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"Heath is having a sound, disease-free body with good cardiovascular performance, sharp senses, a strong immune system, and the ability to withstand physical injury."
"Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
"Heath is being able to think clearly, having good self-esteem, and enjoying a general feeling of well-being."
"Health is having good interpersonal skills, meaningful relationships with friends and family, and social support in times of crisis."
"Health is the absence of aberrant somatic processes, such as biochemical imbalances, viruses, or injuries."
Health professionals focus on investigating factors that promote physical, psychological and social health.
Health is nothing more than the absence of disease.
Disease can always be reduced to an underlying biological cause, such as a pathogen.
A single psychological problem is sufficient to trigger disease.
A reduction in the scale of medical procedures is desirable. For example, laparoscopic surgery is less invasive than an open procedure.
Health care costs greatly increased per capita as more citizens started driving automobiles and causing accidents.
Infectious diseases such as influenza, pneumonia, and consumption (tuberculosis) were among the leading causes of death.
The placebo effect had not yet been discovered.
Non-communicable "lifestyle diseases" such as diabetes and heart disease were not preventable in the early 20th century.
The biomedical model soon became out-dated once antibiotics were discovered.
The biomedical model has difficulty explaining the biological basis for how a person's beliefs influence the efficacy of a treatment.
There are ethical problems when assigning patients to placebo treatments.
The placebo effect does not pose a problem at all to the biomedical model because it would only affect the patient's emotional state and not have any biological effects.
It counteracts the biomedical model's concept of the "nocebo effect," where a person attaches negative expectations to a treatment.
Placebos are considered to be best kept to the realm of science experiments and out of the health care system.
A: A hierarchy of systems in which each system can influence higher and lower systems. These interactions and their emergent properties on a person's health could be considered to be influenced by complexity theory.
B: A hierarchy of systems in which each system is simultaneously part of a larger system and contains smaller subsystems.
C: A linear cause-effect model that can attribute a single sociological, psychological or biological basis for a given disease.
Options A and B are true.
Options A, B and C are true.
Psychological factors play an unimportant role in the treatment of chronic diseases.
A person's health behaviours are an automatic consequence of a given social context.
A person's health are determined by the interaction of biological, psychological and social processes.
A healthy body is one that is free of diseases.
Pathogens and other biological factors are unimportant when considering a person's health.
The statement assumes a false dicotomy; that competence in one area precludes competence in the other area.
The statement uses emotional reasoning; this is when a person uses their feelings as a substitute for the objective truth.
The statement is mentally filtering out the influence of social factors on a person's health.
The statement creates an inappropriate generalisation; perhaps the physician who is out-of-date with medical knowledge is better.
The statement is Engel's perspective on health care; there is no logical fault and he would strongly agree with the statement.
The students' immune systems were stronger during the exam period.
The biomedical model can easily identify a pathogen to explain this change in S-IgA concentrations.
The differences in S-IgA concentrations are arguably because of seasonal variances.
The biopsychosocial model would not be able to account for these observations.
The influence of social and psychological factors in this situation is consistent with the interrelationships suggested by the biopsychosocial model.
Birth cohort perspective
The placebo effect
That a particular biochemical alteration does not always translate directly into a illness.
Why modern surgeons use the term "craniotomy" instead of "trepanation."
Pathogens can cause illnesses and health problems.
Antibiotics can be used to treat tuberculosis.
Aseptic (germ-free) surgical procedures will reduce the risk of complications.
A: When using the biopsychosocial model, an assessment of a person's medical problems would not include his or her illness.
B: A patient's genetics are unimportant within the context of the biopsychosocial model.
C: The levels in the hierarchy of natural systems are not weighted equally in all situations.
Options A and B are true.
Options A, B, and C are true.
All of the above are components of a Somatoform Disorder
Surges in correlations between outcomes and psychosocial factors
Theory is difficult to test
Healthy patients are difficult to accurately distinguish from unhealthy ones
Treatment based on the model requires a large number of specialists
Specialists are using the theory as a scapegoat for difficult to diagnose patients
Feelings of helplessness
Satisfaction of care
Low stress levels
Low psychological distress
Having an effective coping strategy
All of the above
None of the above
Including the new category of spiritualism discovered in recent research
Defining linkages of the subsystems of the model
Look at representative samples on a broader level
Policymaking that includes the model in treatment/prevention
Communicating between policy makers, practitioners and researchers
Having less social support (quantitatively)
A sedentary lifestyle
Feelings of helplessness
Visual triggering by "itchy" pictures
A physician reducing pain by verbally suggesting that analgesia will take place
A patient distorts their memory of recent pain
A patient records their expectancy of pain
A physician offers a placebo in place of an anti-inflammatory
MRI technician shows a patient has reduced activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex
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