The Kidney And Osmoregulatory Organs Practice Questions!

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The Kidney And Osmoregulatory Organs Practice Questions! - Quiz


Do you know anything about the kidney and osmoregulatory organs? Although the kidneys are the major osmoregulatory organ, the skin and lungs also play a role in the process. Water and electrolytes are lost because of sweat. It is the job of these organs to regulate the balance. If you want to learn more about kidneys and osmoregulatory organs, then this is the quiz for you.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    How many nephrons are in 1 kidney ?

    • A.

      1.25 million

    • B.

      500,000

    • C.

      2.5 million

    • D.

      750,000

    Correct Answer
    A. 1.25 million
    Explanation
    Each kidney contains approximately 1.25 million nephrons. Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys responsible for filtering waste and excess water from the blood. They play a crucial role in maintaining the body's fluid balance and regulating blood pressure. The large number of nephrons in each kidney allows for efficient filtration and ensures proper kidney function.

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  • 2. 

    What is the first part of the nephron ?

    • A.

      Glomerulus

    • B.

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C.

      Loop of henle

    • D.

      Collecting duct

    Correct Answer
    A. Glomerulus
    Explanation
    The glomerulus is the first part of the nephron. It is a network of small blood vessels located in the renal corpuscle of the kidney. The glomerulus is responsible for filtering waste products, excess water, and electrolytes from the blood into the renal tubules. It plays a crucial role in the process of urine formation by selectively allowing certain substances to pass through while retaining others. The proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and collecting duct are all subsequent parts of the nephron involved in further processing and reabsorption of filtered substances.

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  • 3. 

    Where is most of the water absorbed in the nephron ?

    • A.

      Nephron

    • B.

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C.

      Loop of henle

    • D.

      Collecting duct

    Correct Answer
    D. Collecting duct
    Explanation
    In the nephron, most of the water is absorbed in the collecting duct. This is the final section of the nephron where water reabsorption occurs. The collecting duct plays a crucial role in regulating the concentration of urine by reabsorbing water based on the body's hydration needs. It allows for the concentration of urine by reabsorbing water back into the bloodstream, thus preventing excessive water loss and maintaining the body's water balance.

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  • 4. 

    The collecting duct responds to Antidiuretic hormone and reabsorbs water.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The collecting duct is a part of the nephron in the kidney that responds to Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and plays a crucial role in water reabsorption. When ADH is present, it binds to receptors in the collecting duct, causing the insertion of aquaporins into the cell membrane. These aquaporins allow water to move out of the collecting duct and back into the bloodstream, leading to water reabsorption. Therefore, the statement that the collecting duct responds to ADH and reabsorbs water is true.

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  • 5. 

    Which part of the nephron responds to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system ?

    • A.

      Glomerulus

    • B.

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C.

      Loop of henle

    • D.

      Distal convoluted tubule

    Correct Answer
    D. Distal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    The distal convoluted tubule responds to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This system plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. When blood pressure drops, the juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney release renin, which initiates a cascade of reactions leading to the production of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II acts on the distal convoluted tubule to stimulate the reabsorption of sodium and water, increasing blood volume and restoring blood pressure to normal levels. Therefore, the distal convoluted tubule is the part of the nephron that directly responds to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

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  • 6. 

    The renal artery can have a embolus and clot block.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The renal artery can develop an embolus, which is a blockage caused by a blood clot or other foreign material that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel. This can lead to a blockage in the renal artery, cutting off the blood supply to the kidney. This can cause significant damage to the kidney and potentially lead to kidney failure. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 7. 

    Check all true. The following tests are used to check for dehydration.

    • A.

      BUN

    • B.

      Creatine

    • C.

      Urinanalysis

    • D.

      PH

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. BUN
    B. Creatine
    Explanation
    BUN and Creatine are both tests that are used to check for dehydration. BUN stands for Blood Urea Nitrogen, and it measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from the waste product urea. High levels of BUN can indicate dehydration. Creatine is a waste product produced by the muscles, and elevated levels of creatine in the blood can also indicate dehydration. Urinalysis and pH tests do not specifically check for dehydration, so they are not true in this context.

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  • 8. 

    What increases in gout in the urine ?

    • A.

      Lactic acid

    • B.

      Uric acid

    • C.

      Ketones

    • D.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    B. Uric acid
    Explanation
    Gout is a type of arthritis that occurs when there is a buildup of uric acid in the blood, which leads to the formation of urate crystals in the joints. These crystals cause inflammation and severe pain. Therefore, an increase in uric acid in the urine can be associated with gout as it indicates an elevated level of uric acid in the body.

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  • 9. 

    Which is a wasteproduct eliminated by the urine ?

    • A.

      Ketones

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Ammonia

    Correct Answer
    D. Ammonia
    Explanation
    Ammonia is a waste product eliminated by the urine. It is produced in the liver as a byproduct of protein metabolism. Ammonia is toxic to the body, so it is converted into urea in the liver and then excreted through the urine. This process helps to maintain the body's acid-base balance and remove harmful substances from the body. Ketones, proteins, and glucose are not typically eliminated through urine but can be indicative of certain medical conditions if present in urine.

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  • 10. 

    In which disease are there ketones in the urine ?

    • A.

      Diabetes Insipidus

    • B.

      Traumatic Injuries

    • C.

      Diabetes Mellitus

    • D.

      Hypertension

    Correct Answer
    C. Diabetes Mellitus
    Explanation
    Diabetes Mellitus is the correct answer because it is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels. In this condition, the body is unable to produce enough insulin or effectively use the insulin it produces. As a result, the body breaks down fat for energy, leading to the production of ketones. These ketones are then excreted in the urine, resulting in ketones in the urine.

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  • 11. 

    Oliguria is decreased urine formation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Oliguria is a medical term used to describe a condition where there is a decreased urine formation. This means that the individual is producing less urine than normal. Therefore, the statement "Oliguria is decreased urine formation" is true.

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  • 12. 

    Normal Urine is less than 700 mL per day.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Normal Urine is less than 700 mL per day" is false. The normal urine output for an adult is typically between 800 and 2000 mL per day. Factors such as hydration, health conditions, and medication can affect urine volume, but generally, a urine output of less than 700 mL per day would be considered low and could indicate dehydration or other underlying issues.

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  • 13. 

    Electrolytes are primarily reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Electrolytes, which are ions with an electric charge, are primarily reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule. This tubule is the first segment of the renal tubule, located in the kidney, and is responsible for the reabsorption of various substances from the filtrate back into the bloodstream. Electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and chloride are actively transported across the epithelial cells lining the proximal convoluted tubule, allowing them to be reabsorbed and maintained at appropriate levels in the body. Therefore, the statement that electrolytes are primarily reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule is true.

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  • 14. 

    The medical word for urination is micturition.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The medical term for urination is micturition. This term is commonly used in the field of medicine to describe the process of emptying the bladder. It refers to the act of passing urine from the body through the urethra. Therefore, the statement "The medical word for urination is micturition" is true.

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  • 15. 

    Check all that apply. The muscles of urination are ?

    • A.

      Detrussor

    • B.

      Levator ani

    • C.

      Pubococcygeus

    • D.

      Trigone

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Detrussor
    D. Trigone
    Explanation
    The muscles of urination include the detrussor muscle and the trigone. The detrussor muscle is responsible for contracting and emptying the bladder, while the trigone is a triangular area in the bladder that helps with urine flow. The levator ani and pubococcygeus muscles are not directly involved in the process of urination.

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  • 16. 

    Dysuria is painful urination.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Dysuria refers to the condition of experiencing pain or discomfort during urination. This can be caused by various factors such as urinary tract infections, bladder inflammation, or kidney stones. Therefore, it is accurate to say that dysuria is indeed painful urination.

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  • 17. 

    Cast cells may be made of ?

    • A.

      Hyaline

    • B.

      Uric acid

    • C.

      Calcium

    • D.

      Ammonia

    Correct Answer
    A. Hyaline
    Explanation
    Cast cells are formed when there is damage or inflammation in the kidney tubules, causing the tubular cells to detach and clump together. Hyaline casts are the most common type of casts and are composed of a protein called Tamm-Horsfall protein. Therefore, hyaline is the correct answer as it is the main component of cast cells.

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  • 18. 

    Edema may be caused by kidney disease ?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Edema refers to the swelling of body tissues due to the accumulation of excess fluid. Kidney disease can indeed cause edema. When the kidneys are not functioning properly, they may not be able to remove waste and excess fluid from the body efficiently. This can lead to fluid retention and edema in various parts of the body, such as the legs, ankles, and hands. Therefore, it is true that kidney disease can be a cause of edema.

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  • 19. 

    The liver and kidney are the primary sites of drug metabolism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The liver and kidneys are responsible for metabolizing drugs in the body. The liver is the main organ involved in drug metabolism, where enzymes break down drugs into smaller molecules that can be easily eliminated from the body. The kidneys also play a role in drug metabolism by filtering drugs and their metabolites from the bloodstream and excreting them in urine. Therefore, it is correct to say that the liver and kidneys are the primary sites of drug metabolism.

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  • 20. 

    The renal system has valves preventing backflow.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The renal system does not have valves preventing backflow. Instead, it relies on the structure and function of the kidneys and ureters to prevent the backflow of urine. The kidneys filter waste materials from the blood and produce urine, which then travels through the ureters to the bladder. The ureters have muscular walls that contract and relax to propel urine towards the bladder, while also preventing it from flowing back towards the kidneys. Therefore, the statement in the question is incorrect.

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  • 21. 

    The urine noramlly has proteins in it.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The correct answer is False because normally, urine should not contain proteins. The presence of proteins in urine, known as proteinuria, is usually a sign of kidney damage or another underlying health condition.

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  • 22. 

    The adrenal glands lie on top of the 2 kidneys.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. They are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Therefore, it is true that the adrenal glands lie on top of the kidneys.

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  • 23. 

    Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by excessive urine formation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Excessive urine formation is a characteristic symptom of Diabetes Mellitus. In this condition, the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels, leading to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream. This excess glucose is then excreted through the urine, resulting in increased urine production. This symptom is commonly referred to as polyuria and is one of the key indicators of Diabetes Mellitus. Therefore, the statement "Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by excessive urine formation" is true.

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  • 24. 

    Anuria means ?

    • A.

      Excessive urine formation

    • B.

      Reduced urine formation

    • C.

      No urine formation

    • D.

      Blood in the urine

    Correct Answer
    C. No urine formation
    Explanation
    Anuria refers to the condition where there is no urine formation. This can be caused by various factors such as kidney failure, blockage in the urinary tract, or severe dehydration. It is a serious condition that requires medical attention as it indicates a disruption in the normal functioning of the kidneys and can lead to the buildup of toxins in the body.

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  • 25. 

    Renal disease can cause ?

    • A.

      Diabetes mellitus

    • B.

      Hypertension

    • C.

      Liver failure

    • D.

      Heart failure

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertension
    Explanation
    Renal disease can cause hypertension. The kidneys play a vital role in regulating blood pressure by filtering waste products and excess fluid from the body. When the kidneys are damaged or not functioning properly due to renal disease, they may struggle to effectively regulate blood pressure. This can lead to hypertension, as the body retains more fluid and the blood vessels constrict to compensate. Therefore, hypertension is a common complication of renal disease.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 15, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Doctorjuc
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