# American Government Exam 1

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• 1.

### The U.S. House of Representatives consists of ___ members.

• A.

335

• B.

435

• C.

535

• D.

635

B. 435
Explanation
The U.S. House of Representatives consists of 435 members. This is the correct answer because the House of Representatives is made up of a total of 435 voting members. Each state is allocated a certain number of representatives based on its population, with the number of representatives per state ranging from 1 to 53. This number has remained constant since 1913, when the size of the House was fixed at 435 members by the Reapportionment Act.

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• 2.

### California has ___ members in the U.S. House of Representatives.

• A.

10

• B.

24

• C.

42

• D.

53

D. 53
Explanation
California has 53 members in the U.S. House of Representatives because it is the most populous state in the United States and therefore has the largest number of representatives in the House. Each state is allocated a certain number of representatives based on its population, with California having the highest population of any state.

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• 3.

### Each member of the House is elected by voters throughout a state.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because each member of the House is elected by voters within a specific district, not throughout a state. The House of Representatives is divided into districts, and voters within each district elect their representative. This allows for more localized representation and ensures that each district has its own voice in the House.

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• 4.

### A U.S. Representative serves a term of ___ years and a U.S. Senator serves a term of ___ years.

• A.

2; 4

• B.

4; 6

• C.

2; 6

• D.

4; 8

C. 2; 6
Explanation
A U.S. Representative serves a term of 2 years and a U.S. Senator serves a term of 6 years. This is because the U.S. House of Representatives, where Representatives serve, has elections every 2 years, while the U.S. Senate, where Senators serve, has elections every 6 years. This system allows for a balance of power and staggered elections in the two chambers of Congress.

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• 5.

### Congressional elections are held every two years.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Congressional elections are held every two years because the Constitution of the United States mandates that members of the House of Representatives are elected for two-year terms. This ensures that the House, which represents the people, remains accountable and responsive to their needs and concerns. By holding elections every two years, voters have the opportunity to regularly evaluate and choose their representatives, promoting a democratic system of government. This also allows for more frequent turnover in the House, potentially bringing in new perspectives and ideas.

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• 6.

### Members of the House and Senate are constitutionally limited in the number of terms they can serve.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Members of the House and Senate are not constitutionally limited in the number of terms they can serve. There is no specific term limit mentioned in the United States Constitution for members of Congress. However, some states have imposed term limits on their own representatives and senators. Therefore, the statement that members of the House and Senate are constitutionally limited in the number of terms they can serve is false.

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• 7.

### In recent elections, roughly ___ percent of House members seeking another term have been reelected.

• A.

50

• B.

75

• C.

85

• D.

95

D. 95
Explanation
In recent elections, a high percentage of House members seeking another term have been reelected. The correct answer is 95, indicating that 95% of House members who ran for reelection were successful in retaining their seats. This suggests a strong incumbency advantage, where voters tend to favor the current officeholders. It also implies that the majority of constituents are satisfied with their representatives' performance and choose to reelect them.

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• 8.

### After every decennial population census, the number of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives allocated to each state is refigured to take account of population changes. This process is known as

• A.

Redistricting.

• B.

Reapportionment.

• C.

Gerrymandering.

• D.

None of the above

B. Reapportionment.
Explanation
After every decennial population census, the number of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives is recalculated to reflect changes in the population of each state. This process is called reapportionment, as it involves redistributing the seats among the states based on their updated population figures. Redistricting refers to the redrawing of electoral district boundaries within each state, while gerrymandering is the manipulation of these boundaries for political advantage. Therefore, the correct answer is reapportionment.

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• 9.

### The responsibility for drawing congressional districts is given to

• A.

The President.

• B.

Congress.

• C.

The Supreme Court.

• D.

The state legislatures.

D. The state legislatures.
Explanation
The responsibility for drawing congressional districts is given to the state legislatures. This means that it is the state legislatures' duty to determine the boundaries and shapes of the districts within their respective states. This is an important responsibility as it directly impacts the representation of citizens in Congress. By giving this authority to the state legislatures, it allows for local input and ensures that the districts are drawn in a way that reflects the interests and demographics of the state's population.

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• 10.

### The process by which politicians of one political party draw legislative district boundaries to their party’s advantage is called

• A.

Redistricting

• B.

Reapportionment

• C.

Gerrymandering

• D.

None of the above

C. Gerrymandering
Explanation
Gerrymandering is the process by which politicians of one political party draw legislative district boundaries to their party's advantage. It involves manipulating the boundaries in a way that concentrates voters from the opposing party into a few districts, while spreading out voters from their own party across multiple districts. This allows the party in power to secure more seats in the legislature and maintain political control. Reapportionment refers to the redistribution of seats in a legislative body based on population changes, while redistricting is the redrawing of district boundaries. Therefore, gerrymandering is the correct answer in this context.

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• 11.

### Women account for about ___ percent of the members of the U.S. Congress.

• A.

40

• B.

30

• C.

25

• D.

15

D. 15
Explanation
Women account for about 15 percent of the members of the U.S. Congress. This means that out of the total number of members in Congress, only 15 percent are women. This low percentage indicates a gender imbalance in political representation, highlighting the need for more women to be elected and have a voice in decision-making processes. Increasing women's representation in Congress is important for achieving gender equality and ensuring diverse perspectives are considered in policy-making.

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• 12.

### Which of the following is not a major function of Congress?

• A.

Lawmaking

• B.

Representation

• C.

Oversight

• D.

Implementation

D. Implementation
Explanation
Congress is primarily responsible for lawmaking, representing the interests of the people, and overseeing the executive branch. Implementation, on the other hand, is typically the responsibility of the executive branch, which carries out and enforces the laws passed by Congress. Therefore, implementation is not a major function of Congress.

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• 13.

### A congressional bill cannot become law without the President’s approval.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
A congressional bill can become law without the President's approval. This is because if the President does not sign the bill within 10 days (excluding Sundays), it can still become law if Congress is in session. This is known as a pocket veto. Additionally, if the President vetoes the bill, Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.

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• 14.

### The President’s powers are found in Article ___ of the Constitution.

• A.

I

• B.

II

• C.

III

• D.

IV

B. II
Explanation
The President's powers are found in Article II of the Constitution. This article establishes the executive branch of the government, outlines the powers and responsibilities of the President, and defines the qualifications and procedures for electing the President. It covers various aspects such as the President's role as the Commander-in-Chief of the military, the power to appoint and remove executive officials, the ability to veto legislation, and the authority to negotiate treaties. Article II is crucial in defining the scope and limitations of the President's powers and is therefore the correct answer.

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• 15.

### Given the scope of the President’s power over domestic affairs, it is accurate to say that the President runs the country and controls the economy.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because while the President does have significant power and influence over domestic affairs, they do not solely run the country and control the economy. The President's power is limited by the Constitution, and they must work with other branches of government, such as Congress, to make and implement policies. Additionally, the economy is influenced by a variety of factors beyond the President's control, including global economic forces and the actions of individual businesses and consumers.

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• 16.

### The President’s Cabinet includes the heads of the 15 executive departments and thus includes, among others, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Attorney General.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The President's Cabinet consists of the heads of the 15 executive departments, such as the Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, and Attorney General. These individuals are appointed by the President and play a crucial role in advising and assisting the President in making important decisions and implementing policies. Therefore, the statement that the President's Cabinet includes the heads of the 15 executive departments is true.

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• 17.

### An irony of the presidency is that Presidents are usually most powerful in their first year of office, when they are least knowledgeable.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Presidents are usually most powerful in their first year of office because they often have a fresh mandate from the voters and strong political capital. Additionally, during the first year, the President's agenda and policy priorities are typically given more attention and support by Congress and the public. However, they are also least knowledgeable during this time because they have not yet had the opportunity to fully understand the complexities of the office and the intricacies of the government. As they gain experience and knowledge over time, their power may diminish due to various factors such as political opposition, midterm elections, and the limitations of the office itself.

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• 18.

### The ___ theory of the presidency holds that the President can do whatever the needs of the public demand, unless the Constitution or laws expressly forbid it.

• A.

Whig

• B.

Stewardship

• C.

Representation

• D.

Delegate

B. Stewardship
Explanation
The stewardship theory of the presidency suggests that the President has the authority to take any action that is necessary for the well-being of the public, as long as it is not explicitly prohibited by the Constitution or laws. This theory emphasizes the President's role as a caretaker or steward of the nation, entrusted with the responsibility to make decisions in the best interest of the people. It grants the President broad powers and allows for a more flexible interpretation of their authority.

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• 19.

### The federal bureaucracy is accountable only to the President, who, as the head of the executive branch, exercises exclusive oversight of it.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because the federal bureaucracy is not solely accountable to the President. In fact, the bureaucracy is designed to be independent and accountable to multiple branches of government. While the President does have some oversight authority, the bureaucracy is also accountable to Congress through budgetary control and legislative oversight. Additionally, the judiciary can also hold the bureaucracy accountable through legal proceedings. Therefore, the President does not have exclusive oversight of the federal bureaucracy.

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• 20.

### A federal agency’s power to make regulations is derived from

• A.

A delegation of executive power from the president.

• B.

Article II of the Constitution.

• C.

A delegation of legislative power from Congress.

• D.

Article III of the Constitution.

C. A delegation of legislative power from Congress.
Explanation
The correct answer is a delegation of legislative power from Congress. This is because federal agencies derive their power to make regulations from the authority granted to them by Congress through legislation. Congress delegates its legislative powers to these agencies, allowing them to create and enforce regulations that are necessary to carry out the intent and purpose of the laws passed by Congress. This delegation of power ensures that agencies have the necessary authority to effectively implement and enforce laws in their respective areas of jurisdiction.

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• 21.

### Federal judges serve lifetime appointments.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Federal judges serve lifetime appointments. This means that once appointed, they hold their position for the rest of their lives unless they retire, resign, or are impeached and removed from office. This system is designed to ensure judicial independence, allowing judges to make impartial decisions without fear of political pressure or influence. Lifetime appointments also provide stability and continuity in the judiciary, as judges can serve for many years and develop expertise in their respective areas of law.

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• 22.

### The Constitution specifies that federal judges must be U.S. citizens and trained in the law.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The Constitution does not explicitly require federal judges to be trained in the law. While it is generally expected that judges have a legal background, there is no formal requirement for them to have legal training. However, it is true that federal judges must be U.S. citizens.

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• 23.

### More than 95 percent of the nation’s legal cases are decided in state courts.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The given statement suggests that a significant majority of legal cases in the country are resolved in state courts. This implies that state courts have jurisdiction over a wide range of legal matters and play a crucial role in the judicial system.

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• 24.

### The doctrine of judicial activism holds that the judiciary should be highly respectful of precedent and should defer to the judgments of legislatures.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The given statement is false. The doctrine of judicial activism actually suggests that the judiciary should not always be bound by precedent and should sometimes take an active role in interpreting the law, even if it means going against legislative judgments. Judicial activists believe that the courts should use their power to address social and political issues, protect individual rights, and promote justice, rather than simply deferring to the decisions made by legislatures.

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• 25.

### The U.S. Constitution prescribes that the U.S. Supreme Court shall consist of 9 Justices.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The U.S. Constitution does not prescribe a specific number of Justices for the U.S. Supreme Court. The Constitution only states that there shall be a Supreme Court, but it does not specify the exact number of Justices. The number of Justices on the Supreme Court is determined by Congress, and it has varied throughout history. Currently, there are nine Justices on the Supreme Court, but this is not a requirement set by the Constitution.

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• 26.

### Supreme Court Justices are sometimes influenced in their decision-making by non-legal factors like public opinion and their own ideological views.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Supreme Court Justices, like any individuals, can be influenced by various factors when making decisions. Public opinion and personal ideological views are some of these factors. Justices may consider the prevailing public sentiment and their own beliefs when interpreting and applying the law. However, it is important to note that they are expected to uphold the Constitution and apply the law impartially, regardless of these influences. Nonetheless, it is recognized that personal biases and external pressures can sometimes play a role in their decision-making process.

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• 27.

### A Supreme Court Justice cannot be removed from the Court for insanity.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
A Supreme Court Justice cannot be removed from the Court for insanity because the Constitution does not provide for the removal of a Justice based on mental incapacity. The only way a Justice can be removed from the Court is through impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction by the Senate for "high crimes and misdemeanors." Mental incapacity alone does not fall under this category, therefore a Justice cannot be removed for insanity.

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• 28.

### The Supreme Court is empowered to decide cases and controversies involving issues of federal law and to issue advisory opinions on constitutional questions to the Congress and the President.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The Supreme Court is not empowered to issue advisory opinions on constitutional questions to the Congress and the President. The Court's role is to interpret and apply federal law and the Constitution to resolve actual cases and controversies. It does not have the authority to provide advisory opinions or offer guidance on hypothetical situations. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 29.

### The current Chief Justice of the U.S Supreme Court is

• A.

Samuel Alito

• B.

Antonin Scalia

• C.

John Roberts

• D.

Anthony Kennedy

C. John Roberts
Explanation
John Roberts is the correct answer because he is currently serving as the Chief Justice of the U.S Supreme Court. He was nominated by President George W. Bush in 2005 and confirmed by the Senate. Roberts has been serving in this position since September 2005 and is responsible for leading the court's decision-making process, as well as representing the court in various official capacities.

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• 30.

### The U.S. Supreme Court currently consists of ___ Republican appointees and ___ Democratic appointees.

• A.

6; 3

• B.

5; 4

• C.

4; 5

• D.

3; 6

B. 5; 4
Explanation
The U.S. Supreme Court currently consists of 5 Republican appointees and 4 Democratic appointees. This means that there are more justices on the court who were appointed by Republican presidents than by Democratic presidents. The political leanings of the justices can have an impact on the court's decisions and the direction of the law, as they may interpret the Constitution and other laws through their own ideological lens.

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