Anp II Final Exam Part 3

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ANP II Final Exam Part 3


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following is not part of the upper respiratory system?
    • A. 

      Pharynx

    • B. 

      Trachea

    • C. 

      Nasal meatuses

  • 2. 
    The conducting zone does NOT act to
    • A. 

      Add water to air

    • B. 

      Warm air

    • C. 

      Does none of the above

  • 3. 
    The nose connects with the pharynx through the
    • A. 

      Septal cartilage

    • B. 

      External nares

    • C. 

      Choanae

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?
    • A. 

      Pharynx

    • B. 

      Larynx

    • C. 

      Paranasal sinuses

  • 5. 
    The opening to the pharynx from the mouth is called
    • A. 

      Hypopharynx

    • B. 

      Meatuses

    • C. 

      Fauces

  • 6. 
    This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea.
    • A. 

      Arytenoid cartilage

    • B. 

      Epiglottis

    • C. 

      Nasopharynx

  • 7. 
    During swallowing, which structure rises?
    • A. 

      Pharynx

    • B. 

      Esophagus

    • C. 

      Trachea

  • 8. 
    These are triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the posterior and superior border of the cricoid cartilage.
    • A. 

      Arytenoids cartilage

    • B. 

      Corniculate cartilage

    • C. 

      Cricotracheal cartilage

  • 9. 
    Pitch is controlled by
    • A. 

      Vibration of the vocal chords

    • B. 

      Tension of the vocal chords

    • C. 

      Layers of cartilage in the vocal chords

  • 10. 
    This is located anterior to the esophagus and carries air to the bronchi.
    • A. 

      Trachea

    • B. 

      Larynx

    • C. 

      Nasopharynx

  • 11. 
    This is the primary gas exchange site.
    • A. 

      Bronchiole

    • B. 

      Nasal sinuses

    • C. 

      Alveolus

  • 12. 
    Which of the below tissues maintains open airways in the lower respiratory system?
    • A. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium with keratin

    • B. 

      Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

    • C. 

      Hyaline cartilage

  • 13. 
    Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs?
    • A. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium with keratinc.

    • B. 

      ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

    • C. 

      Cilated cuboidal epithelium with goblet cells

  • 14. 
    The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called
    • A. 

      Carina

    • B. 

      Secondary bronchioles

    • C. 

      Parietal pleura

  • 15. 
    Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus?
    • A. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium

    • B. 

      Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

    • C. 

      Simple squamous epithelium

  • 16. 
    These are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant.
    • A. 

      Type I alveolar cells

    • B. 

      Type II alveolar cells

    • C. 

      Type III alveolar cells

  • 17. 
    This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells.
    • A. 

      Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide into blood

    • B. 

      Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood

    • C. 

      Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood

  • 18. 
    This is direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs.
    • A. 

      Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide into blood

    • B. 

      Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood

    • C. 

      Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood

  • 19. 
    Exhalation begins when
    • A. 

      Inspiratory muscles relax

    • B. 

      Diaphragm contracts

    • C. 

      Blood circulation is the lowest

  • 20. 
    This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily.
    • A. 

      High surface tension

    • B. 

      Low surface tension

    • C. 

      High compliance

  • 21. 
    The conducting airways with the air that does not undergo respiratory exchange are known as the
    • A. 

      Minimal volume

    • B. 

      Residual volume

    • C. 

      Respiratory dead space

  • 22. 
    This is the sum of the residual and the expiratory reserve volume.
    • A. 

      Total lung capacity

    • B. 

      Functional residual capacity

    • C. 

      Inspiratory capacity

  • 23. 
    Which of the following is not a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on.
    • A. 

      Diffusion distance

    • B. 

      Molecular weight and solubility of the gases

    • C. 

      Force of contraction of diaphragm

  • 24. 
    Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?
    • A. 

      Dissolved in plasma as a gas

    • B. 

      Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions

    • C. 

      Diffusion

  • 25. 
    When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhemoglobin _______ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ________________.
    • A. 

      Increases, decreases

    • B. 

      Decreases, increases

    • C. 

      Decreases, decreases

  • 26. 
    Which is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen?
    • A. 

      Amount of oxygen available

    • B. 

      Temperature

    • C. 

      Respiratory rate

  • 27. 
    Which is not a major function of the kidney?
    • A. 

      Regulation of blood ionic composition

    • B. 

      regulation of blood cell size

    • C. 

      regulation of blood volume

  • 28. 
    This is the formation of a new glucose molecule.
    • A. 

      Glycolysis

    • B. 

      Gluconeogenesis

    • C. 

      Glucosamine

  • 29. 
    Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?
    • A. 

      Urea

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Insulin

  • 30. 
    This is smooth dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter.
    • A. 

      Adipose capsule

    • B. 

      Renal capsule

    • C. 

      Renal hilus

  • 31. 
    The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramids is called the
    • A. 

      Renal columns

    • B. 

      Renal medulla

    • C. 

      Renal pelvis

  • 32. 
    Which is the correct order of blood flow?
    • A. 

      Renal artery-segmental artery-interlobular artery-peritubular capillaries- afferent arterioles

    • B. 

      Interlobular arteries-arcuate arteries-glomerular capillaries-arcuate veins

    • C. 

      Arcuate veins-arcuate arteries- glomerular capillaries- renal vein

  • 33. 
    Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?
    • A. 

      Glomerular capsule, Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT), Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted tubule (DCT), Collecting duct

    • B. 

      Loop of Henle, glomerular capsule, PCT, DCT, Collecting duct

    • C. 

      Ascending limb of Loop, PCT, DCT, Collecting duct

  • 34. 
    Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?
    • A. 

      Ascending limb

    • B. 

      Collecting duct

    • C. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

  • 35. 
    This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood.
    • A. 

      Glomerular capsule

    • B. 

      Loop of Henle

    • C. 

      Ascending limb

  • 36. 
    This term means entry of substances into the body from the filtrate.
    • A. 

      Reabsorption

    • B. 

      filtration

    • C. 

      Secretion

  • 37. 
    This is a nephron process that results in a substance in blood entering the already formed filtrate.
    • A. 

      Reabsorption

    • B. 

      Filtration

    • C. 

      secretion

  • 38. 
    This layer of filtration membrane is composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans in a glycoprotein matrix.
    • A. 

      Glomerular endothelial cells

    • B. 

      Basal lamina

    • C. 

      Pedicels

  • 39. 
    This occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles.
    • A. 

      Glomerular filtration rate

    • B. 

      Tubulomerular feedback

    • C. 

      Myogenic mechanism

  • 40. 
    This is when a substance passes from the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apical membrane then across the cytosol into the interstitial fluid.
    • A. 

      Paracellular reabsoprtion

    • B. 

      Transcellular reabsoprtion

    • C. 

      Apical reasborption

  • 41. 
    Once fluid enters the proximal convoluted tubule
    • A. 

      It is less dense

    • B. 

      it has a higher K+ concentration

    • C. 

      It is called tubular fluid

  • 42. 
    The proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb what percentage of filtered water?
    • A. 

      25%

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      65%

  • 43. 
    Which of the following is a way angiotensin II affects the kidneys?
    • A. 

      It increases GFR

    • B. 

      It can decrease GFR

    • C. 

      It enhances reabsorption of certain ions

  • 44. 
    Urea recycling can cause a buildup of urea in the
    • A. 

      Ascending tubule

    • B. 

      Renal medulla

    • C. 

      Renal pelvis

  • 45. 
    Increased secretion of Hydrogen ions would result in a ______________ of blood ____________?
    • A. 

      Increase, sodium levels

    • B. 

      Decrease, pH

    • C. 

      Increase, urea

  • 46. 
    Increased secretion of Aldosterone would result in a ______________ of blood ____________?
    • A. 

      increase, calcium levels

    • B. 

      Decrease, pH

    • C. 

      Increase, sodium

  • 47. 
    The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to
    • A. 

      Urea

    • B. 

      water

    • C. 

      albumin

  • 48. 
    An analysis of the physical, chemical and microscopic properties of urine is called
    • A. 

      Urinalysis

    • B. 

      Filtration study

    • C. 

      Concentration study

  • 49. 
    This is a test to measure kidney function.
    • A. 

      Plasma creatinine

    • B. 

      Renal study

    • C. 

      Kidney assay

  • 50. 
    This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder.
    • A. 

      Urethra

    • B. 

      Ureter

    • C. 

      Descending loop of Henle

  • 51. 
    This layer of the ureter is composed of connective tissue, elastic and collagen fibers.
    • A. 

      Mucosa

    • B. 

      Transitional epithelium

    • C. 

      Lamina propria

  • 52. 
    This lies in the anterior cornea of the trigone of the bladder.
    • A. 

      Ureter

    • B. 

      Internal urethral orifice

    • C. 

      Muscularis bundle

  • 53. 
    How much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?
    • A. 

      50%

    • B. 

      1/3

    • C. 

      2/3

  • 54. 
    80% of the extracellular fluid is
    • A. 

      Plasma

    • B. 

      Cytosol

    • C. 

      Interstitial fluid

  • 55. 
    This is the largest single component of the human body.
    • A. 

      Skin

    • B. 

      Water

    • C. 

      Blood

  • 56. 
    This is produced when electrons are accepted by oxygen during cellular respiration.
    • A. 

      Anions

    • B. 

      Cations

    • C. 

      Metabolic water

  • 57. 
    This occurs when water loss is greater than water gain.
    • A. 

      Dehydration

    • B. 

      Evaporation

    • C. 

      Precipitation

  • 58. 
    The response of the body to decreasing blood pressure will NOT cause which of the following?
    • A. 

      Stimulate the kidneys to secrete rennin

    • B. 

      Formation of ADH

    • C. 

      Increased vasoconstriction

  • 59. 
    This is the main factor that determines body fluid volume.
    • A. 

      Thirst center

    • B. 

      Fluid balance

    • C. 

      Urinary salt loss

  • 60. 
    Which of the following is used to promote Na reabsorption by the kidneys?
    • A. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • B. 

      ANP

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

  • 61. 
    Which of the following is used to promote water reabsorption by the kidneys?
    • A. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • B. 

      ANP

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

  • 62. 
    Natriuresis
    • A. 

      Is increased K+ levels in urine

    • B. 

      Is increased PO- levels in urine

    • C. 

      None of the above

  • 63. 
    A decline in angiotensin II levels does NOT result in
    • A. 

      Reduced water reabsorption by the kidneys

    • B. 

      Increased Calcium reabsorption

    • C. 

      Increased urine output

  • 64. 
    The major hormone that regulates water loss is
    • A. 

      Renin

    • B. 

      ADH

    • C. 

      Angiotensin

  • 65. 
    Water intoxication results from
    • A. 

      Osmosis of water from ICF to ECF

    • B. 

      Dilute body fluids and a decrease in the osmolarity of interstitial fluids

    • C. 

      Decrease in water intake

  • 66. 
    Which of the following is a function of an electrolyte in the body?
    • A. 

      Carry electrical currents

    • B. 

      Serve as cofactors

    • C. 

      All of the above

  • 67. 
    In extracellular fluid the most abundant cation is
    • A. 

      Na+

    • B. 

      Cl-

    • C. 

      K+

  • 68. 
    In extracellular fluid the most abundant anion is:
    • A. 

      Na+

    • B. 

      Cl-

    • C. 

      K+

  • 69. 
    In intracellular fluid the most abundant cation is:
    • A. 

      Na+

    • B. 

      Cl-

    • C. 

      K+

  • 70. 
    In intracellular fluid the most abundant anion is
    • A. 

      K+

    • B. 

      HPO42-

    • C. 

      HCO3-

  • 71. 
    The Na+ level in blood is controlled by
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      ATP production

  • 72. 
    This occurs between RBC and blood plasma as the blood level of carbon dioxide increases or decreases.
    • A. 

      Chloride shift

    • B. 

      Potassium shift

    • C. 

      Sodium shift

  • 73. 
    This is the most abundant mineral in the body.
    • A. 

      Na+

    • B. 

      Calcium

    • C. 

      Magnesium

  • 74. 
    PTH, ,calcitriol and calcitonin are
    • A. 

      The main regulators of magnesium in the blood

    • B. 

      The main regulators of phosphate in the blood

    • C. 

      The main regulators of calcium in the blood

  • 75. 
    Most of the phosphate in a body is present as
    • A. 

      DNA

    • B. 

      Calcium phosphate salt

    • C. 

      Carbohydrates

  • 76. 
    Buffer systems, exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all
    • A. 

      Ways to balance interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      Means of balancing blood volume

    • C. 

      Ways to eliminate H+ from the body

  • 77. 
    Metabolic reactions can produce
    • A. 

      H+

    • B. 

      HCO3

    • C. 

      Nonvolatile acids

  • 78. 
    This is a condition where blood pH is below 7.35
    • A. 

      Isodosis

    • B. 

      Acidosis

    • C. 

      Alkalosis

  • 79. 
    In partial compensation
    • A. 

      PH is brought into the normal range

    • B. 

      Systemic arterial blood is still lower than 7.35

    • C. 

      Systemic arterial blood is higher than 9.5

  • 80. 
    Inadequate exhalation of carbon dioxide can cause
    • A. 

      Blood pH to drop

    • B. 

      Alkalosis

    • C. 

      Respiratory compensation

  • 81. 
    This imbalance results when systemic arterial blood HCO3- levels drop significantly (below 22 mEq/liter)
    • A. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C. 

      Respiratory acidosis

  • 82. 
    This imbalance results when systemic arterial blood CO2 levels raise to abnormal values.
    • A. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C. 

      Respiratory acidosis

  • 83. 
    This is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis.
    • A. 

      Hemorrhage

    • B. 

      Vomiting

    • C. 

      Pneumothroax

  • 84. 
    The rate of fluid intake and outtake is how much higher in an infant than in an adult?
    • A. 

      2 times higher

    • B. 

      5 times higher

    • C. 

      7 times higher

  • 85. 
    The breathing rate of an infant
    • A. 

      Is twice as fast as an adult

    • B. 

      Causes greater water loss from the lungs

    • C. 

      Removes less carbon dioxide than in an adult