About the same number of
Associated Press (AP).
William Randolph Hearst.
The early days of the republic.
The time of the Civil War.
The turn of the century (19th to 20th)
Post World War II
The Great Depression
Reporters are more conservative than the general public.
The news emphasizes sensational events and ignores positive social trends.
A process of selection, editing, and emphasis exists in news reporting.
The media tend to emphasize national events and issues over the local ones.
The media tend to emphasize local events and issues over national ones.
The Wall Street Journal and the New York Times.
The New York Times & USA Today.
The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.
The Wall Street Journal & the Los Angeles Times.
The New York Times & the Christian Science Monitor.
Restricted in what they can write.
Likely to act as gatekeepers and less likely to act as scorekeepers.
Critical of the presidency.
B & C
C & D.
None of the Above
Prove beyond a reasonable doubt that what was printed was damaging, even if it was printed accidentally.
Sue the reporter who wrote the story and not the newspaper that published it.
Sue the newspaper that published the story and not the reporter who wrote it.
Provide clear and convincing evidence that what was printed was malicious
Establish that what was printed could have been interpreted in more than one manner.
It has ruled against it.
It has upheld it.
It has avoided ruling on it.
It has yet to rule on it.
It has ruled in a contradictory manner.
The right of reply rule.
The Communications Act of 1974.
The fairness doctrine.
The equal time rule.
The respondent superior doctrine.
Sell equal time to all candidates.
Allow individuals the right to reply to an attack that occurred on a regular news program.
Allow a candidate to petition for a station's endorsement.
Present contrasting sides of controversial public issues.
Produce public debates and forums for the discussion of current issues.
The iterative factor.
Voicing the official government line.
Personalizing our leaders.
Reflecting the political agenda of the elite.
Dealing with critical issues.
Solving social problems.
Magazines of opinion.
National newspapers (e.g., the New York TImes).
National newsweeklies (e.g., Time)
Far more conservative.
Somewhat more conservative.
Somewhat more liberal.
Far more liberal.
One of the wire services (AP, UP, Reuters).
Not identified by name.
The president's press secretary.
The president's chief of staff.
Threat of the government's revoking of journalist's license.
Enforcement of the Freedom of Information Reform Act of 1976.
Need for journalists to stay on good terms with their inside sources of information.
Threat that press officers will bypass the local media and reach the national media directly.
The Supreme Court's ruling in Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire.