Biopsychosocial Model

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Biopsychosocial Model - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the World Health Organization's definition of health?

    • A.

      "Heath is having a sound, disease-free body with good cardiovascular performance, sharp senses, a strong immune system, and the ability to withstand physical injury."

    • B.

      "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."

    • C.

      "Heath is being able to think clearly, having good self-esteem, and enjoying a general feeling of well-being."

    • D.

      "Health is having good interpersonal skills, meaningful relationships with friends and family, and social support in times of crisis."

    • E.

      "Health is the absence of aberrant somatic processes, such as biochemical imbalances, viruses, or injuries."

    Correct Answer
    B. "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
    Explanation
    Correct. [Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19 June - 22 July 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.]

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  • 2. 

    The biomedical model is considered to be a reductionist model. What does a reductionist viewpoint mean in context of the biomedical model?

    • A.

      Health professionals focus on investigating factors that promote physical, psychological and social health.

    • B.

      Health is nothing more than the absence of disease.

    • C.

      Disease can always be reduced to an underlying biological cause, such as a pathogen.

    • D.

      A single psychological problem is sufficient to trigger disease.

    • E.

      A reduction in the scale of medical procedures is desirable. For example, laparoscopic surgery is less invasive than an open procedure.

    Correct Answer
    C. Disease can always be reduced to an underlying biological cause, such as a pathogen.
    Explanation
    The reductionist viewpoint in the context of the biomedical model means that disease is believed to always have an underlying biological cause, such as a pathogen. This viewpoint suggests that health professionals primarily focus on investigating and treating the biological factors that contribute to physical, psychological, and social health. It implies that the complexity of disease can be simplified and understood by identifying and targeting the specific biological cause. This reductionist approach often overlooks the influence of other factors, such as psychological or social determinants of health, in the development and treatment of disease.

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  • 3. 

    Pasteur's germ theory of disease suggests that pathogens invade body cells and cause disease.  How the biomedical model incorporated this theory was especially relevant during the early 20th century because:

    • A.

      Health care costs greatly increased per capita as more citizens started driving automobiles and causing accidents.

    • B.

      Infectious diseases such as influenza, pneumonia, and consumption (tuberculosis) were among the leading causes of death.

    • C.

      The placebo effect had not yet been discovered.

    • D.

      Non-communicable "lifestyle diseases" such as diabetes and heart disease were not preventable in the early 20th century.

    • E.

      The biomedical model soon became out-dated once antibiotics were discovered.

    Correct Answer
    B. Infectious diseases such as influenza, pneumonia, and consumption (tuberculosis) were among the leading causes of death.
    Explanation
    During the early 20th century, the biomedical model incorporated Pasteur's germ theory of disease because infectious diseases like influenza, pneumonia, and tuberculosis were major causes of death. This theory helped in understanding that pathogens invade body cells and cause diseases, leading to the development of medical interventions to prevent and treat these infectious diseases. This was particularly relevant at that time due to the high mortality rates associated with these diseases and the need for effective healthcare strategies to combat them.

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  • 4. 

    What problem does the placebo effect pose to the biomedical model?

    • A.

      The biomedical model has difficulty explaining the biological basis for how a person's beliefs influence the efficacy of a treatment.

    • B.

      There are ethical problems when assigning patients to placebo treatments.

    • C.

      The placebo effect does not pose a problem at all to the biomedical model because it would only affect the patient's emotional state and not have any biological effects.

    • D.

      It counteracts the biomedical model's concept of the "nocebo effect," where a person attaches negative expectations to a treatment.

    • E.

      Placebos are considered to be best kept to the realm of science experiments and out of the health care system.

    Correct Answer
    A. The biomedical model has difficulty explaining the biological basis for how a person's beliefs influence the efficacy of a treatment.
    Explanation
    The placebo effect poses a problem to the biomedical model because it challenges its ability to explain how a person's beliefs can impact the effectiveness of a treatment. The biomedical model focuses on the biological basis of diseases and treatments, but the placebo effect suggests that psychological factors can also play a role in healing. This raises questions about the comprehensive understanding of the biomedical model and its limitations in accounting for the mind-body connection in healthcare.

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  • 5. 

    Engel based the biopsychosocial model on systems theory.  This can be understood as:

    • A.

      A: A hierarchy of systems in which each system can influence higher and lower systems. These interactions and their emergent properties on a person's health could be considered to be influenced by complexity theory.

    • B.

      B: A hierarchy of systems in which each system is simultaneously part of a larger system and contains smaller subsystems.

    • C.

      C: A linear cause-effect model that can attribute a single sociological, psychological or biological basis for a given disease.

    • D.

      Options A and B are true.

    • E.

      Options A, B and C are true.

    Correct Answer
    D. Options A and B are true.
    Explanation
    The biopsychosocial model, developed by Engel, is based on systems theory. This means that it views health as a result of interactions between various systems. Option A correctly explains that these interactions can influence higher and lower systems, and that complexity theory can help understand their emergent properties on a person's health. Option B also accurately describes the model as a hierarchy of systems, where each system is part of a larger system and contains smaller subsystems. Option C, on the other hand, is incorrect as it suggests a linear cause-effect model, which contradicts the biopsychosocial approach. Therefore, the correct answer is that options A and B are true.

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  • 6. 

    The biopsychosocial model suggests that:

    • A.

      Psychological factors play an unimportant role in the treatment of chronic diseases.

    • B.

      A person's health behaviours are an automatic consequence of a given social context.

    • C.

      A person's health are determined by the interaction of biological, psychological and social processes.

    • D.

      A healthy body is one that is free of diseases.

    • E.

      Pathogens and other biological factors are unimportant when considering a person's health.

    Correct Answer
    C. A person's health are determined by the interaction of biological, psychological and social processes.
    Explanation
    The biopsychosocial model suggests that a person's health is determined by the interaction of biological, psychological, and social processes. This means that factors such as genetics, mental and emotional well-being, and social environment all play a role in determining a person's overall health. It recognizes that health is not solely determined by biological factors or the absence of disease, but rather a complex interplay of various factors.

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  • 7. 

    "The interpersonal relationship between a patient and a health professional will affect the efficacy of a given treatment."  Please infer which theory or model could best incorporate this statement.

    • A.

      Phrenologic theory

    • B.

      Humoral theory

    • C.

      Biomedical model

    • D.

      Biopsychosocial model

    • E.

      Psychosomatic theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Biopsychosocial model
    Explanation
    The biopsychosocial model is the best theory or model that can incorporate the statement "The interpersonal relationship between a patient and a health professional will affect the efficacy of a given treatment." This model takes into account the biological, psychological, and social factors that influence a person's health and well-being. It recognizes that a patient's relationship with their healthcare provider, including factors such as trust, communication, and empathy, can play a significant role in the success of a treatment. By considering the holistic aspects of a person's health, the biopsychosocial model emphasizes the importance of the patient-provider relationship in achieving positive treatment outcomes.

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  • 8. 

    As suggested by Engel, please identify the logical fault in a person's position that "I would rather have a physician who has the most up-to-date biomedical knowledge and techniques than one who understands my psyche."

    • A.

      The statement assumes a false dicotomy; that competence in one area precludes competence in the other area.

    • B.

      The statement uses emotional reasoning; this is when a person uses their feelings as a substitute for the objective truth.

    • C.

      The statement is mentally filtering out the influence of social factors on a person's health.

    • D.

      The statement creates an inappropriate generalisation; perhaps the physician who is out-of-date with medical knowledge is better.

    • E.

      The statement is Engel's perspective on health care; there is no logical fault and he would strongly agree with the statement.

    Correct Answer
    A. The statement assumes a false dicotomy; that competence in one area precludes competence in the other area.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the statement assumes a false dichotomy; that competence in one area precludes competence in the other area. This means that the person is assuming that a physician cannot possess both up-to-date biomedical knowledge and an understanding of their psyche. However, it is possible for a physician to have expertise in both areas, as they are not mutually exclusive.

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  • 9. 

    An article from Princeton University found that students felt more stressful during the final exam period when compared with 5 days before and 14 days afterwards.  Also, their concentrations of S-IgA were lower during the exam period, especially in students who reported less adequate social support during the pre-exam period.  Given this information, which one of the following statements is true?

    • A.

      The students' immune systems were stronger during the exam period.

    • B.

      The biomedical model can easily identify a pathogen to explain this change in S-IgA concentrations.

    • C.

      The differences in S-IgA concentrations are arguably because of seasonal variances.

    • D.

      The biopsychosocial model would not be able to account for these observations.

    • E.

      The influence of social and psychological factors in this situation is consistent with the interrelationships suggested by the biopsychosocial model.

    Correct Answer
    E. The influence of social and psychological factors in this situation is consistent with the interrelationships suggested by the biopsychosocial model.
    Explanation
    See: Jemmott, J.B., III, & Magliore, K. (1988). Academic stress, social support, and secretory immunoglobulin A. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 803-810.

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  • 10. 

    In January 2008, the National Aboriginal Health Organization made the following statement: "For Indigenous Peoples living in Canada and around the world, the inter-relationships between the physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional aspects of being are integral to individual and community health."Although the comparison is imperfect, this holistic perspective has some similarities to the:

    • A.

      Behavioral model

    • B.

      Birth cohort perspective

    • C.

      Biomedical model

    • D.

      The placebo effect

    • E.

      Biopsychosocial model

    Correct Answer
    E. Biopsychosocial model
    Explanation
    The statement made by the National Aboriginal Health Organization emphasizes the inter-relationships between various aspects of being, such as physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional, which are all integral to individual and community health. This holistic perspective aligns with the biopsychosocial model, which also recognizes the interconnectedness of biological, psychological, and social factors in determining health outcomes. Both perspectives go beyond a narrow focus on purely physical or biomedical aspects and acknowledge the importance of considering the whole person and their social context in understanding and promoting health.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following issues does the biopsychosocial model accommodate for that the biomedical model does not?

    • A.

      That a particular biochemical alteration does not always translate directly into a illness.

    • B.

      Why modern surgeons use the term "craniotomy" instead of "trepanation."

    • C.

      Pathogens can cause illnesses and health problems.

    • D.

      Antibiotics can be used to treat tuberculosis.

    • E.

      Aseptic (germ-free) surgical procedures will reduce the risk of complications.

    Correct Answer
    A. That a particular biochemical alteration does not always translate directly into a illness.
    Explanation
    The biopsychosocial model considers that a particular biochemical alteration does not always result in an illness. This means that even if there is a change in the biochemical makeup of an individual, it may not necessarily lead to the development of an illness. The model recognizes that various factors such as psychological and social factors also play a role in determining an individual's health. This is in contrast to the biomedical model, which primarily focuses on the biological aspects of illness and may overlook the influence of psychological and social factors.

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  • 12. 

    Select the perspective that would most likely describe a patient as being "a case of acute myocardial infarction with ventricular fibrillation."

    • A.

      Reductionist

    • B.

      Epidemiological

    • C.

      Psychosomatic

    • D.

      Systematist

    • E.

      Behaviorist

    Correct Answer
    A. Reductionist
    Explanation
    his example is from Engel, G.L. (1978). The biopsychosocial model and the education of health professionals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 310, 169-181.

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  • 13. 

    Select the perspective that would most likely describe a patient as being "a middle-aged real estate salesman with an acute myocardial infarction developed ventricular fibrillation while the intern was attempting an arterial puncture."

    • A.

      Reductionist

    • B.

      Epidemiological

    • C.

      Psychosomatic

    • D.

      Systematist

    • E.

      Behaviorist

    Correct Answer
    D. Systematist
    Explanation
    This example is from Engel, G.L. (1978). The biopsychosocial model and the education of health professionals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 310, 169-181.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following statements about the biopsychosocial model is true?

    • A.

      A: When using the biopsychosocial model, an assessment of a person's medical problems would not include his or her illness.

    • B.

      B: A patient's genetics are unimportant within the context of the biopsychosocial model.

    • C.

      C: The levels in the hierarchy of natural systems are not weighted equally in all situations.

    • D.

      Options A and B are true.

    • E.

      Options A, B, and C are true.

    Correct Answer
    C. C: The levels in the hierarchy of natural systems are not weighted equally in all situations.
    Explanation
    See Epstien, R.M., and Borrell-Carrio, F. (2005). The Biopsychosocial Model: Exploring Six Impossible Things. Families, Systems, & Health, 23(4), 426-431.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following are not components of a diagnosis of a Somatoform Disorder?

    • A.

      Experiential

    • B.

      Cognitive

    • C.

      Behavioural

    • D.

      Biological

    • E.

      All of the above are components of a Somatoform Disorder

    Correct Answer
    D. Biological
    Explanation
    The question asks for components of a diagnosis of a Somatoform Disorder. The options provided are Experiential, Cognitive, Behavioural, and Biological. The correct answer is Biological because biological factors are not considered components of a diagnosis of a Somatoform Disorder. Somatoform Disorders are characterized by physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a medical condition, and the focus is on psychological and emotional factors rather than biological factors. Therefore, biological factors are not included in the diagnosis of a Somatoform Disorder.

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  • 16. 

    According to Weiner (2008), which of these is not a problem associated with the biopsychosocial model?

    • A.

      Surges in correlations between outcomes and psychosocial factors

    • B.

      Theory is difficult to test

    • C.

      Healthy patients are difficult to accurately distinguish from unhealthy ones

    • D.

      Treatment based on the model requires a large number of specialists

    • E.

      Specialists are using the theory as a scapegoat for difficult to diagnose patients

    Correct Answer
    E. Specialists are using the theory as a scapegoat for difficult to diagnose patients
    Explanation
    Weiner, BK. (2008). The Biopsychosocial Model and Spine Care. Spine. 23(2), 219-223

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  • 17. 

    Covic et al (2003) examined a biopsychosocial approach to rheumatoid arthritis in their study. What was the most significant predictor of pain levels and depression in their patients?

    • A.

      Physical disability

    • B.

      Feelings of helplessness

    • C.

      Coping mechanisms

    • D.

      Satisfaction of care

    • E.

      Social support

    Correct Answer
    A. Physical disability
    Explanation
    Covic, T., Adamson, B., Spencer, D., Howe, G. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of pain and depression in rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-month longitudinal study. Rheumatology, 42, 1287-1294

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  • 18. 

    Bitton et al (2008) examined the biopsychosocial model and its implication in predicting relapse in Crohn's disease. Which of the following factors reduced the chance of relapse in their patients?

    • A.

      Low stress levels

    • B.

      Low psychological distress

    • C.

      Having an effective coping strategy

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Bitton, A., Dobkin, P.L., Edwardes, M.D., Sewhich, M.J., Meddings, J.B., Rawal, S., et al. (2008) Predicting relapse in Crohn’s disease: a biopsychosocial model. Gut, 57.

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  • 19. 

    Suls and Rothman (2004) propose that the biopsychosocial model be examined closely in a number of areas to make practical use of the model more effective. Which of the following areas IS NOT mentioned in their article?

    • A.

      Including the new category of spiritualism discovered in recent research

    • B.

      Defining linkages of the subsystems of the model

    • C.

      Look at representative samples on a broader level

    • D.

      Policymaking that includes the model in treatment/prevention

    • E.

      Communicating between policy makers, practitioners and researchers

    Correct Answer
    A. Including the new category of spiritualism discovered in recent research
    Explanation
    Suls, J. & Rothman, A. (2004). Evolution of the Biopsychosocial Model: Prospects and Challenges for Health Psychology. Health Psychology, 23(2), 119-125

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  • 20. 

    Among other things, scoring highly on the Type A Cognitive Questionnaire (TACQ) means you are more at risk for:

    • A.

      Death

    • B.

      Cancer

    • C.

      Depression

    • D.

      Having less social support (quantitatively)

    • E.

      A sedentary lifestyle

    Correct Answer
    C. Depression
    Explanation
    Watkins, P.L., Ward, C.H., Southard, D.R., Fisher E.B. Jr. (1992). The Type A Belief System: Relationships to Hostility, Social Support, and Life Stress. Behavioural Medicine, 18(1), 27-31.

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  • 21. 

    Which of these would Verhoeven et al (2008) say is a cognitive attribute to skin irritability?

    • A.

      Personality

    • B.

      Feelings of helplessness

    • C.

      External stressors

    • D.

      Anxiety

    • E.

      Visual triggering by "itchy" pictures

    Correct Answer
    B. Feelings of helplessness
    Explanation
    E. W. M. Verhoeven et al. (2008). Acta Derm Venereol, 88, 211-218.

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  • 22. 

    Which of these examples of placebo analgesia would Price  et al (2005) attribute to external factors?

    • A.

      A physician reducing pain by verbally suggesting that analgesia will take place

    • B.

      A patient distorts their memory of recent pain

    • C.

      A patient records their expectancy of pain

    • D.

      A physician offers a placebo in place of an anti-inflammatory

    • E.

      MRI technician shows a patient has reduced activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex

    Correct Answer
    A. A physician reducing pain by verbally suggesting that analgesia will take place
    Explanation
    Price, D.D., Chung, S.K., Robinson, M.E. (2005). Conditioning, Expectation, and Desire for Relief in Placebo Analgesia. Semin Pain Med. 3, 15-21.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Oct 08, 2008
    Quiz Created by
    Annadul
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