Help control Congress.
Reward personal followers.
Ensure that both parties are represented.
Appease the electorate.
Pacify interest groups.
And to control the military.
And to pick the cabinet.
Or the president to ignore Congress.
Or the president to corrupt the legislature.
Or the president to capitulate to the judiciary.
The House of Representatives.
The Supreme Court
The Electoral College
Special interest groups.
Forming a quasi-parliamentary system of government.
Providing for constitutional amendments.
Forming the House Election Committee.
Creating the Committee on Detail.
Creating the Electoral College.
In order to win an election, a candidate must receive at least half of the votes of the electoral college.
Each state receives an electoral vote for each number it has in the House.
In some states, electoral votes can be split.
State electors assemble in their state capitals to cast their ballots.
Electoral ballots are opened before a joint session of Congress during the first week in January.
The House chooses from among the top two candidates.
Each state casts one vote.
A state's vote is given to the candidate preferred by the majority of the state's House delegation.
If there is a tie within a state, that state's vote is not counted.
This process is only used when no candidate receives a majority of the votes of the electoral college.
Ulysses S. Grant
Warren G. Harding
A true balance of powers.
Supreme Court dominance.
Presidential and Supreme Court dominance
Granting pardons for federal offenses.
Wielding legislative power.
Commission officers of the armed forces.
The U.S. Constitution.
Interpretation of laws.
The execution of laws.
Politics and public opinion.
Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
Power tends to be shared most evenly when leadership is weakest.
Power tends to be wielded by the people who are in the room where a decision is made.
Power is greatest when legitimacy is strongest.
Power is rarely distinguishable from wealth and fame.
Oversee the political and policy interests of the president.
Administer federal departments as the president's representative.
Prepare the national budget for the president.
Supervise the national security agencies, such as the CIA and the FBI.
Supervise military intelligence agencies.
Intuitive, pyramid, and circular
Pyramid,ad hoc, and circular
Intuitive, ad hoc, and circular
Intuitive, pyramid, and ad hoc
Tubular, linear, and circular
The Office of Personnel Management (OPM).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA).
The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (OUSTR).
Cannot appoint their heads.
Requires Senate approval of his choices for heads of these departments.
Must share power with the judicial branch of government.
Must share power with the legislative branch of government.
Cannot appoint more than a fraction of their employees.
It has increased in recent years.
It has benefited Democrats, but not Republicans.
It has been a consistently powerful factor in recent years.
It has been a consistently negative factor in recent years.
It has decreased in recent years.
The president may be called upon to campaign for them.
The president may campaign against them in a primary.
Many members of Congress have aspirations to the presidency.
Politicians tend to rise and fall together.
Interest group contributions often depend on perceptions of proximity with popular presidents.
Route of appeal to the people.
Means of affecting the party platform.
Trump card to play with the media.
Means of forcing Congress to bargain.
Means of overriding the influence of special interests.
It is returned to Congress.
It is vetoed.
It becomes law.
Nothing. The president has 30 days to act on a bill.
Nothing. The president has 90 days to act on a bill.
The U.S. Constitution.
The need for cooperation with Congress.
Marbury v. Madison
The need for candid advice from aides.