Bentley Ch. 7 Test

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Bentley Ch. 7 Test - Quiz

Multiple choice test for Bentley chapter on Persia


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The Persian king who regularized tax levies and standardized laws was

    • A.

      Cyrus

    • B.

      Cambyses

    • C.

      Darius

    • D.

      Xerxes

    Correct Answer
    C. Darius
    Explanation
    Darius is the correct answer because he was a Persian king who implemented various administrative reforms, including the regularizing of tax levies and the standardization of laws. He established a system of taxation that was more efficient and fair, ensuring a steady revenue stream for the empire. Darius also introduced a set of laws known as the "Darius Code," which aimed to bring uniformity and consistency to the legal system across the Persian Empire. His reforms greatly contributed to the stability and prosperity of the Persian Empire during his reign.

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  • 2. 

    The center of the Persian communication network was

    • A.

      The Royal Road

    • B.

      The Qanats

    • C.

      The Emperor's Trail

    • D.

      The Persian navy

    Correct Answer
    A. The Royal Road
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Royal Road. The Royal Road was the center of the Persian communication network as it was a vast road system that connected various parts of the Persian Empire. It facilitated the efficient movement of people, goods, and information across the empire, allowing for effective communication between different regions. This network played a crucial role in the administration and governance of the empire, making the Royal Road the central hub of Persian communication.

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  • 3. 

    The Persian legal code was designed to

    • A.

      Impose a uniform law code on the entire empire

    • B.

      Terrify the subject tribes of the empire into submission

    • C.

      Codify the laws of the subject peoples

    • D.

      Abolish the laws of individual lands

    Correct Answer
    C. Codify the laws of the subject peoples
    Explanation
    The Persian legal code was designed to codify the laws of the subject peoples. This means that the code aimed to collect and organize the laws that were already in place among the different groups within the empire. By doing so, it sought to create a unified legal system that would apply to all subject peoples, ensuring consistency and fairness in the administration of justice. This approach would have helped to establish a sense of order and stability within the empire, as well as facilitate the governance and control of the diverse territories under Persian rule.

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  • 4. 

    For his decision to allow them to return to their capital city and rebuild their temple, Darius received high praise from these people. Who were they?

    • A.

      Medes

    • B.

      Jews

    • C.

      Egyptians

    • D.

      Assyrians

    Correct Answer
    B. Jews
    Explanation
    The Jews were the ones who praised Darius for his decision to allow them to return to their capital city and rebuild their temple. This suggests that Darius was supportive of their religious freedom and showed compassion towards their plight. It also implies that the Jews held Darius in high regard for his benevolence and willingness to accommodate their needs.

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  • 5. 

    The major early turning point in the rise of the Persian Empire was the

    • A.

      Victory of Darius at Salamis

    • B.

      Victory of Cambyses over Rome

    • C.

      Victory of Cyrus over Lydia

    • D.

      Victory in the Persian Wars

    Correct Answer
    C. Victory of Cyrus over Lydia
    Explanation
    The major early turning point in the rise of the Persian Empire was the victory of Cyrus over Lydia. This victory allowed Cyrus to expand his empire and establish control over Lydia, a powerful kingdom in Asia Minor. By defeating Lydia, Cyrus gained access to its wealth and resources, which greatly strengthened the Persian Empire. This victory also set a precedent for future conquests and laid the foundation for the Persian Empire's expansion and dominance in the region.

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  • 6. 

    The battle of Marathon in 490 B.C.E. proved to be

    • A.

      A bloody stalemate with neither side claiming victory

    • B.

      An overwhelming Persian victory

    • C.

      A Persian loss

    • D.

      A slight victory that turned the tide in Persia's favor in the Persian

    Correct Answer
    C. A Persian loss
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a Persian loss". The battle of Marathon in 490 B.C.E. resulted in a defeat for the Persians. Despite having a larger army, the Persians were unable to overcome the Greek forces and were forced to retreat. This victory for the Greeks was significant as it halted the Persian advance and boosted the morale of the Greek city-states.

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  • 7. 

    The social structure of the Medes and Persians was originally very similar to

    • A.

      The Mesopotamians

    • B.

      The Greeks

    • C.

      The Aryans

    • D.

      The Romans

    Correct Answer
    C. The Aryans
    Explanation
    The social structure of the Medes and Persians was originally very similar to the Aryans. This suggests that the Medes and Persians may have been influenced by Aryan culture and adopted similar social structures. The Aryans were known for their hierarchical social system, with different classes and a clear division of labor. This similarity in social structure implies a cultural connection or influence between the Medes and Persians and the Aryans.

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  • 8. 

    Zarathustra viewed the material world

    • A.

      As a trick of Angra Mainyu to mislead the faithful, similar to Christianity

    • B.

      As the equivalent of hell, similar to Christianity

    • C.

      As a gift from Ahura Mazda that should be enjoyed

    • D.

      As a resting place for the reincarnated, similar to Hinduism

    Correct Answer
    C. As a gift from Ahura Mazda that should be enjoyed
    Explanation
    Zarathustra viewed the material world as a gift from Ahura Mazda that should be enjoyed. This suggests that he believed that the physical world was created by a divine being and was meant to be appreciated and cherished. This perspective is different from the other options provided, which either view the material world as deceptive, equivalent to hell, or a resting place for reincarnated souls. Zarathustra's view aligns with a positive and appreciative attitude towards the material world.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following lists of Persian empires is correct chronologically?

    • A.

      Achaemenids, Sasanids, Seleucids, Parthians

    • B.

      Parthians, Achaemenids, Seleucids, Sasanids

    • C.

      Sasanids, Parthians, Seleucids, Achaemenids

    • D.

      Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, Sasanids

    Correct Answer
    D. Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, Sasanids
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, Sasanids. This is the correct chronological order of the Persian empires. The Achaemenids were the first Persian empire, followed by the Seleucids, then the Parthians, and finally the Sasanids.

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  • 10. 

    Darius picked up the idea of a standardized government-issued coinage from the

    • A.

      Babylonians

    • B.

      Egyptians

    • C.

      Lydians

    • D.

      Indians

    Correct Answer
    C. Lydians
    Explanation
    Darius adopted the concept of standardized government-issued coinage from the Lydians. The Lydians were one of the first civilizations to introduce a standardized system of currency, which greatly facilitated trade and economic transactions. This innovation allowed for a more efficient and reliable means of exchange, as well as the establishment of a stable monetary system. By emulating the Lydians' successful model, Darius aimed to enhance the economic development and stability of his own empire.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following empires normally displayed the greatest degree of toleration toward its subject peoples?

    • A.

      Assyrian

    • B.

      Greek

    • C.

      Egyptian

    • D.

      Achaemenid

    Correct Answer
    D. Achaemenid
    Explanation
    The Achaemenid Empire normally displayed the greatest degree of toleration toward its subject peoples. This empire, which existed from 550 to 330 BCE, encompassed a vast territory and was known for its policy of religious and cultural tolerance. The Achaemenids allowed their subject peoples to retain their own customs, languages, and religions, as long as they paid tribute and remained loyal to the empire. This policy of inclusivity and acceptance contributed to the stability and longevity of the Achaemenid Empire.

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  • 12. 

    The classic Persian governmental approach was

    • A.

      The use of relentless terror to oppress the conquered tribes

    • B.

      To impose their own religious beliefs on the peoples of the empire

    • C.

      To appoint every governmental post with a member of the Persian royal family

    • D.

      An enlightened and tolerant one

    Correct Answer
    D. An enlightened and tolerant one
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an enlightened and tolerant one." This means that the classic Persian governmental approach was characterized by being open-minded, progressive, and accepting of different cultures and beliefs. They did not use terror to oppress conquered tribes or impose their own religious beliefs. Additionally, they did not exclusively appoint members of the Persian royal family to governmental posts, indicating a more inclusive and fair approach to governance.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following basic tenets of Zoroastrianism did NOT influence later religions?

    • A.

      The belief in a heaven and hell

    • B.

      The encouragement of high moral standards

    • C.

      The view of the material world as a place of temptation that had to be ignored

    • D.

      The belief that each individual plays a key role in determining his or her spiritual destiny

    Correct Answer
    C. The view of the material world as a place of temptation that had to be ignored
    Explanation
    Zoroastrianism influenced many later religions with its basic tenets, such as the belief in a heaven and hell, the encouragement of high moral standards, and the belief that each individual plays a key role in determining his or her spiritual destiny. However, the view of the material world as a place of temptation that had to be ignored is not a tenet that significantly influenced later religions. This belief is more specific to Zoroastrianism and not widely adopted by other religious traditions.

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  • 14. 

    The Medes and Persians were originally

    • A.

      Indo-European tribes

    • B.

      Semitic-speaking nomads related to the Hyksos

    • C.

      Later Mesopotamian petty kingdoms

    • D.

      Minor Babylonian rulers

    Correct Answer
    A. Indo-European tribes
    Explanation
    The Medes and Persians were originally Indo-European tribes. This means that their language and culture were rooted in the Indo-European language family, which includes languages like English, Spanish, and Hindi. Indo-European tribes were known for their migrations and conquests across different regions, and the Medes and Persians were no exception. They eventually established powerful empires in the ancient Near East, with the Achaemenid Empire being the most notable. This explanation highlights the historical and linguistic background of the Medes and Persians as Indo-European tribes.

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  • 15. 

    Zoroastrianism was

    • A.

      Spread by force throughout the Persian empire

    • B.

      Very strongly monotheistic

    • C.

      Allowed to spread through its own merits

    • D.

      Borrowed by the Persians from the Assyrians

    Correct Answer
    C. Allowed to spread through its own merits
    Explanation
    Zoroastrianism was allowed to spread through its own merits because it was a religion that gained followers based on its own teachings and beliefs, rather than being forced upon people through coercion or violence. This suggests that Zoroastrianism was able to attract followers through its appeal and the persuasive power of its ideas, rather than relying on force or external influences.

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  • 16. 

    In organizing their empire, Perisna rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the

    • A.

      Lydians

    • B.

      Egyptians

    • C.

      Mesopotamians

    • D.

      Chinese

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesopotamians
    Explanation
    The Perisna rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the Mesopotamians in organizing their empire. Mesopotamia, known for its advanced civilization and administrative systems, provided a model for governance and organization that the Perisna rulers found effective. By adopting Mesopotamian administrative techniques, the Perisna rulers were able to establish a structured and efficient empire.

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  • 17. 

    The Seleucids, Parthians, and Sasanids were different ethnic groups but they all shared one attibute that allowed them to continue strong imperial rule. What was it?

    • A.

      They founded new cities to serve as administrative capitals

    • B.

      They continued Darius' administrative policies

    • C.

      They had few neighbors with imperial ambitions

    • D.

      They used Persian administrators as satraps

    Correct Answer
    B. They continued Darius' administrative policies
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that they continued Darius' administrative policies. This means that these three ethnic groups adopted and maintained the administrative systems put in place by Darius, which allowed them to effectively govern their empires. By continuing these policies, they were able to maintain a strong imperial rule and ensure the efficient functioning of their administrations.

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  • 18. 

    Like Mesopotamia and Egypt, Perisan society was highly stratified. As in these cutlures, most people in rural areas were engaged in

    • A.

      Building temple complexes and new cities

    • B.

      Manufacturing trade items for the export market

    • C.

      Cultivation of grain crops exclusively since slaves could be used in irrigation duties

    • D.

      Agriculture and the maintenance of an adequate watter supply for the crops

    Correct Answer
    D. Agriculture and the maintenance of an adequate watter supply for the crops
    Explanation
    In Persia, like in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the society was highly stratified. The majority of people in rural areas were engaged in agriculture and maintaining a sufficient water supply for their crops. This was crucial for their survival and the success of their agricultural practices. Additionally, the use of slaves for irrigation duties allowed them to focus on the cultivation of grain crops exclusively.

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  • 19. 

    The Achaemenids fell due to a combination of 

    • A.

      A weakening army and succession problems

    • B.

      Growing intolerance of other cultures and internal rebellions

    • C.

      Attacks from central Asia and weak bureaucracy

    • D.

      Bureaucratic infighting and a discontented population

    Correct Answer
    B. Growing intolerance of other cultures and internal rebellions
    Explanation
    The Achaemenids fell due to growing intolerance of other cultures and internal rebellions. This suggests that the empire became less tolerant towards different cultures and faced internal uprisings, which ultimately led to its downfall. The increasing intolerance may have caused resentment among conquered peoples, leading to rebellions and instability within the empire. This could have weakened the Achaemenid rule and made it difficult for them to maintain control over their vast territories.

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  • 20. 

    What aspect of Zoroastrianism is the most significant with respect to world history?

    • A.

      It became one of the many foreign religions that found a home in India

    • B.

      It sustained the Persian empire and served as a justification for their rule

    • C.

      Parts of its tenets were adopted by monotheistic religions

    • D.

      Zoroastrianism is the founding faith of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

    Correct Answer
    C. Parts of its tenets were adopted by monotheistic religions
    Explanation
    Zoroastrianism's most significant aspect with respect to world history is that parts of its tenets were adopted by monotheistic religions. This suggests that Zoroastrianism had a profound influence on the development of these religions, shaping their beliefs and practices. The adoption of Zoroastrian ideas by monotheistic religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam highlights the enduring impact of Zoroastrianism on world religious traditions.

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