Bio1338 Plants - Plant Cell Structures - Lecture One

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Bio1338 Plants - Plant Cell Structures - Lecture One - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Complete the following sentence:Plants are a diverse kingdom of eukaryotic organisms that specialise in scavanging extremely ____ mineral nutrients to generate organic molecules using solar energy.

    Explanation
    Plants are a diverse kingdom of eukaryotic organisms that specialize in scavenging extremely dilute mineral nutrients to generate organic molecules using solar energy. This means that plants have the ability to extract and utilize even small amounts of essential minerals from their environment, which they then convert into organic compounds through the process of photosynthesis. By harnessing solar energy, plants are able to sustain themselves and produce the necessary organic molecules for growth and development.

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  • 2. 

    Which is true for the vacuole?

    • A.

      It occupies most of the cell volume

    • B.

      It occupies the entirety of the cell volume

    • C.

      It occupies a small amount of the cell volume

    • D.

      It occupies half of the cell volume

    Correct Answer
    A. It occupies most of the cell volume
    Explanation
    The vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle found in plant and fungal cells. It is responsible for storing water, ions, nutrients, and waste products. The vacuole can vary in size depending on the cell type and its function. In general, the vacuole occupies a significant portion of the cell volume, often referred to as "most of the cell volume." This is because the vacuole can expand and contract, allowing it to regulate the cell's internal pressure and maintain cell shape. Additionally, the vacuole plays a crucial role in maintaining osmotic balance and storing various molecules, making it a vital organelle in plant and fungal cells.

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  • 3. 

    Complete the following sentence:The _____ is the membrane that bounds the vacuole of a plant cell.

    Correct Answer
    Tonoplast
    Explanation
    The tonoplast is the correct answer because it is the membrane that surrounds and encloses the vacuole in a plant cell. The tonoplast is responsible for maintaining the integrity and stability of the vacuole, regulating the movement of molecules in and out of the vacuole, and storing various substances such as water, ions, and waste products. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall structure and function of the plant cell.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following are the correct functions of a vacuole?You may select more than one.

    • A.

      Maintains TURGOR pressures by osmotic influx of water

    • B.

      Balancing the pH of the cell

    • C.

      Ionic homeostasis

    • D.

      Contains enzymes

    • E.

      Storing waste products

    • F.

      Cell-cell communication

    • G.

      Cell-cell connection

    • H.

      Site of photosynthesis

    • I.

      Site of respiration

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Maintains TURGOR pressures by osmotic influx of water
    B. Balancing the pH of the cell
    C. Ionic homeostasis
    D. Contains enzymes
    E. Storing waste products
    Explanation
    The vacuole is responsible for maintaining turgor pressures by osmotic influx of water, which helps to maintain the shape and rigidity of the cell. It also plays a role in balancing the pH of the cell, ensuring that the internal environment remains at an optimal pH level for cellular processes. The vacuole is involved in ionic homeostasis, regulating the concentration of ions within the cell. It contains enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes and can break down macromolecules. Additionally, the vacuole serves as a storage site for waste products, preventing them from accumulating in the cytoplasm and potentially harming the cell.

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  • 5. 

    Complete the following sentence:The _________ is a solid but dynamic and metabolically active extracellular structure composed largely of cellulose fibres and other complex polysaccharides.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Cell wall
    Explanation
    The cell wall is a solid but dynamic and metabolically active extracellular structure composed largely of cellulose fibers and other complex polysaccharides. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintaining its shape and preventing it from bursting or collapsing. The cell wall also plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication, allowing the exchange of nutrients and signaling molecules between neighboring cells. Additionally, it acts as a barrier against pathogens and mechanical stress, enhancing the overall strength and resilience of the cell.

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  • 6. 

    Complete the following sentence:The plant cell wall is composed largely of...

    • A.

      Cellulose fibres

    • B.

      Peptidoglycan

    • C.

      Phospholipids

    • D.

      Starch

    Correct Answer
    A. Cellulose fibres
    Explanation
    The plant cell wall is composed largely of cellulose fibers, which provide structural support and rigidity to the cell. Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate made up of glucose molecules linked together. These fibers form a strong network that surrounds the cell membrane and protects the cell from mechanical stress. Additionally, cellulose allows for the passage of water and nutrients through the cell wall, facilitating cell growth and maintaining cell shape. Peptidoglycan is primarily found in bacterial cell walls, while phospholipids are major components of cell membranes. Starch is a storage carbohydrate found in plant cells, but it is not a major component of the cell wall.

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  • 7. 

    Complete the following sentence:Collectively, the cell walls are termed the "_________".

    Correct Answer
    Apoplast
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Apoplast". The term "Apoplast" refers to the collective cell walls in a plant. It includes the extracellular spaces, cell walls, and the intercellular spaces that allow for the movement of water, ions, and other substances. The apoplast plays a crucial role in the transportation of water and nutrients throughout the plant.

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  • 8. 

    Complete the following sentence:Cellulose is a polymer of glucose residues linked together by a...

    • A.

      Beta 1-4 bond

    • B.

      Alpha 1-4 bond

    • C.

      Beta 1-6 bond

    • D.

      Alpha 1-6 bond

    Correct Answer
    A. Beta 1-4 bond
    Explanation
    Cellulose is a polymer of glucose residues linked together by a beta 1-4 bond. This means that the glucose molecules are connected through a beta linkage at the carbon 1 position of one glucose molecule to the carbon 4 position of the next glucose molecule. This type of bond gives cellulose its linear and rigid structure, making it an important component of plant cell walls.

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  • 9. 

    Complete the following sentence:Neighbouring glucose residues in cellulose are...

    • A.

      Rotated 180° about the axis of the polymer chain

    • B.

      Rotated 90° about the axis of the polymer chain

    • C.

      Rotated 270° about the axis of the polymer chain

    • D.

      Rotated 75° about the axis of the polymer chain

    Correct Answer
    A. Rotated 180° about the axis of the polymer chain
    Explanation
    Neighbouring glucose residues in cellulose are rotated 180° about the axis of the polymer chain. This rotation allows for the formation of strong hydrogen bonds between the glucose residues, resulting in the formation of a highly ordered and rigid structure. This arrangement gives cellulose its characteristic strength and stability.

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  • 10. 

    True or False?Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cellulose is indeed the most abundant biopolymer on the planet. It is a complex carbohydrate found in the cell walls of plants, providing structural support. Due to the vast number of plants on Earth, cellulose is widely available and makes up a significant portion of biomass. It is an essential component of plant-based materials such as wood, cotton, and paper.

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  • 11. 

    Complete the following sentence:Cellulose fibres are synthesised by enzyme complexes that are guided by the microtubule __________.

    Correct Answer
    Cytoskeleton
    Explanation
    Cellulose fibers are synthesized by enzyme complexes that are guided by the microtubule cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments within the cell that provides structural support and helps in cell movement and division. In the case of cellulose synthesis, the microtubules of the cytoskeleton act as tracks or guides for the enzyme complexes, ensuring the proper alignment and arrangement of cellulose fibers. This allows for the formation of a strong and organized cellulose structure, which is a major component of plant cell walls.

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  • 12. 

    Complete the following sentence:Cell wall _______ is the controlled loosening of the cell wall by numerous proteins and enzymes.

    Correct Answer
    Expansion
    Explanation
    Expansion is the process of controlled loosening of the cell wall by numerous proteins and enzymes. This allows the cell to increase in size and volume, accommodating growth and development. Expansion of the cell wall is crucial for plant cells, as it enables them to elongate and maintain their shape. This process is regulated by various factors, including hormones and environmental cues, to ensure proper cell growth and tissue development.

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  • 13. 

    How much of the plant genome is involved in cell wall formation?

    • A.

      5-10%

    • B.

      1-2%

    • C.

      10-15%

    • D.

      25-50%

    Correct Answer
    A. 5-10%
    Explanation
    Approximately 5-10% of the plant genome is involved in cell wall formation. This indicates that a small portion of the plant's genetic material is responsible for the synthesis and maintenance of the cell wall, which is a crucial structure providing support and protection to the plant cells. The remaining percentage of the genome is likely involved in other important cellular processes and functions.

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  • 14. 

    Complete the following sentence:_________________ drives cell expansion once the cell wall is loosened.

    Correct Answer
    TURGOR pressure
    Explanation
    Turgor pressure is the force exerted by the fluid inside a plant cell against its cell wall. Once the cell wall is loosened, turgor pressure drives cell expansion. This pressure allows the cell to stretch and grow, contributing to the overall growth and development of the plant.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is true?

    • A.

      During mitosis, a new cell wall is generated perpendicular to the mitotic spindle

    • B.

      During mitosis, a new cell wall is generated parallel to the mitotic spindle

    • C.

      During meiosis, a new cell wall is generated perpendicular to the meiotic spindle

    • D.

      During meiosis, a new cell wall is generated parallel to the meiotic spindle

    Correct Answer
    A. During mitosis, a new cell wall is generated perpendicular to the mitotic spindle
  • 16. 

    Complete the following sentence:___________ are holes through which organelles of a plant cell are connected to its neighbouring plant cell.

    Correct Answer
    Plasmodesmata
    Explanation
    Plasmodesmata are small channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells. These channels allow for the exchange of various molecules, such as water, nutrients, and signaling molecules, between neighboring cells. Plasmodesmata play a crucial role in facilitating communication and coordination among plant cells, allowing them to function as a cohesive unit.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following plant organelles and structures are connected to neighbouring cells through the plasmodesmata?You may select more than one.

    • A.

      Plasma membrane

    • B.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Cytosol

    • D.

      Vacuole

    • E.

      Nucleus

    • F.

      Chloroplast

    • G.

      Mitochondria

    • H.

      Golgi body

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Plasma membrane
    B. Endoplasmic reticulum
    C. Cytosol
    Explanation
    Plasmodesmata are channels that connect plant cells and allow for the exchange of materials between neighboring cells. The plasma membrane is the outermost boundary of the cell and it forms the lining of the plasmodesmata, allowing for communication and transport between cells. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membranes within the cell that is also connected to the plasmodesmata, enabling the movement of proteins and other molecules between cells. Cytosol, the liquid component of the cytoplasm, is also connected to neighboring cells through the plasmodesmata, facilitating the exchange of nutrients and signaling molecules. Therefore, the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytosol are all connected to neighboring cells through the plasmodesmata.

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  • 18. 

    Complete the following sentence:Due to plasmodesmata connecting plant cells, the plant is therefore a continuous cytoplasm known as the ________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Symplast
    Explanation
    Plasmodesmata are microscopic channels that connect plant cells, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, water, and signaling molecules. This interconnected network creates a continuous cytoplasmic pathway throughout the plant, known as the symplast. The symplast plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall functioning and communication between plant cells, facilitating the transport of substances and coordinating various cellular processes.

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  • 19. 

    Complete the following sentence:The ______ is the site of photosynthesis.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Chloroplast
    Explanation
    The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis in plants. It is an organelle found in the cells of plants and algae, and it contains chlorophyll, a pigment that captures light energy. During photosynthesis, chloroplasts convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose and oxygen. This process is essential for plants to produce food and release oxygen into the atmosphere. Therefore, the chloroplast plays a crucial role in the energy conversion and sustenance of plant life.

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  • 20. 

    Complete the following sentence:Chloroplasts develop from ________ following exposure to red light.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Etioplasts
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts develop from etioplasts following exposure to red light. Etioplasts are plastids that develop in plants when they are grown in the dark or under low light conditions. They contain prolamellar bodies instead of chlorophyll, which are transformed into chloroplasts upon exposure to red light. This process is known as chloroplast development or chloroplast biogenesis.

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  • 21. 

    Complete the following sentence:Plants are modified in _______ to store reserves of starch.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Tubers
    Explanation
    Plants are modified in tubers to store reserves of starch. Tubers are swollen, underground plant stems that have been modified to store nutrients, including starch. These modified stems allow plants to store energy for future use, especially during periods of dormancy or unfavorable conditions. Tubers are commonly found in plants such as potatoes, yams, and sweet potatoes, where they serve as a source of nutrition for the plant and can also be harvested and consumed by humans and animals.

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  • 22. 

    Complete the following sentence:Together, the xylem and phloem form the __________________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Vascular bundle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "vascular bundle" because the xylem and phloem are two types of tissues that are responsible for transporting water, nutrients, and sugars throughout a plant. These tissues are found together in a structure called a vascular bundle, which is present in the stems, roots, and leaves of plants. The xylem transports water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant, while the phloem transports sugars and other organic molecules from the leaves to other parts of the plant. Therefore, the xylem and phloem together form the vascular bundle.

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