Bentley Ch. 12 Test

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Multiple choice test for Bentley Ch. 12 Cross-cultural exchanges on the Silk Roads


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The prophet who promoted a syncretic blend of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist elements into a religious faith that would serve the needs of a cosmopolitan world was
    • A. 

      Gregory the Wonderworker

    • B. 

      Mani

    • C. 

      Nestorius

    • D. 

      Ashoka

  • 2. 
    In 325 C.E., the Council of Nicaea
    • A. 

      Established the boundary line between the eastern and western Roman empires

    • B. 

      Accepted the Nestorian view of the solely divine nature of Jesus

    • C. 

      Settled a bloody civil war and reunited Rome

    • D. 

      Decided that Jesus possessed both human and divine natures

  • 3. 
    St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with _?_ thought
    • A. 

      Platonic

    • B. 

      Jewish

    • C. 

      Byzantine

    • D. 

      Greek

  • 4. 
    The land route of the silk roads ran from the Han capital of _?_ to the Mediterranean port of _?_
    • A. 

      Chang'an; Rome

    • B. 

      Beijing; Tyre

    • C. 

      Nanjing; Alexandria

    • D. 

      Chang'an; Antioch

  • 5. 
    Which of the following deserts was one of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads? Its name means "he who enters does not come back out."
    • A. 

      Sahara

    • B. 

      Gobi

    • C. 

      Taklamakan

    • D. 

      Bactrian

  • 6. 
    The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the
    • A. 

      Pax Romana

    • B. 

      Sui dynasty

    • C. 

      Silk roads

    • D. 

      Han dynasty

  • 7. 
    In the end, the popes won supreme control of the church because
    • A. 

      Of their claim to be spiritual descendants of St. Peter

    • B. 

      Of religious differences with the patriarch of Constantinople

    • C. 

      Both of their claim to be spiritual descendants of St. Peter and of their position in the original imperial capital of Rome

    • D. 

      Of their position in the original imperial capital of Rome

  • 8. 
    With the collapse in political order after the fall of the Han Empire,
    • A. 

      Confucianism became much more popular

    • B. 

      Christianity became one of the most important religions in China

    • C. 

      Daoism and Buddhism became much more popular

    • D. 

      Hindu thought began to have a profoundly important influence in China

  • 9. 
    What two developments, c. 100-500 C.E. spurred the development of long-distance trade?
    • A. 

      The building of large, imperial states and the construction of roads and bridges

    • B. 

      The end of tribal warfare and the emergence of salvation religions

    • C. 

      The spread of popular government and the development of navigation technologies

    • D. 

      The emergence of a common currency and the creation of large city-states

  • 10. 
    How did knowledge of the monsoons facilitate trade?
    • A. 

      Mariners could use this knowledge to establish trade links and sail safely throughout the Indian Ocean basin.

    • B. 

      Merchants needed to know when hurricane season was coming so they could avoid travel during that dangerous season.

    • C. 

      Luxury products could be more carefully handled in ship holds with knowledge of impending storms.

    • D. 

      Governments could plan when ships would arrive, so they could have tax collectors ready to assess tariffs.

  • 11. 
    What was the most prominent faith among silk road merchants from 200 B.C.E.-700 C.E.?
    • A. 

      Christianity

    • B. 

      Animism

    • C. 

      Buddhism

    • D. 

      Hinduism

  • 12. 
    Aspects of eastern practices can be best seen in western Christianity c. 300-700 C.E., through the
    • A. 

      Practices of baptism and communion as daily duties for devout believers.

    • B. 

      Work of eastern merchants to spread Christianity along silk road trade routes.

    • C. 

      Belief that ascetism and withdrawal from secular society were the ideal manifestations of a Christian life.

    • D. 

      Diaspora of Jews and their strict reliance on dietary and marriage laws.

  • 13. 
    Manichaeism was feared by imperial states because it
    • A. 

      Was based on a strong missionary and conversion movement similar to the cult of Isis.

    • B. 

      Was seen as a threat to public order and was suspected as a threat from an outside nation.

    • C. 

      Denied the divinity of the emperors and supported individual freedom of conscience.

    • D. 

      Promoted violence among the dissatisfied slave classes and contributed to slave revolts.

  • 14. 
    • A. 

      New products were developed to fight disease and carefully traded along the silk roads.

    • B. 

      New products were developed to fight disease and carefully traded along the silk roads

    • C. 

      Persia escaped the fate of China and Rome

    • D. 

      People were encouraged to explore and settle in new lands

  • 15. 
    The most important individual responsible for the inclusion of Roman educated intellectuals into early Christianity was
    • A. 

      Augustine of Hippo

    • B. 

      Plato

    • C. 

      Emperor Theodosius

    • D. 

      Constantine the Great

  • 16. 
    What was Constantine's primary motivation in moving the capital to Byzantium?
    • A. 

      It was a strategic site which linked the western empire with the increasingly wealthy east

    • B. 

      It made it easier to protect the vast empire with a more centralized capital city

    • C. 

      He wanted to build a new city to honor the Christian God, as he had just converted to Christianity

    • D. 

      The city of Rome had been sacked by the Visigoths and it was too expensive to rebuild on that site

  • 17. 
    The key reason for the collapse of the Han dynasty was
    • A. 

      The invasions by nomads from the north

    • B. 

      The plagues and diseases which came to china along the silk roads

    • C. 

      A military coup led by dissatisfied generals and the assassination of the last emperor

    • D. 

      None of these are correct

  • 18. 
    Which of the following statements best reflects the cause for BOTH the fall of the western Roman empire and the fall of Han China?
    • A. 

      The collapse of imperial power coincided with the demographic impact of epidemic disease and external threats

    • B. 

      Invasion by fierce northern nomads brought diseases which undermined the existing social order

    • C. 

      New religious traditions threatened the existing social order

    • D. 

      An unchecked military and constant threat of invasion

  • 19. 
    One key difference between the fall of Rome and the fall of Han China is that
    • A. 

      War and nomadic invasion decimated the Chinese capital city but Rome avoided destruction

    • B. 

      Buddhism became less popular in China while Christianity remained strong in Rome

    • C. 

      Han China was formally divided into three large kingdoms but Rome survived in its eastern realm for more than a thousand years

    • D. 

      Peasant unrest and insurrection plagued the late Han dynasty, but Rome resolved its land distribution issues through the use of latifundia

  • 20. 
    • A. 

      Popularity of the religions of salvation and prayer rites

    • B. 

      Adoption of eastern ascetic practices in the formation of Christian monasteries

    • C. 

      Practices of communion and confession in religious services

    • D. 

      Practices of animal sacrifice and self-mortification