Bentley Ch. 12 Test

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Bentley Ch. 12 Test - Quiz

Multiple choice test for Bentley Ch. 12 Cross-cultural exchanges on the Silk Roads


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The prophet who promoted a syncretic blend of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist elements into a religious faith that would serve the needs of a cosmopolitan world was

    • A.

      Gregory the Wonderworker

    • B.

      Mani

    • C.

      Nestorius

    • D.

      Ashoka

    Correct Answer
    B. Mani
    Explanation
    Mani was a prophet who promoted a syncretic blend of Zoroastrian, Christian, and Buddhist elements into a religious faith. He believed that his teachings could serve the needs of a cosmopolitan world by incorporating different religious beliefs and practices. Mani's religious system, known as Manichaeism, gained followers across different regions and had a significant impact on religious thought during his time.

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  • 2. 

    In 325 C.E., the Council of Nicaea

    • A.

      Established the boundary line between the eastern and western Roman empires

    • B.

      Accepted the Nestorian view of the solely divine nature of Jesus

    • C.

      Settled a bloody civil war and reunited Rome

    • D.

      Decided that Jesus possessed both human and divine natures

    Correct Answer
    D. Decided that Jesus possessed both human and divine natures
    Explanation
    The Council of Nicaea, held in 325 C.E., made the decision that Jesus possessed both human and divine natures. This was a significant theological development in early Christianity, as it established the doctrine of the Trinity and affirmed Jesus as both fully human and fully divine. The council rejected the view that Jesus was solely divine (Nestorianism) and instead affirmed the belief in the Incarnation, that Jesus was both God and man. This decision had a lasting impact on Christian theology and continues to be a fundamental belief in many Christian denominations today.

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  • 3. 

    St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with _?_ thought

    • A.

      Platonic

    • B.

      Jewish

    • C.

      Byzantine

    • D.

      Greek

    Correct Answer
    A. Platonic
    Explanation
    St. Augustine made Christian thought more appealing to the educated classes by harmonizing it with Platonic thought. This means that he integrated the ideas and concepts of Plato, a Greek philosopher, into Christian theology. By doing so, he bridged the gap between philosophy and religion, making Christianity more intellectually stimulating and attractive to the educated classes who were familiar with and respected Platonic thought.

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  • 4. 

    The land route of the silk roads ran from the Han capital of _?_ to the Mediterranean port of _?_

    • A.

      Chang'an; Rome

    • B.

      Beijing; Tyre

    • C.

      Nanjing; Alexandria

    • D.

      Chang'an; Antioch

    Correct Answer
    D. Chang'an; Antioch
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Chang'an; Antioch. Chang'an was the capital of the Han dynasty in China and served as the starting point of the land route of the Silk Roads. Antioch, on the other hand, was a major port city in the Mediterranean region and served as the endpoint of the land route. This route connected the eastern and western regions, facilitating trade and cultural exchange between China and the Mediterranean world.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following deserts was one of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads? Its name means "he who enters does not come back out."

    • A.

      Sahara

    • B.

      Gobi

    • C.

      Taklamakan

    • D.

      Bactrian

    Correct Answer
    C. Taklamakan
    Explanation
    The Taklamakan desert was one of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads because its name means "he who enters does not come back out." This suggests that the desert was notorious for its harsh conditions and treacherous terrain, making it extremely difficult for travelers to navigate and survive.

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  • 6. 

    The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the

    • A.

      Pax Romana

    • B.

      Sui dynasty

    • C.

      Silk roads

    • D.

      Han dynasty

    Correct Answer
    C. Silk roads
    Explanation
    The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay the foundations for the silk roads. The silk roads were a network of trade routes that connected China with the rest of the world, allowing for the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultures. Han Wudi recognized the potential economic and political benefits of establishing these routes and used the information provided by Zhang Qian to successfully defeat the Xiongnu, a nomadic tribe that posed a threat to China's security and trade. This paved the way for the development and expansion of the silk roads during the Han dynasty.

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  • 7. 

    In the end, the popes won supreme control of the church because

    • A.

      Of their claim to be spiritual descendants of St. Peter

    • B.

      Of religious differences with the patriarch of Constantinople

    • C.

      Both of their claim to be spiritual descendants of St. Peter and of their position in the original imperial capital of Rome

    • D.

      Of their position in the original imperial capital of Rome

    Correct Answer
    C. Both of their claim to be spiritual descendants of St. Peter and of their position in the original imperial capital of Rome
    Explanation
    The popes were able to gain supreme control of the church because they claimed to be spiritual descendants of St. Peter, who was believed to be the first pope. This claim gave them legitimacy and authority within the church. Additionally, their position in the original imperial capital of Rome also played a significant role. Rome was seen as the center of power and influence, and the popes' presence there further solidified their authority. Therefore, it was a combination of their claim to be spiritual descendants of St. Peter and their position in Rome that allowed them to win supreme control of the church.

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  • 8. 

    With the collapse in political order after the fall of the Han Empire,

    • A.

      Confucianism became much more popular

    • B.

      Christianity became one of the most important religions in China

    • C.

      Daoism and Buddhism became much more popular

    • D.

      Hindu thought began to have a profoundly important influence in China

    Correct Answer
    C. Daoism and Buddhism became much more popular
    Explanation
    After the fall of the Han Empire, the collapse in political order created a void that allowed for the rise in popularity of Daoism and Buddhism in China. With the decline of Confucianism as a dominant belief system, many people turned to these two religions for spiritual guidance and solace. Daoism, with its emphasis on living in harmony with nature and seeking inner peace, appealed to those looking for a sense of balance in a chaotic world. Buddhism, with its teachings on suffering and the pursuit of enlightenment, provided a path for individuals to find meaning and purpose in their lives. As a result, both Daoism and Buddhism gained significant traction and influence during this period.

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  • 9. 

    What two developments, c. 100-500 C.E. spurred the development of long-distance trade?

    • A.

      The building of large, imperial states and the construction of roads and bridges

    • B.

      The end of tribal warfare and the emergence of salvation religions

    • C.

      The spread of popular government and the development of navigation technologies

    • D.

      The emergence of a common currency and the creation of large city-states

    Correct Answer
    A. The building of large, imperial states and the construction of roads and bridges
    Explanation
    The building of large, imperial states and the construction of roads and bridges spurred the development of long-distance trade because they provided the necessary infrastructure and stability for trade to flourish. Large, imperial states could enforce laws and protect trade routes, while the construction of roads and bridges facilitated the transportation of goods over long distances. These developments allowed merchants to travel safely and efficiently, leading to increased trade and the exchange of goods between different regions.

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  • 10. 

    How did knowledge of the monsoons facilitate trade?

    • A.

      Mariners could use this knowledge to establish trade links and sail safely throughout the Indian Ocean basin.

    • B.

      Merchants needed to know when hurricane season was coming so they could avoid travel during that dangerous season.

    • C.

      Luxury products could be more carefully handled in ship holds with knowledge of impending storms.

    • D.

      Governments could plan when ships would arrive, so they could have tax collectors ready to assess tariffs.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mariners could use this knowledge to establish trade links and sail safely throughout the Indian Ocean basin.
    Explanation
    Knowledge of the monsoons facilitated trade by allowing mariners to establish trade links and sail safely throughout the Indian Ocean basin. The monsoons provided predictable wind patterns that could be utilized for navigation, making it easier for traders to plan their voyages and reach their destinations. By understanding the timing and direction of the monsoons, mariners could take advantage of favorable winds to sail efficiently and avoid dangerous storms. This knowledge not only improved the safety of trade routes but also enabled the establishment of profitable trade networks across different regions.

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  • 11. 

    What was the most prominent faith among silk road merchants from 200 B.C.E.-700 C.E.?

    • A.

      Christianity

    • B.

      Animism

    • C.

      Buddhism

    • D.

      Hinduism

    Correct Answer
    C. Buddhism
    Explanation
    During the time period from 200 B.C.E. to 700 C.E., Buddhism was the most prominent faith among silk road merchants. Buddhism originated in India and spread along the silk road, gaining popularity among traders and travelers. The teachings of Buddhism, which emphasized the path to enlightenment and the importance of compassion and morality, resonated with many individuals seeking spiritual guidance and a sense of purpose. As a result, Buddhism became widely practiced and influential along the silk road, making it the most prominent faith among merchants during this period.

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  • 12. 

    Aspects of eastern practices can be best seen in western Christianity c. 300-700 C.E., through the

    • A.

      Practices of baptism and communion as daily duties for devout believers.

    • B.

      Work of eastern merchants to spread Christianity along silk road trade routes.

    • C.

      Belief that ascetism and withdrawal from secular society were the ideal manifestations of a Christian life.

    • D.

      Diaspora of Jews and their strict reliance on dietary and marriage laws.

    Correct Answer
    C. Belief that ascetism and withdrawal from secular society were the ideal manifestations of a Christian life.
  • 13. 

    Manichaeism was feared by imperial states because it

    • A.

      Was based on a strong missionary and conversion movement similar to the cult of Isis.

    • B.

      Was seen as a threat to public order and was suspected as a threat from an outside nation.

    • C.

      Denied the divinity of the emperors and supported individual freedom of conscience.

    • D.

      Promoted violence among the dissatisfied slave classes and contributed to slave revolts.

    Correct Answer
    B. Was seen as a threat to public order and was suspected as a threat from an outside nation.
    Explanation
    Manichaeism was feared by imperial states because it was seen as a threat to public order and was suspected as a threat from an outside nation. The religion's teachings and practices were perceived as subversive and potentially destabilizing to the established social and political order. Additionally, the fact that Manichaeism originated in Persia and spread to other regions raised concerns about foreign influence and potential espionage. As a result, imperial states viewed Manichaeism as a dangerous and disruptive force that needed to be suppressed.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of epidemic diseases along the silk roads?

    • A.

      New products were developed to fight disease and carefully traded along the silk roads.

    • B.

      New products were developed to fight disease and carefully traded along the silk roads

    • C.

      Persia escaped the fate of China and Rome

    • D.

      People were encouraged to explore and settle in new lands

    Correct Answer
    A. New products were developed to fight disease and carefully traded along the silk roads.
    Explanation
    During the time of the silk roads, epidemic diseases were prevalent and had devastating effects on the people and regions along the trade routes. However, one positive outcome of these diseases was the development of new products to combat them. These products were carefully traded along the silk roads, as merchants recognized the importance of preventing the spread of diseases. This trade of disease-fighting products contributed to the exchange of goods and ideas along the silk roads, ultimately leading to cultural diffusion and economic growth in the regions connected by the trade routes.

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  • 15. 

    The most important individual responsible for the inclusion of Roman educated intellectuals into early Christianity was

    • A.

      Augustine of Hippo

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Emperor Theodosius

    • D.

      Constantine the Great

    Correct Answer
    A. Augustine of Hippo
    Explanation
    Augustine of Hippo is considered the most important individual responsible for the inclusion of Roman educated intellectuals into early Christianity. He played a significant role in shaping Christian theology and philosophy, synthesizing Christian beliefs with classical philosophy, particularly Platonism. Augustine's writings, such as "Confessions" and "City of God," greatly influenced the development of Christian thought and attracted educated individuals to Christianity. His emphasis on reason, logic, and intellectual engagement appealed to the Roman educated class, making him instrumental in incorporating them into early Christianity.

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  • 16. 

    What was Constantine's primary motivation in moving the capital to Byzantium?

    • A.

      It was a strategic site which linked the western empire with the increasingly wealthy east

    • B.

      It made it easier to protect the vast empire with a more centralized capital city

    • C.

      He wanted to build a new city to honor the Christian God, as he had just converted to Christianity

    • D.

      The city of Rome had been sacked by the Visigoths and it was too expensive to rebuild on that site

    Correct Answer
    A. It was a strategic site which linked the western empire with the increasingly wealthy east
    Explanation
    Constantine's primary motivation in moving the capital to Byzantium was that it was a strategic site which linked the western empire with the increasingly wealthy east. By relocating the capital to Byzantium, Constantine aimed to establish a more favorable position for trade and economic growth, as well as to strengthen the empire's defenses and protect its vast territories. This move allowed for better control and administration over the empire, as well as easier access to the valuable resources and markets of the eastern regions.

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  • 17. 

    The key reason for the collapse of the Han dynasty was

    • A.

      The invasions by nomads from the north

    • B.

      The plagues and diseases which came to china along the silk roads

    • C.

      A military coup led by dissatisfied generals and the assassination of the last emperor

    • D.

      None of these are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. None of these are correct
  • 18. 

    Which of the following statements best reflects the cause for BOTH the fall of the western Roman empire and the fall of Han China?

    • A.

      The collapse of imperial power coincided with the demographic impact of epidemic disease and external threats

    • B.

      Invasion by fierce northern nomads brought diseases which undermined the existing social order

    • C.

      New religious traditions threatened the existing social order

    • D.

      An unchecked military and constant threat of invasion

    Correct Answer
    A. The collapse of imperial power coincided with the demographic impact of epidemic disease and external threats
    Explanation
    The fall of the western Roman empire and the fall of Han China were both influenced by the collapse of imperial power, which occurred at the same time as the demographic impact of epidemic disease and external threats. This suggests that the weakening of central authority, combined with the devastating effects of diseases and external invasions, contributed to the downfall of both empires.

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  • 19. 

    One key difference between the fall of Rome and the fall of Han China is that

    • A.

      War and nomadic invasion decimated the Chinese capital city but Rome avoided destruction

    • B.

      Buddhism became less popular in China while Christianity remained strong in Rome

    • C.

      Han China was formally divided into three large kingdoms but Rome survived in its eastern realm for more than a thousand years

    • D.

      Peasant unrest and insurrection plagued the late Han dynasty, but Rome resolved its land distribution issues through the use of latifundia

    Correct Answer
    C. Han China was formally divided into three large kingdoms but Rome survived in its eastern realm for more than a thousand years
    Explanation
    The key difference between the fall of Rome and the fall of Han China is that Han China was formally divided into three large kingdoms, while Rome survived in its eastern realm for more than a thousand years. This means that after the fall of the Han dynasty, China was split into three separate kingdoms, which weakened its central authority and led to its eventual collapse. In contrast, Rome managed to survive and maintain its power in the eastern part of the empire, allowing it to continue as a political entity for a significant period of time.

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  • 20. 

    Prior to the fifth century, the impact of eastern Christianity can best be seen in the western Roman empire in the

    • A.

      Popularity of the religions of salvation and prayer rites

    • B.

      Adoption of eastern ascetic practices in the formation of Christian monasteries

    • C.

      Practices of communion and confession in religious services

    • D.

      Practices of animal sacrifice and self-mortification

    Correct Answer
    B. Adoption of eastern ascetic practices in the formation of Christian monasteries
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the adoption of eastern ascetic practices in the formation of Christian monasteries. Prior to the fifth century, the influence of eastern Christianity in the western Roman empire can be observed in the way Christian monasteries were established. Eastern ascetic practices, such as celibacy, fasting, and self-discipline, were adopted by these monasteries, shaping the way of life for Christian monks in the west. This adoption of eastern practices demonstrates the impact of eastern Christianity on the religious practices of the western Roman empire.

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