AP Review Quiz Chapter 10

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AP Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In general, the U.S. places ________________ restrictions on its media than either France or Great Britain.

    • A.

      Many more

    • B.

      Slightly more

    • C.

      About the same number of

    • D.

      Fewer

    • E.

      More significant

    Correct Answer
    D. Fewer
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "fewer" because the statement is comparing the restrictions placed on media in the U.S. with those in France and Great Britain. The word "fewer" indicates a smaller number or amount, suggesting that the U.S. imposes less restrictions on its media compared to France and Great Britain.

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  • 2. 

    An innovative news establishment set up in 1848 to provide systematic dissemination of news to publications of different political persuasions was the

    • A.

      Ticker tape.

    • B.

      Pony Express.

    • C.

      Associated Press (AP).

    • D.

      Washington Globe.

    • E.

      Rider's Club.

    Correct Answer
    C. Associated Press (AP).
    Explanation
    The Associated Press (AP) is the correct answer because it was established in 1848 and is known for providing systematic dissemination of news to publications with varying political beliefs. The AP is a well-known and respected news organization that supplies news content to newspapers, websites, and other media outlets around the world. The other options, such as ticker tape, Pony Express, Washington Globe, and Rider's Club, are not relevant to the given description and do not fit the criteria of being an innovative news establishment providing systematic dissemination of news to publications of different political persuasions.

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  • 3. 

    A war between the U.S. and Spain was fomented by the publisher

    • A.

      William Randolph Hearst.

    • B.

      Rupert Murdoch.

    • C.

      Eugene Pulliam.

    • D.

      Theodore Loeb.

    • E.

      Christopher Donnell.

    Correct Answer
    A. William Randolph Hearst.
    Explanation
    William Randolph Hearst was a prominent newspaper publisher during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was known for his sensationalist style of journalism, often exaggerating stories to attract readers. One of the most famous instances of this was his coverage of the sinking of the USS Maine in 1898, which helped to fuel public sentiment in favor of war with Spain. Hearst's newspapers published stories accusing Spain of deliberately attacking the ship, which ultimately contributed to the outbreak of the Spanish-American War.

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  • 4. 

    The term yellow journalism was coined to describe media sensationalism in what era?

    • A.

      The early days of the republic.

    • B.

      The time of the Civil War.

    • C.

      The turn of the century (19th to 20th)

    • D.

      Post World War II

    • E.

      The Great Depression

    Correct Answer
    C. The turn of the century (19th to 20th)
    Explanation
    The term yellow journalism was coined to describe media sensationalism in the turn of the century (19th to 20th). This era was characterized by an increase in sensationalized and exaggerated news stories, often with a focus on scandal, crime, and entertainment. Yellow journalism played a significant role in shaping public opinion and selling newspapers during this time period.

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  • 5. 

    The term muckraker was first used in a political sense by

    • A.

      Theodore Roosevelt.

    • B.

      Calvin Coolidge.

    • C.

      Herbert Hoover.

    • D.

      Franklin Roosevelt.

    • E.

      James Garfield.

    Correct Answer
    A. Theodore Roosevelt.
    Explanation
    The term "muckraker" was first used in a political sense by Theodore Roosevelt. This term refers to investigative journalists who expose corruption and misconduct in society. Roosevelt popularized the term in a speech in 1906, acknowledging the importance of these journalists in bringing about social and political reforms. His recognition of their work helped to legitimize their efforts and shed light on the need for transparency and accountability in government and other institutions.

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  • 6. 

    The mass media are not a true mirror of reality because

    • A.

      Reporters are more conservative than the general public.

    • B.

      The news emphasizes sensational events and ignores positive social trends.

    • C.

      A process of selection, editing, and emphasis exists in news reporting.

    • D.

      The media tend to emphasize national events and issues over the local ones.

    • E.

      The media tend to emphasize local events and issues over national ones.

    Correct Answer
    C. A process of selection, editing, and emphasis exists in news reporting.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a process of selection, editing, and emphasis exists in news reporting." This answer suggests that the mass media are not a true mirror of reality because news reporting involves selecting certain events, editing them, and emphasizing certain aspects. This process can result in a biased representation of reality, as certain events or perspectives may be prioritized over others. This answer highlights the subjective nature of news reporting and how it can influence the portrayal of reality.

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  • 7. 

    Of the different sectors of the media in the U.S., that of major city newspapers is probably the

    • A.

      Most trusted.

    • B.

      Least trusted.

    • C.

      Least competitive.

    • D.

      Most competitive.

    • E.

      Most accurate.

    Correct Answer
    C. Least competitive.
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, "least competitive," is that major city newspapers face less competition compared to other sectors of the media in the U.S. This could be due to factors such as the decline in print media, the dominance of digital platforms, and the consolidation of newspaper ownership. With fewer competitors, major city newspapers have a relatively smaller number of rivals vying for readership and advertising revenue, making them less competitive in the media landscape.

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  • 8. 

    Though things are changing, to a remarkable degree, media ownership in the U.S. is

    • A.

      International.

    • B.

      National.

    • C.

      Regional.

    • D.

      Local.

    • E.

      Governmental.

    Correct Answer
    D. Local.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is local because the question is discussing media ownership in the U.S., and it states that "things are changing, to a remarkable degree." This implies that media ownership in the U.S. is becoming more focused on local entities rather than international, national, regional, or governmental ownership.

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  • 9. 

    Two local papers that have gained national readerships are

    • A.

      The Wall Street Journal and the New York Times.

    • B.

      The New York Times & USA Today.

    • C.

      The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.

    • D.

      The Wall Street Journal & the Los Angeles Times.

    • E.

      The New York Times & the Christian Science Monitor.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Wall Street Journal and the New York Times.
    Explanation
    This will have a slightly different answer than what is in your book because the newspaper business has greatly evolved in the past decade and a half.

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  • 10. 

    Compared with local journalists, reporters and editors for the national media are more

    • A.

      Conservative

    • B.

      Liberal

    • C.

      Restricted in what they can write.

    • D.

      Likely to act as gatekeepers and less likely to act as scorekeepers.

    • E.

      Critical of the presidency.

    Correct Answer
    B. Liberal
    Explanation
    Reporters and editors for the national media are more likely to be liberal compared to local journalists. This means that they may have a tendency to support progressive or left-leaning ideologies. They may be more inclined to cover stories that align with these beliefs or present a certain perspective. This can influence the overall tone and content of the news that is produced by the national media.

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  • 11. 

    The television weekly 60 Minutes runs a segment on the role of local politicians in the drug trade. The issue soon becomes the subject of national debate. In this role 60 Minutes is acting as

    • A.

      Gatekeeper

    • B.

      Scorekeeper

    • C.

      Watchdog

    • D.

      Investigator

    • E.

      B & C

    Correct Answer
    C. Watchdog
    Explanation
    In this scenario, 60 Minutes is acting as a watchdog. They are bringing attention to the issue of local politicians involved in the drug trade, which then becomes a subject of national debate. As a watchdog, 60 Minutes is fulfilling their role of monitoring and exposing any wrongdoing or corruption, holding those in power accountable for their actions.

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  • 12. 

    ABC news declares one presidential candidate the winner in a televised debate. In this role, ABC News is acting as

    • A.

      Gatekeeper.

    • B.

      Scorekeeper.

    • C.

      Watchdog.

    • D.

      Investigator.

    • E.

      C & D.

    Correct Answer
    B. Scorekeeper.
    Explanation
    ABC News declaring one presidential candidate the winner in a televised debate suggests that they are acting as a scorekeeper. A scorekeeper is responsible for keeping track of the points or scores of participants in a competition or event. In this case, ABC News is evaluating the performance of the candidates and determining who performed better in the debate, similar to how a scorekeeper would determine the winner of a game or match.

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  • 13. 

    The New York Times publishes an article accusing a Texas senator of using his power to extract contributions from oil industry executives. In this role, the Times is acting as

    • A.

      Gatekeeper.

    • B.

      Scorekeeper.

    • C.

      Watchdog.

    • D.

      Sounding board.

    • E.

      Adjudicator.

    Correct Answer
    C. Watchdog.
    Explanation
    The New York Times is acting as a watchdog in this scenario. A watchdog is a role often associated with the media, where they monitor and report on the activities of individuals or organizations in positions of power. In this case, the Times is accusing the Texas senator of using his power for personal gain, highlighting potential unethical behavior. This aligns with the watchdog role of the media, as they aim to hold those in power accountable and inform the public about potential wrongdoing.

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  • 14. 

    Which amendment to the U.S. Constitution prevents the government from censoring the media?

    • A.

      The First

    • B.

      The Fifth

    • C.

      The Sixth

    • D.

      The Twenty-Seventh

    • E.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    A. The First
    Explanation
    The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prevents the government from censoring the media. This amendment guarantees freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and the right to petition the government. It ensures that the government cannot interfere with the dissemination of information and ideas by the media, allowing for a free and independent press.

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  • 15. 

    For a newspaper to be found guilty of libel, the accused party must

    • A.

      Prove beyond a reasonable doubt that what was printed was damaging, even if it was printed accidentally.

    • B.

      Sue the reporter who wrote the story and not the newspaper that published it.

    • C.

      Sue the newspaper that published the story and not the reporter who wrote it.

    • D.

      Provide clear and convincing evidence that what was printed was malicious

    • E.

      Establish that what was printed could have been interpreted in more than one manner.

    Correct Answer
    D. Provide clear and convincing evidence that what was printed was malicious
    Explanation
    In order for a newspaper to be found guilty of libel, the accused party must provide clear and convincing evidence that what was printed was malicious. This means that the newspaper intentionally published false information with the intent to harm the reputation of the subject. Accidental publication or multiple interpretations of the printed material are not sufficient to prove libel. The focus is on the malicious intent behind the publication rather than the specific individuals involved in writing or publishing the story.

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  • 16. 

    In general, what position has the Supreme Court taken on the government's right to compel reporters to divulge information concerning the commission of a crime?

    • A.

      It has ruled against it.

    • B.

      It has upheld it.

    • C.

      It has avoided ruling on it.

    • D.

      It has yet to rule on it.

    • E.

      It has ruled in a contradictory manner.

    Correct Answer
    B. It has upheld it.
    Explanation
    The Supreme Court has taken the position of upholding the government's right to compel reporters to divulge information concerning the commission of a crime.

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  • 17. 

    Until it was abolished in 1987, what obligated broadcasters to present contrasting sides of controversial public issues?

    • A.

      The right of reply rule.

    • B.

      The Communications Act of 1974.

    • C.

      The fairness doctrine.

    • D.

      The equal time rule.

    • E.

      The respondent superior doctrine.

    Correct Answer
    C. The fairness doctrine.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the fairness doctrine. The fairness doctrine was a policy that required broadcasters to present contrasting views on controversial public issues. It was in effect until 1987 and aimed to ensure that different perspectives were represented in the media. This policy was implemented under the Communications Act of 1934 and was considered an important aspect of promoting balanced and diverse viewpoints in broadcasting.

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  • 18. 

    The content of radio and television broadcasts is regulated in ways that newspapers and magazines are not. For example, broadcasters are required by law to

    • A.

      Sell equal time to all candidates.

    • B.

      Allow individuals the right to reply to an attack that occurred on a regular news program.

    • C.

      Allow a candidate to petition for a station's endorsement.

    • D.

      Present contrasting sides of controversial public issues.

    • E.

      Produce public debates and forums for the discussion of current issues.

    Correct Answer
    A. Sell equal time to all candidates.
    Explanation
    Broadcasters are required by law to sell equal time to all candidates. This means that they must provide an equal opportunity for all political candidates to present their views and messages to the public. This regulation ensures fairness in the electoral process and prevents any candidate from receiving an unfair advantage over others. By selling equal time, broadcasters contribute to promoting democratic principles and allowing voters to make informed decisions based on a balanced representation of candidates' perspectives.

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  • 19. 

    A process that limits short-term effect of radio & television on voters is one that psychologists call

    • A.

      Burnout.

    • B.

      Stimulus-response acceleration.

    • C.

      Anticipatory apathy.

    • D.

      The iterative factor.

    • E.

      Selective attention.

    Correct Answer
    E. Selective attention.
    Explanation
    Selective attention refers to the process by which individuals focus their attention on specific stimuli while ignoring others. In the context of radio and television's short-term effect on voters, selective attention suggests that individuals selectively attend to certain messages or information while disregarding others. This could be influenced by factors such as personal preferences, biases, or the relevance of the information to the individual's interests or beliefs. By selectively attending to certain messages, individuals may limit the impact of radio and television on their voting decisions, thus explaining the correct answer choice.

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  • 20. 

    Compared with other Western nations, the U.S. media play a much more important role in

    • A.

      Voicing the official government line.

    • B.

      Personalizing our leaders.

    • C.

      Reflecting the political agenda of the elite.

    • D.

      Dealing with critical issues.

    • E.

      Solving social problems.

    Correct Answer
    B. Personalizing our leaders.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "personalizing our leaders." This means that the U.S. media has a greater tendency to focus on the personal lives and characteristics of political leaders, rather than just reporting on their policies or actions. This can create a more intimate and relatable image of leaders in the eyes of the public.

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  • 21. 

    According to recent polls, most Americans claim to get most of their news from 

    • A.

      Magazines of opinion.

    • B.

      Local newspapers

    • C.

      National newspapers (e.g., the New York TImes).

    • D.

      National newsweeklies (e.g., Time)

    • E.

      Television.

    Correct Answer
    E. Television.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is television. This is supported by recent polls that indicate that most Americans claim to get most of their news from television. While magazines of opinion, local newspapers, national newspapers, and national newsweeklies are also sources of news, television appears to be the most prevalent medium for news consumption among Americans.

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  • 22. 

    Compared to the average citizen, members of the national media are

    • A.

      Far more conservative.

    • B.

      Somewhat more conservative.

    • C.

      Somewhat more liberal.

    • D.

      Far more liberal.

    • E.

      More moderate.

    Correct Answer
    D. Far more liberal.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "far more liberal." This suggests that members of the national media hold political views that are significantly more liberal compared to the average citizen. This implies that the media may have a bias towards liberal ideologies in their reporting and coverage of political events and issues.

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  • 23. 

    The type of new story that is most likely to raise the question of the source's motive is the

    • A.

      Routine story.

    • B.

      Selected story.

    • C.

      Insider story.

    • D.

      Local story.

    • E.

      Predicated story.

    Correct Answer
    C. Insider story.
    Explanation
    An insider story is most likely to raise the question of the source's motive because it involves information or details that are not readily available to the general public. The source of an insider story may have personal or professional motivations for sharing the information, such as advancing their own agenda, settling scores, or gaining attention or recognition. Therefore, the motives of the source need to be carefully examined and questioned when considering the credibility and reliability of an insider story.

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  • 24. 

    The source of a background story is typically

    • A.

      One of the wire services (AP, UP, Reuters).

    • B.

      Not identified by name.

    • C.

      The president's press secretary.

    • D.

      The president.

    • E.

      The president's chief of staff.

    Correct Answer
    B. Not identified by name.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "not identified by name." This means that the source of a background story is typically not disclosed or mentioned by name. This could be because the information is sensitive or confidential, and the source wishes to remain anonymous. By not identifying the source, it allows for more freedom in sharing information without directly attributing it to a specific individual or organization.

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  • 25. 

    Among the weapons that the government uses to constrain journalists is the

    • A.

      Threat of the government's revoking of journalist's license.

    • B.

      Enforcement of the Freedom of Information Reform Act of 1976.

    • C.

      Need for journalists to stay on good terms with their inside sources of information.

    • D.

      Threat that press officers will bypass the local media and reach the national media directly.

    • E.

      The Supreme Court's ruling in Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire.

    Correct Answer
    C. Need for journalists to stay on good terms with their inside sources of information.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the need for journalists to stay on good terms with their inside sources of information. This is because journalists heavily rely on their sources to gather information and news. If journalists do not maintain good relationships with their sources, they may lose access to valuable information and exclusive stories. By staying on good terms with their inside sources, journalists can ensure a continuous flow of information, which is crucial for their work.

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