Biology Second Semester Exam Practice

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Biology Second Semester Exam Practice - Quiz

Photosynthesis; DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    How does water directly aid in light reactions?

    • A.

      Donates electrons to PS 1

    • B.

      Builds ATP

    • C.

      Donates electrons to PS 2

    • D.

      Absorbs H2O

    Correct Answer
    C. Donates electrons to PS 2
    Explanation
    Water directly aids in light reactions by donating electrons to PS 2. During the light reactions of photosynthesis, water is split by an enzyme called photosystem II (PS 2), releasing electrons, protons, and oxygen. The electrons donated by water are then used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP and NADPH, which are essential for the synthesis of glucose during the Calvin cycle. Without water donating electrons to PS 2, the light reactions would not be able to proceed, and photosynthesis would not be possible.

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  • 2. 

    What is the overall goal of photosynthesis?

    • A.

      Mechanical energy to chemical energy

    • B.

      Solar energy to potential eneergy

    • C.

      Light energy to sugar

    • D.

      ATP to CO2

    Correct Answer
    C. Light energy to sugar
    Explanation
    The overall goal of photosynthesis is to convert light energy into sugar. During photosynthesis, plants use the energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose (sugar) and oxygen. This process occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells and is essential for the plant's growth and survival.

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  • 3. 

    Which molecule acts as a high energy electron during photosynthesis?

    • A.

      NADPH

    • B.

      CO2

    • C.

      ADP

    • D.

      H2O

    Correct Answer
    A. NADPH
    Explanation
    NADPH acts as a high energy electron during photosynthesis. It is produced in the light-dependent reactions and carries the high-energy electrons to the Calvin cycle, where it is used to reduce carbon dioxide and produce glucose. NADPH is an important molecule in photosynthesis as it provides the necessary energy for the synthesis of carbohydrates.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following visible light colors has the highest energy?

    • A.

      Green

    • B.

      Violet

    • C.

      Red

    • D.

      Yellow

    Correct Answer
    B. Violet
    Explanation
    Violet light has the highest energy among the given visible light colors. This is because violet light has a shorter wavelength compared to the other colors. According to the electromagnetic spectrum, shorter wavelengths correspond to higher energy levels. Therefore, violet light, with its shorter wavelength, has more energy than green, red, and yellow light.

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  • 5. 

    In which of the following locations does the Calvin Cycle take place in?

    • A.

      Lumen

    • B.

      Thylacoids

    • C.

      Stroma

    • D.

      Electron Transport Chain

    Correct Answer
    C. Stroma
    Explanation
    The Calvin Cycle takes place in the stroma. The stroma is the fluid-filled space within the chloroplast, where various reactions occur, including the Calvin Cycle. This cycle is responsible for converting carbon dioxide into glucose during photosynthesis. The stroma provides the necessary environment and enzymes for the reactions of the Calvin Cycle to occur.

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  • 6. 

    During Light Reactions, Oxygen is produced when ____________   _______   ___________

    Correct Answer
    water is split
    Explanation
    During the light reactions of photosynthesis, water molecules are split through a process called photolysis. This occurs in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts. The energy from sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll, which then transfers the energy to electrons in the reaction center. These energized electrons are used to split water molecules into oxygen, protons (H+), and electrons. The oxygen is released as a byproduct, while the protons and electrons are used in subsequent reactions to produce ATP and NADPH, which are energy-rich molecules used in the dark reactions of photosynthesis.

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  • 7. 

    It takes three turns of the Calvin Cycle to produce 1.5 molecules of glucose

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Calvin Cycle is a series of chemical reactions that take place in the chloroplasts of plants during photosynthesis. During this cycle, carbon dioxide is converted into glucose. It takes three turns of the Calvin Cycle to produce one molecule of glucose. Therefore, it is true that it takes three turns of the Calvin Cycle to produce 1.5 molecules of glucose.

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  • 8. 

    When during the cell cycle does DNA replication occur

    • A.

      G1 of interphase

    • B.

      Cytokinesis

    • C.

      S phase of interphase

    • D.

      Prophase

    Correct Answer
    C. S phase of interphase
    Explanation
    DNA replication occurs during the S phase of interphase. Interphase is the longest phase of the cell cycle and is divided into three stages: G1, S, and G2. During the S phase, the cell's DNA is replicated, resulting in two identical copies of each chromosome. This is necessary for cell division to occur properly, as each daughter cell needs a complete set of genetic information. Therefore, the S phase is the correct answer because it specifically refers to the stage in which DNA replication takes place.

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  • 9. 

    Guanine: Cytosine:: Adenine: ____________

    Correct Answer
    Thymine
    Uracil
    Explanation
    The given analogy is based on the pairing of nucleotide bases in DNA and RNA. In DNA, guanine always pairs with cytosine, forming a stable base pair. Similarly, adenine always pairs with thymine in DNA. However, in RNA, adenine pairs with uracil instead of thymine. Hence, the correct answer is Thymine, Uracil.

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  • 10. 

    RNA contains deoxyribose sugar

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    RNA contains ribose sugar, not deoxyribose sugar. Deoxyribose sugar is found in DNA, while ribose sugar is found in RNA.

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  • 11. 

    DNA is ALWAYS located in the Nucleus

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    DNA is always located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The nucleus is the control center of the cell and contains the genetic material, which is DNA. DNA carries all the instructions for the cell's functioning and is responsible for transmitting genetic information from one generation to the next. Therefore, it is accurate to say that DNA is always located in the nucleus.

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  • 12. 

    Which of these are part of transcription?

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      RNA

    • C.

      Both

    Correct Answer
    C. Both
    Explanation
    Both DNA and RNA are part of transcription. Transcription is the process by which genetic information in DNA is copied into RNA. During transcription, the DNA molecule unwinds and one of the DNA strands serves as a template for the synthesis of RNA. The RNA molecule that is synthesized is complementary to the DNA template strand and carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes, where it is used to produce proteins. Therefore, both DNA and RNA are involved in the transcription process.

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  • 13. 

    Thymine is in __________

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      RNA

    • C.

      Both

    Correct Answer
    A. DNA
    Explanation
    Thymine is one of the four nucleotide bases found in DNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and guanine. It forms a base pair with adenine through hydrogen bonding, which helps stabilize the DNA structure. RNA, on the other hand, contains uracil instead of thymine. Therefore, thymine is only found in DNA and not in RNA.

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  • 14. 

    Hunter, the dog, is composed of 62% cytosine. How much guanine is he composed of?

    • A.

      26%

    • B.

      38%

    • C.

      62%

    • D.

      48%

    Correct Answer
    C. 62%
    Explanation
    Since DNA is composed of four nucleotides - adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) - and they pair up with each other (A with T, and C with G), the percentage of cytosine and guanine should be equal in a DNA molecule. Therefore, if Hunter is composed of 62% cytosine, he must also be composed of 62% guanine.

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  • 15. 

    RNA's IDENTICAL to that of DNA

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    RNA is not identical to DNA. While they are both nucleic acids, they have different structures and functions. DNA is double-stranded and contains the genetic information that is passed on from one generation to another. RNA, on the other hand, is single-stranded and plays various roles in protein synthesis and gene expression. Therefore, the statement that RNA is identical to DNA is false.

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  • 16. 

    If the mRNA sequence is CGAU, the DNA template would be what?

    • A.

      CGAU

    • B.

      TACC

    • C.

      GCTT

    • D.

      GCTA

    Correct Answer
    D. GCTA
    Explanation
    The mRNA sequence CGAU represents the nucleotides cytosine, guanine, adenine, and uracil. In DNA, uracil is replaced by thymine. Therefore, the corresponding DNA template would be GCTA, where thymine replaces uracil.

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  • 17. 

    mRNA that can be expressed as a protein through translation is called what?

    • A.

      Exons

    • B.

      RNA polymerase

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Introns

    Correct Answer
    A. Exons
    Explanation
    Exons are the segments of mRNA that contain the coding regions and can be translated into proteins. During the process of transcription, the RNA polymerase synthesizes a pre-mRNA molecule that contains both exons and introns. The introns are non-coding regions that are removed from the pre-mRNA molecule through a process called splicing, leaving behind only the exons. These exons are then translated into proteins by the ribosomes. Therefore, exons are the correct answer as they represent the mRNA that can be expressed as a protein through translation.

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  • 18. 

    How many stop codons are there?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      9

    • D.

      2

    Correct Answer
    B. 3
    Explanation
    There are three stop codons in the genetic code. These stop codons, also known as termination codons, signal the end of protein synthesis during translation. They are named UAA, UAG, and UGA. When a ribosome encounters any of these codons, it releases the newly synthesized protein and the translation process comes to an end. Therefore, the correct answer is 3.

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  • 19. 

    Hunter's real name is what?

    • A.

      George

    • B.

      Max

    • C.

      Onyx

    • D.

      Kobe

    Correct Answer
    D. Kobe
    Explanation
    The given question asks for Hunter's real name. Among the options provided, Kobe is the only name that could potentially be a real name. Therefore, the correct answer is Kobe.

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  • 20. 

    If the DNA coding is:      TAC CGT CAC TGC Then the DNA noncoding would be what?

    Correct Answer
    ATG CCA GTG ACG
    Explanation
    The DNA noncoding sequence is the complementary sequence to the DNA coding sequence. In this case, the complementary sequence for TAC CGT CAC TGC would be ATG CCA GTG ACG.

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  • 21. 

    If there is a Guanine in the DNA coding, then the in the DNA noncoding it would have to be a what?

    Correct Answer
    Cytosine
    Explanation
    If there is a Guanine in the DNA coding, then in the DNA noncoding it would have to be a Cytosine. This is because Guanine and Cytosine are complementary base pairs in DNA. In DNA coding, Guanine pairs with Cytosine, and in DNA noncoding, the complementary base pair for Guanine is Cytosine. Therefore, if there is Guanine in the coding sequence, it must be paired with Cytosine in the noncoding sequence to maintain the complementary structure of DNA.

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  • 22. 

    What have you thought of this quiz so far?

    • A.

      I mean, at least I got this one right

    • B.

      It has been alright

    • C.

      Jonah, you really did not help me study for Bio.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. I mean, at least I got this one right
    B. It has been alright
    C. Jonah, you really did not help me study for Bio.
    Explanation
    The given answer is a combination of three statements: "I mean, at least I got this one right," "It has been alright," and "Jonah, you really did not help me study for Bio." This suggests that the person answering the question is reflecting on their experience with the quiz. They acknowledge that they got this particular question right, but overall, they feel that the quiz has been just okay. Additionally, they express frustration towards Jonah for not helping them study for Biology.

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  • 23. 

    Which of these codons are stop codons?

    • A.

      UAA

    • B.

      UGG

    • C.

      UGC

    • D.

      UAG

    • E.

      UGA

    • F.

      CUG

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. UAA
    D. UAG
    E. UGA
    Explanation
    The codons UAA, UAG, and UGA are stop codons. Stop codons are sequences of three nucleotides in mRNA that signal the end of protein synthesis. When a ribosome encounters a stop codon, it releases the newly synthesized protein and dissociates from the mRNA. UAA, UAG, and UGA do not code for any amino acids, but instead act as signals for the termination of translation. The other codons listed (UGG, UGC, and CUG) code for specific amino acids and are not stop codons.

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  • 24. 

    How many stop codons are there for Leucine (Leu)?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      7

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      6

    • E.

      8

    Correct Answer
    D. 6
    Explanation
    There are six stop codons for Leucine (Leu). Stop codons are specific sequences of three nucleotides in mRNA that signal the end of protein synthesis. They do not code for any amino acid, but instead act as signals for the ribosome to stop translating the mRNA. The six stop codons are UAA, UAG, UGA, UUA, UUG, and CUU. These codons are recognized by release factors, which cause the ribosome to dissociate from the mRNA and release the completed protein.

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  • 25. 

    What would the amino acid sequence be for the following mRNA sequence? AUG CCU CAC GGU

    • A.

      GUA UCC ACA UGU

    • B.

      Start - Pro - Gly - Gln

    • C.

      Start - His - Pro - Gly

    • D.

      Start - Pro - His - Gly

    Correct Answer
    D. Start - Pro - His - Gly
    Explanation
    The given mRNA sequence AUG CCU CAC GGU translates to the amino acid sequence Start - Pro - His - Gly. This is determined by using the genetic code chart, which matches each three-letter codon in the mRNA sequence to the corresponding amino acid. The codon AUG is the start codon, which codes for the amino acid methionine and serves as the initiation point for protein synthesis. The codons CCU, CAC, and GGU correspond to the amino acids proline, histidine, and glycine, respectively. Therefore, the correct amino acid sequence is Start - Pro - His - Gly.

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