • D. 

      Having less social support (quantitatively)

    • E. 

      A sedentary lifestyle

  • 21. 
    Which of these would Verhoeven et al (2008) say is a cognitive attribute to skin irritability?
    • A. 

      Personality

    • B. 

      Feelings of helplessness

    • C. 

      External stressors

    • D. 

      Anxiety

    • E. 

      Visual triggering by "itchy" pictures

  • 22. 
    Which of these examples of placebo analgesia would Price  et al (2005) attribute to external factors?
    • A. 

      A physician reducing pain by verbally suggesting that analgesia will take place

    • B. 

      A patient distorts their memory of recent pain

    • C. 

      A patient records their expectancy of pain

    • D. 

      A physician offers a placebo in place of an anti-inflammatory

    • E. 

      MRI technician shows a patient has reduced activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex