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105 Questions | Total Attempts: 31

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Number Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    How does an insect “hold its breath”?
    • A. 

      By closing its tracheae

    • B. 

      By closing its mouth

    • C. 

      By closing its spiracles

    • D. 

      By closing its gills

    • E. 

      By closing its nostrils

  • 2. 
    In Cystic Fibrosis, a thick dry mucus builds up in the alveoli. Which of the following would you expect to occur in these patients?
    • A. 

      Decreased rate of respiration

    • B. 

      Increased diffusion of carbon dioxide into capillaries from the alveoli

    • C. 

      Decreased blood flow to the alveoli

    • D. 

      Increased blood flow to the alveoli

    • E. 

      Decreased diffusion of oxygen into the capillaries from the alveoli

  • 3. 
    Emphysema is caused by destruction of the walls between alveoli leading to hyperinflation of the lungs. Which of the following would you expect to occur in the lungs of these patients?
    • A. 

      Decreased uptake of carbon dioxide

    • B. 

      Decreased uptake of glucose

    • C. 

      Decreased uptake of oxygen

    • D. 

      Decreased rate of respiration

    • E. 

      Decreased heart rate

  • 4. 
    Carbon Dioxide sensors are found in
    • A. 

      The carotid body and aorta

    • B. 

      The medulla

    • C. 

      The carotid body

    • D. 

      The aorta

    • E. 

      The medulla and carotid body

  • 5. 
    Which of the following organisms has a respiratory system that does not require a circulatory system?
    • A. 

      Grasshopper

    • B. 

      Mouse

    • C. 

      Earthworm

    • D. 

      Carp

    • E. 

      Crayfish

  • 6. 
    What drives the movement of oxygen from the alveoli into the bloodstream?
    • A. 

      Active transport against a concentration gradient

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion down a concentration gradient

    • C. 

      Facilitated diffusion against a concentration gradient

    • D. 

      Diffusion down a concentration gradient

    • E. 

      The heart pumping the oxygen into the bloodstream

  • 7. 
    What drives the movement of carbon dioxide from tissue into the bloodstream?
    • A. 

      Active transport against a concentration gradient

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion down a concentration gradient

    • C. 

      Facilitated diffusion against a concentration gradient

    • D. 

      Diffusion down a concentration gradient

    • E. 

      The heart pumping the oxygen into the bloodstream

  • 8. 
    Why are gills only found in aquatic animals?
    • A. 

      There isn’t enough oxygen in air for them to absorb

    • B. 

      Gasses can only diffuse in water

    • C. 

      Capillaries can only exchange gas with alveoli, not gills

    • D. 

      They dry up when exposed to air

    • E. 

      Aquatic animals do not transport oxygen on red blood cells

  • 9. 
    If you were to move from around sea level to a much higher altitude, your body would respond with
    • A. 

      Profuse sweating

    • B. 

      A decrease in the diameter and number of capillaries close to your body's surface

    • C. 

      An increase in energy production

    • D. 

      A decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

    • E. 

      An increase in the number of your red blood cells

  • 10. 
    Which of the following cell types is responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
    • A. 

      T cells

    • B. 

      B cells

    • C. 

      Leukocytes

    • D. 

      Natural killer cells

    • E. 

      Lymphocytes

  • 11. 
    In birds, deoxygenated air moves from the lungs into the ___ before the air is expelled.
    • A. 

      Anterior air sacs

    • B. 

      Lamellae of the gills

    • C. 

      Posterior air sacs

    • D. 

      Bronchioles

    • E. 

      Capillaries

  • 12. 
    Most CO2 is transported to the lungs
    • A. 

      Dissolved in the plasma

    • B. 

      Attached to hemoglobin

    • C. 

      As carbonic anhydrase

    • D. 

      As carboxyl

    • E. 

      As bicarbonate ions

  • 13. 
    Which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the body?
    • A. 

      Alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, pharynx, larynx

    • B. 

      Alveoli, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, larynx, pharynx

    • C. 

      Alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx

    • D. 

      Alveoli, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, pharynx, larynx

    • E. 

      Alveoli, trachea, bronchioles, bronchi, pharynx, larynx

  • 14. 
    Which main tissue type of the circulatory system enables diffusion across walls of capillaries?
    • A. 

      Connective

    • B. 

      Epithelial

    • C. 

      Muscle

    • D. 

      Nervous

    • E. 

      Vascular

  • 15. 
    Which main tissue type of the circulatory system regulates airflow to the alveoli?
    • A. 

      Connective

    • B. 

      Epithelial

    • C. 

      Muscle

    • D. 

      Nervous

    • E. 

      Vascular

  • 16. 
    Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls?
    • A. 

      Arteries

    • B. 

      Arterioles

    • C. 

      Veins

    • D. 

      Venules

    • E. 

      Capillaries

  • 17. 
    Olfaction is
    • A. 

      The sense of smell

    • B. 

      The sense of hearing

    • C. 

      The sense of taste

    • D. 

      The sense of vision

    • E. 

      The sense of touch

  • 18. 
    Which of the following is not a main function of the respiratory system?
    • A. 

      Olfaction

    • B. 

      Gas exchange between the lungs and the atmosphere

    • C. 

      Production of sounds

    • D. 

      Transport of oxygen to the cells of the body

    • E. 

      Maintaining blood pH homeostasis

  • 19. 
    The movement of air across the vocal cords in the ___ produces sound
    • A. 

      Pharynx

    • B. 

      Larynx

    • C. 

      Trachea

    • D. 

      Glottis

    • E. 

      Uvula

  • 20. 
    Sleep apnea is more common in people who are overweight. Excess fat in the neck compresses the airway, cutting off air flow. The person then wakes their throat and resumes normal breathing. Which of the following would trigger this reflex?
    • A. 

      Increased oxygen

    • B. 

      Decreased carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      Increased carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Decreased oxygen

    • E. 

      Decreased nitrogen

  • 21. 
    The upper respiratory tract is composed of what?
    • A. 

      The nose, pharynx, and trachea

    • B. 

      The nose, larynx, and trachea

    • C. 

      The nose, trachea, and lungs

    • D. 

      The nose, pharynx, and larynx

    • E. 

      The nose and pharynx

  • 22. 
    The lower respiratory tract is composed of what?
    • A. 

      The pharynx, and lungs

    • B. 

      The larynx, and lungs

    • C. 

      The larynx, trachea, and lungs

    • D. 

      The trachea and lungs

    • E. 

      The pharynx, trachea, and lungs

  • 23. 
    In the pulmonary circulation, ___ is expelled from the blood and ___ is picked up
    • A. 

      Nitrogen, oxygen

    • B. 

      Oxygen, carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      Oxygen, nitrogen

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide, nitrogen

    • E. 

      Carbon dioxide, oxygen

  • 24. 
    In the systemic circulation, ___ is expelled from the blood and ___ is picked up
    • A. 

      Nitrogen, oxygen

    • B. 

      Oxygen, carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      Oxygen, nitrogen

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide, nitrogen

    • E. 

      Carbon dioxide, oxygen

  • 25. 
    The most important signal that the brain uses to set the breathing rate is the level of blood
    • A. 

      Nitrogen

    • B. 

      Oxygen

    • C. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • D. 

      Phosphorous

    • E. 

      Hemoglobin

  • 26. 
    Hemoglobin is a(an) ___rich pigment that carries oxygen
    • A. 

      Calcium

    • B. 

      Potassium

    • C. 

      Zinc

    • D. 

      Phosphorous

    • E. 

      Iron

  • 27. 
    Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
    • A. 

      Cytotoxic T cells

    • B. 

      Natural killer cells

    • C. 

      Helper T cells

    • D. 

      Plasma cells

    • E. 

      Memory cells

  • 28. 
     There are approximately ___ alveoli in the lungs of an adult human
    • A. 

      50 Million

    • B. 

      500 Million

    • C. 

      500,000

    • D. 

      300,000

    • E. 

      300 Million

  • 29. 
    The walls of the bronchioles are made up of
    • A. 

      Smooth muscle

    • B. 

      Cartilage and smooth muscle

    • C. 

      Cartilage and skeletal muscle

    • D. 

      Cartilage

    • E. 

      Skeletal muscle

  • 30. 
    High-flying birds are able to obtain enough oxygen even when the air is very thin because
    • A. 

      They have more efficient lungs than other vertebrates

    • B. 

      They have reduced amounts of hemoglobin in their blood

    • C. 

      Their mitochondria are more efficient than those of other vertebrates

    • D. 

      Their heart can increase or decrease in size as altitude changes

    • E. 

      They are able to store oxygen in oxygen chambers within muscle cells

  • 31. 
    A waste product of respiration is
    • A. 

      Water

    • B. 

      Electrons

    • C. 

      Hydrogen peroxide

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • E. 

      Glucose

  • 32. 
    When you exhale, you
    • A. 

      Release oxygen and carbon dioxide

    • B. 

      Exchange CO2 for O2

    • C. 

      Take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide to the blood

    • D. 

      Take up carbon dioxide and release oxygen

    • E. 

      Remove CO2 from the body

  • 33. 
    Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must
    • A. 

      Be terrestrial

    • B. 

      Have a high ratio of body surface area to volume

    • C. 

      Have a low ratio of body surface area to volume

    • D. 

      Be aquatic and nearly spherical

    • E. 

      Have a special kind of hemoglobin

  • 34. 
    What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out of the lungs?
    • A. 

      Trachea

    • B. 

      Alveolus

    • C. 

      Larynx

    • D. 

      Diaphragm

    • E. 

      Bronchus

  • 35. 
    Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across
    • A. 

      Alveoli

    • B. 

      Tracheae

    • C. 

      Bronchioles

    • D. 

      Diaphragms

    • E. 

      Bronchi

  • 36. 
    The ___ is a passageway shared by both food and air
    • A. 

      Alveolus

    • B. 

      Trachea

    • C. 

      Pharynx

    • D. 

      Larynx

    • E. 

      Nasal cavity

  • 37. 
    When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again?
    • A. 

      Rising oxygen concentration

    • B. 

      Rising carbon dioxide concentration

    • C. 

      Falling oxygen concentration

    • D. 

      Falling carbon dioxide concentration

    • E. 

      Falling nitrogen concentration

  • 38. 
    Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to
    • A. 

      Blood pH and CO2 concentration

    • B. 

      Blood O2 concentration

    • C. 

      Alveolar CO2 concentration

    • D. 

      Alveolar O2 concentration

    • E. 

      Blood pH and O2 concentration

  • 39. 
    Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system?
    • A. 

      Maintaining an optimal red blood cell count

    • B. 

      Transporting nerve impulses throughout the body

    • C. 

      Governing nutrient concentration in the blood

    • D. 

      Transporting nutrients to body cells

    • E. 

      Mounting a response to invading microorganisms

  • 40. 
    Which of the following is characteristic of the circulatory system of arthropods?
    • A. 

      Lack of a heart

    • B. 

      Lack of blood

    • C. 

      Lack of blood vessels

    • D. 

      Blood flowing out of the body

    • E. 

      Lack of distinction between blood and interstitial fluid

  • 41. 
    Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers?
    • A. 

      Salamander

    • B. 

      Salmon

    • C. 

      Snake

    • D. 

      Swan

    • E. 

      Squirrel

  • 42. 
    Which of the following animals has a three-chambered heart?
    • A. 

      Snake

    • B. 

      Crocodile

    • C. 

      Human

    • D. 

      Cow

    • E. 

      Bird

  • 43. 
    Which of the following is a likely advantage of a three-chambered heart?
    • A. 

      Greater separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

    • B. 

      Greater blood pressure

    • C. 

      The ability to divert deoxygenated blood away from the lungs when diving underwater

    • D. 

      The ability to generate more body heat than a mammal

    • E. 

      Greater mixing of blood in the ventricle

  • 44. 
    In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the ___ just before entering the right atrium
    • A. 

      Right ventricle

    • B. 

      Left atrium

    • C. 

      Superior vena cava

    • D. 

      Inferior vena cava

    • E. 

      Aorta

  • 45. 
    Ice fish would have which of the following circulatory systems?
    • A. 

      Closed with two-chambered heart

    • B. 

      Open

    • C. 

      Closed with a single-chambered heart

    • D. 

      Closed with a three-chambered heart

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 46. 
    How do ice fish transport oxygen in their blood?
    • A. 

      In red blood cells

    • B. 

      In white blood cells

    • C. 

      In platelets

    • D. 

      In plasma

    • E. 

      On hemoglobin

  • 47. 
    Where would fish have the highest concentration of oxygen in their blood?
    • A. 

      As it left their systemic circulation

    • B. 

      As it left their heart

    • C. 

      As it entered their heart

    • D. 

      As it left their lungs

    • E. 

      As it left their gills

  • 48. 
    The simplest animals with a closed circulatory system are
    • A. 

      Mollusks

    • B. 

      Amphibians

    • C. 

      Annelids

    • D. 

      Fish

    • E. 

      Reptiles

  • 49. 
    The tough connective tissue sac surrounding the mammalian heart is the
    • A. 

      Myocardium

    • B. 

      Epicardium

    • C. 

      Peritoneal

    • D. 

      Pericardium

    • E. 

      Endocardium

  • 50. 
    The chamber of the mammalian heart that is the most powerful is the
    • A. 

      Left atrium

    • B. 

      Left ventricle

    • C. 

      Right atrium

    • D. 

      Right ventricle

    • E. 

      All chambers of the heart have equal forces of contraction

  • 51. 
    The two largest veins of the body that deliver blood to the right atrium are the
    • A. 

      Pulmonary vein and inferior vena cava

    • B. 

      Superior vena cava and pulmonary vein

    • C. 

      Aorta and inferior vena cava

    • D. 

      Inferior vena cava and superior vena cava

    • E. 

      Aorta and superior vena cava

  • 52. 
    In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung back to the heart?
    • A. 

      Pulmonary artery

    • B. 

      Pulmonary vein

    • C. 

      Aorta

    • D. 

      Vena cava

    • E. 

      Coronary artery

  • 53. 
    Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the
    • A. 

      Pulmonary arteries

    • B. 

      Pulmonary veins

    • C. 

      Venae cavae

    • D. 

      Aorta

    • E. 

      Coronary veins

  • 54. 
    Which chamber of the heart becomes enlarged in a person with Atherosclerosis?
    • A. 

      SA node

    • B. 

      Left atrium

    • C. 

      Right atrium

    • D. 

      Left ventricle

    • E. 

      Right ventricle

  • 55. 
    Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs by the
    • A. 

      Pulmonary artery

    • B. 

      Left atrium

    • C. 

      Right atrium

    • D. 

      Left ventricle

    • E. 

      Right ventricle

  • 56. 
    From the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the
    • A. 

      Superior vena cava

    • B. 

      Inferior vena cava

    • C. 

      Aorta

    • D. 

      Pulmonary artery

    • E. 

      Pulmonary vein

  • 57. 
    During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?
    • A. 

      Interphase

    • B. 

      Resting phase

    • C. 

      Diastole

    • D. 

      Atrial phase

    • E. 

      Systole

  • 58. 
    Aerobic respiration consumes ___ gas and generates ___ gas as a waste product
    • A. 

      Oxygen, carbon dioxide

    • B. 

      Nitrogen, carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      Carbon dioxide, nitrogen

    • D. 

      Oxygen, nitrogen

    • E. 

      Carbon dioxide, oxygen

  • 59. 
    During ventricular systole, the ___valves ___
    • A. 

      AV . . . open

    • B. 

      Semilunar . . . close

    • C. 

      AV . . . close

    • D. 

      Semilunar . . . open

    • E. 

      AV and semilunar . . . close

  • 60. 
    The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called the
    • A. 

      Atrioventricular node

    • B. 

      Sinoatrial node

    • C. 

      Purkinje fibers

    • D. 

      Heart center of the brain

    • E. 

      Aorta

  • 61. 
    The main function of the AV node is to
    • A. 

      Initiate the heartbeat

    • B. 

      Set the rhythm of the heartbeat

    • C. 

      Relay the signal for the heart to contract from the right ventricle to the right atrium

    • D. 

      ) relay the signal for the heart to contract from the right heart to the left heart

    • E. 

      Relay a signal for the ventricles to contract

  • 62. 
    Which of the following factors contributes to the flow of blood in veins?
    • A. 

      Skeletal muscle contractions

    • B. 

      The number of red blood cells in venous blood

    • C. 

      The diameter of capillaries

    • D. 

      Blood pressure generated by the heart

    • E. 

      Cardiac output

  • 63. 
    What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid?
    • A. 

      Artery

    • B. 

      Arteriole

    • C. 

      Capillary

    • D. 

      Venule

    • E. 

      Vein

  • 64. 
    Blood proteins are involved in all of the following activities except
    • A. 

      Fighting infection

    • B. 

      Maintaining osmotic balance

    • C. 

      Acting as buffers

    • D. 

      Maintaining salinity

    • E. 

      Blood clotting

  • 65. 
    Blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein
    • A. 

      Thrombin

    • B. 

      Sealin

    • C. 

      Hemophilin

    • D. 

      Fibrinogen

    • E. 

      Thrombus

  • 66. 
    Which of the following statements about blood clotting is true?
    • A. 

      The first response to an injury is dilation of the damaged blood vessels

    • B. 

      During the clotting response, platelets rapidly congregate in the interstitial fluid

    • C. 

      Fibrin is enzymatically converted to fibrinogen

    • D. 

      Threads of fibrin trap blood cells and platelets

    • E. 

      Chemicals released by platelets prevent cell division in smooth muscle and connective tissues

  • 67. 
    The body's innate defenses against infection include
    • A. 

      Several nonspecific antibodies

    • B. 

      Several nonspecific amino acid toxins

    • C. 

      Barriers such as dead skin cells and mucus

    • D. 

      Increased production of certain hormones and changes in microcirculation

    • E. 

      Memory cells

  • 68. 
    Which of the following wander through the interstitial fluid eating any bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter?
    • A. 

      Erythrocytes

    • B. 

      Megakaryocytes

    • C. 

      Leukocytes

    • D. 

      Macrophages

    • E. 

      Interferons

  • 69. 
    Natural killer cells
    • A. 

      Are phagocytes that attack and kill pathogenic microorganisms

    • B. 

      Attack virus-infected cells by releasing chemicals that promote programmed cell death

    • C. 

      Are phagocytes that attack virus-infected cells

    • D. 

      Tag pathogenic microorganisms with antibodies

    • E. 

      Phagocytize microorganisms that have been tagged with antibodies

  • 70. 
    • A. 

      Lysozyme

    • B. 

      Interferon

    • C. 

      Histamine

    • D. 

      Antigen

    • E. 

      Interleukin-2

  • 71. 
    Some complement proteins
    • A. 

      Induce antibody formation by phagocytic cells

    • B. 

      Help trigger the inflammatory response

    • C. 

      Trigger the production of lysozyme by monocytes

    • D. 

      Are released by natural killer cells to attack cancer and virus-infected cells

    • E. 

      Replace T cells in the cell-mediated response

  • 72. 
    Which of the following helps activate our nonspecific (innate) defense system? 
    • A. 

      Active immunity

    • B. 

      Inflammation

    • C. 

      Passive immunity

    • D. 

      Cell-mediated immunity

    • E. 

      Mobilization of erythrocytes

  • 73. 
    When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release chemical alarm signals, such as
    • A. 

      Interferon

    • B. 

      Complement

    • C. 

      Histamine

    • D. 

      Antihistamine

    • E. 

      Anti-interferon

  • 74. 
    Which of the following is an immediate effect of histamine release?
    • A. 

      Dilation of local blood vessels

    • B. 

      Blocking of a response to ragweed pollen

    • C. 

      Conversion of histamine to histidine

    • D. 

      Increase in blood pressure

    • E. 

      Metabolic production of energy molecules

  • 75. 
    The major result of the inflammatory response is to
    • A. 

      Initiate the production of antibodies

    • B. 

      Remove contaminating microorganisms and initiate repair of damaged tissues

    • C. 

      Initiate cell-mediated immune responses

    • D. 

      Initiate humoral-mediated immune responses

    • E. 

      Initiate the production of killer cells

  • 76. 
    Bacterial infections can cause a serious, potentially fatal systemic inflammatory response called
    • A. 

      Anaphylaxis

    • B. 

      Pelvic inflammatory disease

    • C. 

      Bacterial sepsis

    • D. 

      Septic shock

    • E. 

      Pneumonia

  • 77. 
    The human lymphatic system consists of all of the following structures except the
    • A. 

      Thymus

    • B. 

      Tonsils

    • C. 

      Spleen

    • D. 

      Pancreas

    • E. 

      Appendix

  • 78. 
    The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
    • A. 

      Coagulating blood and fighting infections

    • B. 

      Producing hormones that regulate the immune system and coagulating blood

    • C. 

      Producing hormones that regulate the immune system and fighting infections

    • D. 

      Returning tissue fluid to the circulatory system and coagulating blood

    • E. 

      Returning tissue fluid to the circulatory system and fighting infections

  • 79. 
    A substance that can elicit an immune response is called
    • A. 

      A complement

    • B. 

      An interferon

    • C. 

      Histamine

    • D. 

      An antibody

    • E. 

      An antigen

  • 80. 
    Antibodies are
    • A. 

      Amino acids

    • B. 

      Lipids

    • C. 

      Carbohydrates

    • D. 

      Proteins

    • E. 

      Nucleic acids

  • 81. 
    One kind of vaccine consists of
    • A. 

      Buffered antibodies

    • B. 

      Horse erythrocytes

    • C. 

      B cells

    • D. 

      A harmless variant strain of a disease-causing microbe

    • E. 

      Antibiotics

  • 82. 
    Passive immunity depends upon
    • A. 

      A person's own immune system producing antibodies

    • B. 

      Antibodies made by another organism

    • C. 

      Antibody-producing cells from another organism

    • D. 

      Antigens from a person's own body

    • E. 

      Isoantibodies

  • 83. 
    Which of the following cell types is responsible for humoral immunity?
    • A. 

      C lymphocytes

    • B. 

      B cells

    • C. 

      Neutrophils

    • D. 

      Natural killer cells

    • E. 

      Macrophages

  • 84. 
    The type of white blood cell that develops into a macrophage is the
    • A. 

      Basophil

    • B. 

      Monocyte

    • C. 

      Lymphocte

    • D. 

      Eosinophil

    • E. 

      Neutrophil

  • 85. 
    Which of the following function primarily as phagocytes
    • A. 

      Macrophages

    • B. 

      Neutrophils and macrophages

    • C. 

      Lymphocytes and macrophages

    • D. 

      Lymphocytes

    • E. 

      Neutrophils

  • 86. 
    B cells or T cells are
    • A. 

      Basophils

    • B. 

      Monocytes

    • C. 

      Lymphoctes

    • D. 

      Eosinophils

    • E. 

      Neutrophils

  • 87. 
    The basic function of activated T cells is to identify
    • A. 

      Pathogens in blood or lymph

    • B. 

      Pathogens in interstitial fluid

    • C. 

      Body cells that have been invaded by pathogens

    • D. 

      Chemical mediators of immunity

    • E. 

      Activated macrophages

  • 88. 
    What type of cell acts as an intermediary between humoral and cell-mediated immunity?
    • A. 

      Plasma cell

    • B. 

      Cytotoxic T cell

    • C. 

      B cell

    • D. 

      Helper T cell

    • E. 

      Macrophage

  • 89. 
     The innate chemical defense substance that activates T cells and B cells is
    • A. 

      Histamine

    • B. 

      Complement

    • C. 

      Interleukin

    • D. 

      Interferon

    • E. 

      Epinephrine

  • 90. 
    The innate chemical substance that alerts other cells and components of the immune system to a viral infection is
    • A. 

      Histamine

    • B. 

      Complement

    • C. 

      Interleukin

    • D. 

      Interferon

    • E. 

      Epinephrine

  • 91. 
    The innate chemical substance produced by basophils that cause blood vessels to dilate is
    • A. 

      Histamine

    • B. 

      Complement

    • C. 

      Interleukin

    • D. 

      Interferon

    • E. 

      Epinephrine

  • 92. 
    The “master cells” of the immune system that initiate and coordinate the adaptive immune response are
    • A. 

      Basophils

    • B. 

      Helper T cells

    • C. 

      Mast cells

    • D. 

      Cytotoxic T cells

    • E. 

      B cells

  • 93. 
    ___ can destroy infected cells
    • A. 

      Macrophages

    • B. 

      Plasma cells

    • C. 

      Monocytes

    • D. 

      B cells

    • E. 

      Cytotoxic T cells

  • 94. 
    HIV has a high mutation rate and can use this to its advantage to develop resistance to antivirals because
    • A. 

      Frequent mutations provide greater opportunity for survival of selective pressures

    • B. 

      Viral agents infect specific cells, which enhances mutations

    • C. 

      Antivirals target viral DNA

    • D. 

      Helper T cells prevent antivirals from reaching HIV

    • E. 

      Mutation in RNA viruses is always an advantage to the virus

  • 95. 
    What type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?
    • A. 

      Cell-mediated

    • B. 

      Inflammatory

    • C. 

      Humoral-mediated

    • D. 

      Autoimmune

    • E. 

      Complement-mediated

  • 96. 
    Which of the following compounds is produced and secreted by mast cells?
    • A. 

      Interferon

    • B. 

      Complement

    • C. 

      Allergens

    • D. 

      Histamine

    • E. 

      Perforin

  • 97. 
    In humans, which blood vessels have valves?
    • A. 

      Arteries in the neck

    • B. 

      Arterioles

    • C. 

      Capillaries

    • D. 

      Venules

    • E. 

      Veins

  • 98. 
    In which of the following human blood vessels is the blood pressure lowest?
    • A. 

      Arteries in the head

    • B. 

      Arterioles in the legs

    • C. 

      Capillaries in the feet

    • D. 

      The aorta

    • E. 

      Veins in the head

  • 99. 
    Which kind of vessel has the lowest blood velocity?
    • A. 

      Artery

    • B. 

      Arteriole

    • C. 

      Capillary

    • D. 

      Venule

    • E. 

      Vein

  • 100. 
    Which of the following animals can obtain the oxygen they need by diffusion of oxygen across the surface of their body?
    • A. 

      Fish and flatworms

    • B. 

      Fish

    • C. 

      Flatworms

    • D. 

      Sea anemones

    • E. 

      Sea anemones and earth worms

  • 101. 
    In arthropods, thee extensively branched internal tubules that connect to the atmosphere through the exoskeleton are
    • A. 

      Spicules

    • B. 

      Alveoli

    • C. 

      Tracheae

    • D. 

      Spiracles

    • E. 

      Gills

  • 102. 
    In aquatic organisms, highly folded structures that exchange gases directly with water
    • A. 

      Spicules

    • B. 

      Alveoli

    • C. 

      Tracheae

    • D. 

      Spiracles

    • E. 

      Gills

  • 103. 
    The anatomical arrangement in which two adjacent currents flow in opposite directions and exchange materials with each other is found in the respiratory systems of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Mammals

    • B. 

      Birds

    • C. 

      Fishes

    • D. 

      Worms

    • E. 

      Sea anemones

  • 104. 
    Sleep apnea is more common in people who are overweight. Excess fat in the neck compresses the ___ cutting off air flow.
    • A. 

      Larynx

    • B. 

      Thorax

    • C. 

      Bronchi

    • D. 

      Lungs

    • E. 

      Alveoli

  • 105. 
    The substance that when activated triggers a chain reaction that punctures bacterial cell membrane is
    • A. 

      Histamine

    • B. 

      Interleukin

    • C. 

      ADH

    • D. 

      Complement

    • E. 

      Epinephrine